生态农业知识中心

多样性: 多样化对生态农业转型至关重要,它在确保粮食安全和营养的同时保存、保护和加强自然资源

生态农业系统高度多样化。从生物学角度来看,生态农业系统能以多种方式优化物种和遗传资源的多样性。例如,农林复合系统将位于不同层面、不同高度与形状的作物、灌木、家畜和树木进行整合,提高垂直多样性。间种将互补品种联合种植,提高空间多样性。通常纳入豆类作物的轮作将提高时间多样性。农牧系统依靠的是已适应特定环境的本地品种的多样性。在水产养殖方面,无论是传统鱼类混合养殖、综合多营养水产养殖,还是作物鱼类轮换系统,都遵循相同的原则以最大程度地实现多样化。

提高生物多样性可以带来一系列生产力、社会经济、营养和环境方面的惠益。通过规划和管理多样性,生态农业方法能够改善如授粉和土壤健康等生态系统服务的供应,而这些服务是农业生产所必需的。多样化通过优化使用生物质和集水来提高生产力和资源利用效率。

生态农业多样化还通过创造新的市场机遇等方式提高生态和社会经济的抵御能力。例如,作物和家畜多样性可降低气候变化带来的风险。反刍动物混牧可降低寄生现象带来的健康风险,而多样化的本地品种在恶劣环境下生存、生产和维持繁育水平的能力更强。反过来,包括多样化产品、本地食品加工和观光农业等在内的差异性和新开发市场增加了收入来源,有助于稳定家庭收入。

包括谷物、豆类、水果、蔬菜和动物源食物在内的多样化膳食改善了营养成果。而且,不同作物品种、动物品种和物种所包括的遗传多样性在为人类膳食提供宏量和微量营养素以及其他生物活性化合物方面做出了重要贡献。例如,在密克罗尼西亚,未得到充分利用的传统红芯香蕉品种含有的β-胡萝卜素是已经广泛商业化的白芯香蕉品种的50倍,而重新引入红芯香蕉在改善健康和营养方面发挥了重要作用。

在全球层面,三种谷类作物提供了卡路里总消耗量的近50%,而作物、家畜、水生生物和林木的遗传多样性继续快速消失。通过管理和保护农业生物多样性,并满足对多样化生态友好型产品不断增长的需求,生态农业可有助于扭转这些趋势。一个相关的例子就是由灌溉、雨育和深水稻生态系统产出的鱼类友好型水稻,这种方法尊重水生物种的多样性以及其对农村生计的重要性。

Database

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