Сельскохозяйственные биотехнологии
Сельскохозяйственные биотехнологии в сфере сельскохозяйственных культур, лесном хозяйстве, животноводстве, рыбном хозяйстве  и агропромышленном комплексе  

Вопросы Новостей касаются применения биотехнологий в производстве продовольствия и ведении сельского хозяйства в развивающихся странах и их главный фокус – на деятельности ФАО, других агентств / органов ООН и 15 исследовательских центров Консультативной группы по международным сельскохозяйственным исследованиям (CGIAR). Вопросы Новостей включают все секторы по производству продовольствия и ведения сельского хозяйства (семеноводство, лесное хозяйство, рыбное хозяйство / аквакультуру, животноводство, агропромышленность) и широкий спектр биотехнологий (напр., использование молекулярных рынков, искусственного осеменения, триплоидизации, биологических удобрений, микроклонального размножения, геномики, генетической модификации, и т.д.). В бюллетень новостей включены новые документы, которые доступны также на веб-странице, но для тех, кто не может их скачать или нуждаются в дальнейшей информации, предлагаются электронные адреса для контакта. Служба новостей начала функционировать в январе 2002 года, и все статьи, вышедшие с этого времени, доступны (всего за 9 лет их было 800). Новости и события с веб-страницы также рассылаются электронным путем, в форме электронного бюллетня FAO-BiotechNews, который издается на шести различных языках: арабском, английском, французском, испанском, китайском и русском. Для подписки на этот бюллетень необходимо направить электронное письмо по адресу: FAO-Biotech-News@fao.org, с указанием электронного адреса, на который просите отправлять и на каком языке желаете получать бюллетень.


