Сельскохозяйственные биотехнологии
Сельскохозяйственные биотехнологии в сфере сельскохозяйственных культур, лесном хозяйстве, животноводстве, рыбном хозяйстве  и агропромышленном комплексе  

Вопросы Новостей касаются применения биотехнологий в производстве продовольствия и ведении сельского хозяйства в развивающихся странах и их главный фокус – на деятельности ФАО, других агентств / органов ООН и 15 исследовательских центров Консультативной группы по международным сельскохозяйственным исследованиям (CGIAR). Вопросы Новостей включают все секторы по производству продовольствия и ведения сельского хозяйства (семеноводство, лесное хозяйство, рыбное хозяйство / аквакультуру, животноводство, агропромышленность) и широкий спектр биотехнологий (напр., использование молекулярных рынков, искусственного осеменения, триплоидизации, биологических удобрений, микроклонального размножения, геномики, генетической модификации, и т.д.). В бюллетень новостей включены новые документы, которые доступны также на веб-странице, но для тех, кто не может их скачать или нуждаются в дальнейшей информации, предлагаются электронные адреса для контакта. Служба новостей начала функционировать в январе 2002 года, и все статьи, вышедшие с этого времени, доступны (всего за 9 лет их было 800). Новости и события с веб-страницы также рассылаются электронным путем, в форме электронного бюллетня FAO-BiotechNews, который издается на шести различных языках: арабском, английском, французском, испанском, китайском и русском. Для подписки на этот бюллетень необходимо направить электронное письмо по адресу: FAO-Biotech-News@fao.org, с указанием электронного адреса, на который просите отправлять и на каком языке желаете получать бюллетень.


