After more than half a century of declining real prices for dairy products, there are strong signs of a structural change in the global dairy sector which are conducive to investing in it. This is particularly true in Asia where demand for dairy products, growing in line with economic growth and influenced by changing consumption patterns, has increased faster than almost any other agricultural product. These trends, amidst the recognition that dairying represents one of the fastest returns for many rural dwellers, many of whom are landless, have prompted many governments in the region to place a priority on dairy development as a means for economic growth. Based on this growing regional interest, the Animal Production and Health Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and the Common Fund for Commodities collaborated to develop a blueprint of action for smallholder dairy development. Generated through a participatory process involving representatives from 18 countries from the region, it draws on regional knowledge, from both the public and private sector, and general lessons learned. This book outlines the strategy for action developed.