The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) released a policy research report entitled Harnessing Technologies for Sustainable Development to coincide with the World Summit on Sustainable Development. The key messages of this 167-page document are that "If effectively harnessed, new and emerging technologies can help catalyze Africas transition to sustainable development by lowering the incidence of disease, reducing food insecurity, and decreasing vulnerability to environmental damage by allowing more flexible crop management systems. However, the expected benefits of both medical (red) and agricultural (green) biotechnology can only be realized if a number of key challenges are addressed, including the extent to which the technologies are relevant to Africa, are pro-poor and mitigate biosafety and related risks. Biotechnology should be viewed as one part of a comprehensive, sustainable poverty reduction strategy, and not as a technological quick fix for Africas hunger and poverty problems". See http://www.uneca.org/harnessing/ or contact ecainfo@uneca.org for more information.
A press release from the WHO Regional Office for Africa reports that the WHO Director General, Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, said that "currently available evidence showed that genetically modified (GM) foods are "not likely to present human health risk", and that therefore "these foods may be eaten" " and that "Southern African countries should consider accepting GM food aid in the face of the humanitarian crisis facing the region". She was speaking on 27 August at a three-day meeting of health ministers from ten southern African countries in Harare. See http://www.afro.who.int/press/2002/pr20020828.html or contact chellouchey@afro.who.int for more information.
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), in collaboration with the University of Concepción, Chile, is launching the first academically accredited Diploma in Biosafety by distance learning. The course, consisting of a faculty of international scientists, starts on 23 September 2002 with two weeks of on-campus lectures. Lectures will be conducted in English. It will make use of the latest distance learning techniques and electronic multimedia developed by UNIDO. For more information see http://binas.unido.org/UDEC_biosafety or contact sofvalen@udec.cl or webmaster@binas.unido.org.
Joel Cohen, from the International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR), and Per Pinstrup-Andersen, from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), published an Opinion Article on 27 AUgust 2002 in SciDev.Net entitled "Biotechnology and the public good" which, among other things, emphasises the need for "strong publicly-funded agricultural research focused on solving the problems facing poor farmers and consumers". See http://www.scidev.net/frame3.asp?id=2708200210362353&t=C&authors=Joel%20I.%2 or contact j.cohen@cgiar.org to request a copy.
An expert workshop on "Policy Planning and Decision Support: the Case of Biosafety" took place at FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy on 14-16 May 2002. The workshop was organised by the International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR - one of the 16 Future Harvest centres supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research) and FAO, and discussion centred on a web-based decision-support system, developed jointly by ISNAR and FAO, that is being designed to assist national policy-makers and research directors to formulate policy and regulatory frameworks to respond to safety issues regarding applications of modern biotechnology in food and agriculture. This workshop, dealing with biosafety, is the first in a series focusing on specific issues and aiming to help FAO member countries meet international and regional obligations concerning agricultural biotechnology. About 40 participants, including representatives from the United Nations Environmental Programme, the Global Environmental Facility and the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation as well as national experts, attended the workshop. See http://www.isnar.cgiar.org/ibs/biosafety.htm for a brief summary of the workshop or contact hoan.le@fao.org or isnar-biotech@cgiar.orgfor more information.
A report on "Biosafety policy options and capacity building related to genetically modified organisms in the food processing industry of ASEAN" by Sakarindr Bhumiratana, dated June 2002, is now available on the web. This report is the result of a project initiated under the auspices of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Committee on Science and Technology and was prepared with support from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation and the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications. See the UNIDO website (PDF, 412 KB, 45 pages) or contact webmaster@binas.unido.org for more information.
The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), one of the 16 Future Harvest centres supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, has recently published the IFPRI 2001-2002 Annual Report. It highlights IFPRI`s research in 2001, covering a range of topics including biofortification - breeding plants for vitamin A and other micronutrients (on pages 42-44). See http://www.ifpri.org/pubs/books/ar2001/ar2001_research.pdf or contact ifpri@cgiar.org for more information.
FAO is in the process of putting together a comprehensive list of biotechnology policy documents of FAO members (there are currently 183 member countries plus one member organisation, the European Community). The current list, on the FAO Biotechnology site, includes 15 documents from 11 members. The majority are national policy documents, but regional (within country) documents are also included. In addition to the application of biotechnology to food and agriculture, most documents also tend to consider applications to other areas, such as pharmaceuticals and human health care. The list includes the title, date, weblink and language(s) of the documents, as well as an indication of their size. We welcome any comments, especially about additional information or new documents. See http://www.fao.org/biotech/country.asp or contact biotech-website@fao.org if you wish to receive the 2-page list by e-mail or to give your comments.
The July 2002 article in the FAO Legal Papers Online series is by Laurence R. Helfer and entitled "Intellectual property rights in plant varieties: An overview with options for national governments". Although not directly related to agricultural biotechnology, it is worth noting because of the indirect consequences of the topic on plant biotechnology. FAO Legal Papers Online is a series of articles and reports on legal issues of contemporary interest in the areas of food policy, agriculture, rural development, biodiversity, environment and natural resource management. See http://www.fao.org/Legal/Prs-OL/lpo31.pdf (PDF, 62 pages) or contact devlaw@fao.org to request a copy.
A recent review in AGRIPPA, entitled "Antibiotic growth-promoters in food animals", considers the use of antibiotics as growth promoters and then examines some of the alternative methods (such as in-feed enzymes, competitive exclusion products or probiotics) for efficient meat production without compromising product quality or safety. The article by Peter Hughes and John Heritage was published in June 2002 in AGRIPPA, which is an FAO web-based journal for electronic publishing of peer reviewed and edited documents. See http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/ARTICLE/AGRIPPA/555_EN.HTM (52 KB) or contact agrippa-editor@fao.org to request a copy of the article.
The web-based searchable version of the FAO Glossary of Biotechnology for Food and Agriculture has recently been provided with additional on-line features (e.g. the definitions now include a list of clickable related terms). See http://www.fao.org/biotech/index_glossary.asp or contact andrea.sonnino@fao.org for more information.
The FAO e-mail conference entitled "Gene flow from GM to non-GM populations in the crop, forestry, animal and fishery sectors" ran for 5 weeks and finished on 5 July 2002. Almost 400 people subscribed to this moderated conference and 118 messages were posted, focusing primarily on the crop sector, by 61 different people from 25 countries. The messages came from participants in North America (41% of the total), Europe (21%), Asia (18%), Africa (12%), Latin America and the Caribbean (4%) and Oceania (4%). 32 % of messages were sent by participants in developing countries. The greatest proportion of messages came from people working in universities (32%), research centres (24%), NGOs (17%) and private companies (13%). The messages are available by subject and date at http://www.fao.org/biotech/logs/c7logs.htm or can be requested in e-mail form (217 KB) from biotech-admin@fao.org.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has just released the first "Africa Environment Outlook" report. It provides a comprehensive and integrated analysis of Africa`s environment, including i) an overview of developments in Africa, particularly over the three decades up to 2002; ii) a description of the current state of the environment in Africa (outlining its physical attributes in terms of the atmosphere; land; biodiversity; forests; freshwater, marine and coastal areas; and the urban environment) and iii) a set of scenarios for Africa`s future over the next 30 years. The report concludes in Chapter 5 with a list of 31 recommendations for specific actions by policy makers. This list includes "Urge developed countries to remove agricultural subsidies and apply the precautionary principle to genetically modified organisms" and "Assist African countries in their efforts to gain access to new technologies, particularly information and communication technologies and create conditions for the development of indigenous technologies to enhance economic development". See http://www.grida.no/aeo or http://www.unep.org/aeo or contact nick.nuttall@unep.org for more information.
The `World Food Summit: five years later` took place 10-13 June 2002 at FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy and was attended by delegations from more than 180 countries. Heads of State and Government unanimously adopted the "Declaration of the World Food Summit: five years later" on 10 June. Regarding biotechnology, the Declaration states "We call on the FAO, in conjunction with the CGIAR and other international research institutes, to advance agricultural research and research into new technologies, including biotechnology. The introduction of tried and tested new technologies including biotechnology should be accomplished in a safe manner and adapted to local conditions to help improve agricultural productivity in developing countries. We are committed to study, share and facilitate the responsible use of biotechnology in addressing development needs". The Declaration is available (in Arabic, Chinese, English French, Italian and Spanish) at http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsummit/english/documents.htm or contact media-office@fao.org for more information.
The report of the 3rd meeting of the Intergovernmental Committee for the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (ICCP), held on 22-26 April 2002, The Hague, Netherlands, is now available. It is document number 18 at http://www.biodiv.org/doc/meeting.asp?wg=ICCP-03 (in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish). For further information, contact secretariat@biodiv.org.
A new version of the Decision Support System for Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Crop Plants (DTREE) has been released by the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS) of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). See http://binas.unido.org/dtree or contact webmaster@binas.unido.org for further information.

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Конференции по Сельскохозяйственным Биотехнологиям в Развивающихся странах (ABDC-10)