At its annual general meeting held on 28 October - 1 November 2002 in Manila, The Philippines, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) approved the launching of two "Challenge Programs" (i.e. time-bound, independently-governed programs of high impact research), one of which is entitled "Biofortified crops for improved human nutrition". See the proposal at http://www.cgiar.org/pdf/biofortification.pdf (68 pages) or contact cgiar@cgiar.org for more information.
This 322-page book, entitled "World Water and Food to 2025: Dealing with Scarcity", is written by M.W. Rosegrant, X. Cai and S.A. Cline and published jointly by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the International Water Management Institute (IWMI). It considers how policymakers and water users can manage this scarce resource. The role of biotechnology in crop breeding is discussed in pages 187-188. See http://www.ifpri.org/media/water2025.htm to access the book (as well as a shorter report) or contact m.rubinstein@cgiar.org for more information.
The International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR) organised a meeting entitled "Next harvest: Advancing biotechnology`s public good" on 7-9 October 2002 at ISNAR Headquarters, The Hague, Netherlands. The meeting focused specifically on GM crop research conducted by public sector institutes in the developing world and the meeting report, by M. Luijben and J.I. Cohen, is now available. See http://www.isnar.cgiar.org/ibs/NextHarvest.htm or contact isnar-biotech@cgiar.org for more information.
The final report of the expert consultation meeting on "Public agricultural research: the impact of intellectual property rights on biotechnology in developing countries", held on 24-27 June 2002 in Rome, Italy, is now available. The meeting was organised by FAO in co-operation with the University of Tor Vergata. Experts from biotechnology research institutions in Argentina, Brazil, China, Cuba, India, Mexico, The Philippines, South Africa and Zimbabwe attended, as well as representatives from the World Bank, the World Intellectual Property Organization, the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, the International Service for National Agricultural Research, The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, the interim Science Council of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, USDA, the Ministry of Agriculture of the Netherlands, the Rockefeller Foundation and the private sector. The 8-page report includes sections on i) setting the scene: identification of constraints, needs and opportunities within public sector research institutions ii) policy issues at institutional, national and international levels and iii) identifying strategies to strengthen public sector biotechnology research for ensuring food security and poverty alleviation. It then concludes with six main recommendations. See http://www.fao.org/biotech/docs/torvergatareport.htm or contact nuria.urquia@fao.org for more information.
The latest issue (1 and 2, 2002) of BINAS News, from the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS) of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), includes three articles as well as sections on news items and upcoming events. See http://binas.unido.org/binas/binasnews/bn1_2_02.pdf (20 pages) or contact george@binas.unido.org for more information.
On 15 October 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO) posted 20 "questions and answers" on their website that were "prepared by WHO in response to questions and concerns by a number of WHO Member State Governments with regard to the nature and safety of genetically modified food". See the 8-page PDF document at http://www.who.int/fsf (in English, French and Spanish) or contact foodsafety@who.int for more information.
The Information and Media Relations Division of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Secretariat has prepared a briefing document entitled "The issues, and where we are now" (updated 10 October 2002), which aims to help public understanding about the current WTO agriculture negotiations. Some of the issues involved (e.g. food safety, consumer information and labelling) have potential implications for agricultural biotechnology. See http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/agric_e/negs_bkgrnd00_contents_e.htm (in English, French and Spanish; in WORD and PDF formats) or contact enquiries@wto.org for more information.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Environmental Health and Safety Division published on 20 August 2002 a "Consensus document on compositional considerations for new varieties of maize (Zea Mays): Key food and feed nutrients, anti-nutrients and secondary plant metabolites". It is number 6 in the series on the Safety of Novel Foods and Feeds. The consensus documents contain information for use during the regulatory assessment of a particular food/feed product. This consensus document addresses compositional considerations for new varieties of maize (derived through modern biotechnology) by identifying the key food and feed nutrients, anti-nutrients and secondary plant metabolites. See http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2002doc.nsf/LinkTo/env-jm-mono(2002)25 (available in PDF (208 KB) or Word (361 KB) formats) or contact ehscont@oecd.org.
ISNAR Briefing Paper 54, entitled "Biotechnology and sustainable livelihoods - findings and recommendations of an international consultation" and co-authored by J. Falck-Zepeda, J. Cohen, R. Meinzen-Dick and J. Komen, is now available. The document summarises the findings and recommendations of a meeting entitled "Biotechnology and rural livelihood - enhancing the benefits" that was held on 25-28 June 2001 in The Hague, Netherlands and organised by the International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR)s Biotechnology Service. See http://www.isnar.cgiar.org/publications/briefing/bp54.htm (in HTML or PDF (94 KB)) or contact isnar@cgiar.org .
An FAO press release of 30 August 2002 reports that Dr. Jacques Diouf, the Director-General of FAO, addressed a press conference at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, saying that "Countries in Southern Africa whose populations are facing a devastating drought should carefully consider current scientific knowledge before rejecting food aid containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs)". The press release is available at http://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/news/2002/8844-en.html (in English, French and Spanish) or contact media-office@fao.org for more information.
The Summary Report of the FAO study "World agriculture: towards 2015/2030" has been released. It presents the latest FAO assessment of long-term developments in world food, nutrition and agriculture, including the forestry and fisheries sectors. FAO issued similar studies on global agriculture in 1995, 1988, 1981 and 1970. The projections cover about 140 countries and 32 crop and livestock commodities. Among the topics covered is the "role of technology". For biotechnology, the main findings are that: "Modern biotechnology offers promise as a means to improving food security. If the environmental threats from biotechnology are addressed, and if the technology is affordable by and geared towards the needs of the poor and undernourished, genetically modified crop varieties could help to sustain farming in marginal areas and to restore degraded lands to production. To address the concerns of consumers FAO called for improved testing and safety protocols for genetically modified organisms". See http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/y3557e/y3557e00.htm (document in English) or contact erwin.northoff@fao.org for more information. The report is also available in French and Spanish. This Summary Report is a shorter version of the results of the technical FAO study "World agriculture: towards 2015/2030" which should be available by the end of 2002.
The Summary Document of the FAO e-mail conference on "Gene flow from GM to non-GM populations in the crop, forestry, animal and fishery sectors" has been finalised and put on the web. Nearly 400 people subscribed for the conference, which ran from 31 May to 5 July 2002, and 118 messages were posted. The 15-page document aims to provide an easy-readable synopsis of the main arguments and concerns discussed during the conference. It is available at http://www.fao.org/biotech/logs/C7/summary.htm or can be requested from biotech-admin@fao.org.
For the 9th Regular Session of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, held on 14-18 October 2002 at FAO Headquarters, Rome, FAO prepared a report on its priority areas for inter-disciplinary action (PAIAs). FAO has recently selected 16 PAIAs as part of an overall effort to, inter alia, strengthen the capacity for inter-disciplinary planning within FAO. This report provides a brief overview of the main activities undertaken by the 6 PAIAs that are most relevant to the Commission`s work, including the PAIAs on Biotechnology and Biosecurity. See document 9/02/14.3 (in Arabic, Chinese, English, French and Spanish) at http://www.fao.org/ag/cgrfa/docs9.htm or contact cgrfa@fao.org for more information.
The September 2002 edition of the Information Systems for Biotechnology (ISB) News Report includes an item by John Ruane from FAO`s Working Group on Biotechnology, describing the three major roles that FAO carries out to assist its members (currently there are 183 FAO member countries plus one member organisation, the European Community) and their institutions in making decisions on biotechnology and related issues. See http://www.isb.vt.edu/news/2002/sep02.pdf or send a blank e-mail to text_news@nbiap.biochem.vt.edu to receive the ISB News Report by e-mail (26 KB).
The UN Secretary-Generals special envoy for the humanitarian crisis in Southern Africa, Mr. James Morris released this joint statement, concerning donations of foods for use in Southern Africa, some of which contain genetically modified organisms, on behalf of the Directors-General of FAO, Dr. Jacques Diouf, and the World Health Organization (WHO), Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland and the World Food Programme at which he serves as Executive Director. The statement concludes: "The United Nations agencies involved will seek to establish a long-term policy for food aid involving GM foods or foods derived from biotechnology. The ultimate responsibility and decision regarding the acceptance and distribution of food aid containing GMOs rests with the governments concerned, considering all the factors outlined above. The United Nations believes that in the current crisis governments in southern Africa must consider carefully the severe and immediate consequences of limiting the food aid available for millions so desperately in need". See http://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/news/2002/8660-en.html (in English, French and Spanish) or contact wfpinfo@wfp.org for more information.
At the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, a new international consultative process on the risks and opportunities of using agricultural science to reduce hunger and improve rural livelihoods in the developing world was launched. The initiative is expected to last until mid-2003 and is being undertaken by the World Bank and its partners. The five co-chairs of the consultative process are Robert Watson (World Bank, former head of the UN`s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), Louise Fresco (Assistant Director General, Agriculture Department of FAO), Seyfu Ketema (Executive Secretary of the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA)), Rita Sharma (Ministry of Agriculture, India) and Claudia Martinez Zuleta (former Deputy Minister of Environment, Colombia). It will look at the risks and opportunities of a broad range of issues, including biotechnology. See http://www.agassessment.org/index.html or contact bmcintyre@worldbank.org for more information.

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Конференции по Сельскохозяйственным Биотехнологиям в Развивающихся странах (ABDC-10)