Capacity Development Portal
Good Practices

Sustainable natural resources management

  1. Communication for Natural Resource Management and Rural Development
  2. Post-conflict access to land and land administration
  3. Decentralization of Rural Land Taxation
  4. Land Consolidation

Approaches to address fragmentation of land holdings, and consolidate to improve productivity and enhance household food security

What problem did it address, where?

Consolidation of land holdings addresses the fragmentation of agricultural holdings. It involves working with governments to identify best policy and programme approach to undertake land consolidation, and can have a positive impact on food production and national/household food security, the improved utilisation of agricultural land, and the reduction of rural land conflicts.


Working with governments to support the development of national policies and regulatory frameworks to support comprehensive land consolidation. Based on work in a number of Central and Eastern European countries, FAO has developed a set of best practice guidelines for land consolidation. Whilst effective land consolidation policies and processes are necessarily context-specific, FAO believes that the approaches used for identifying appropriate land consolidation solutions are readily transferable between countries and regions. Activities have included regional workshops, consultative meetings with government, TCPs, donor-funded follow-up projects (World Bank).

Where next?

  • Central and Eastern Europe - The potential for replication (in the terms of the introduction of land consolidation projects in countries) is high in Central and Eastern Europe. This is largely because these countries share some historical commonalities in terms of the problems to be solved, there is a reasonable level of technical strength (many countries have completed land restitution programmes and introduced land registration systems), and there is a high potential for access to funds from the EU and others to support work in land consolidation. In particular, the lessons learned by the more advanced countries of the region have shown to be of value to those countries that are just embarking on land consolidation. However, each country will have to adapt the principles and approaches to fit its own legislative framework and organizational structure.
  • Other regions - The potential for replication in other regions is good. However, constraints in some countries would include a lack of an adequate core of technical expertise on relevant Government agencies, and lack of access to funding to implement land consolidation projects on a wide-scale. and lack of access to funding to implement land consolidation projects on a wide-scale. 

Contact our Team