Climate Change

National planning and funding mechanisms


Biennial Update reports (BURs). It was decided at the sixteenth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 16) that developing countries should submit biennial update reports to communicate their national efforts. BURs share information on greenhouse gas inventories, on mitigation actions, on their needs, and the support received.

To date, the secretariat of the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) has received 11 biennial update reports (BURs) from developing countries. This demonstrates the commitment of developing countries to share their efforts to implement the Convention with the international community.


Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) are countries’ commitments to reducing emissions and addressing climate change in the build up to the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (CoP21) in December 2015. FAO supports member countries in their preparation of INDCs and other important international processes under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

INDCs allow countries to demonstrate leadership on addressing climate change, communicating internationally how they will cut emissions for the post-2020 period. Through their INDCs, countries can tailor their contributions to their own national priorities, capabilities, and responsibilities and can be a basis for collective action.


Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) refer to any action that reduces emissions in developing countries and is prepared under the umbrella of a national governmental initiative. NAMAs can help to upscale tested and successful CSA practices by supporting appropriate policies and institutional arrangements and opening access to sources of finance.

Until now only a few agriculture and land use NAMAs have received international financial support, whereas other sectors are more advanced. In order to develop NAMAs in agriculture and land use sector, FAO is helping to provide countries with specific guidance.


National Adaptation Plans (NAPs). Adaptation to climate change is becoming a necessary component of planning at all levels. At its seventeenth session, the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) acknowledged that national adaptation planning can enable all developing and least developed country (LDC) Parties to assess their vulnerabilities, to mainstream climate change risks and to address adaptation.

The COP also acknowledged that, because of their development status, climate change risks magnify development challenges for LDCs. It recognized the need to address adaptation planning in the broader context of sustainable development planning. With this in mind, the COP established the national adaptation plan (NAP) process supported by FAO as a way to facilitate effective adaptation planning in LDCs and other developing countries.

Green Climate Fund

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) is a potential funding mechanism for CSA. It was established at the 16th Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2010. The GCF funds may be accessed in two ways: directly through accredited subnational, national or regional implementing entities, or indirectly via accredited international entities, such as UN agencies, multilateral development banks, and international financial institutions. The Fund’s investment priorities target many challenges such as low-emission and climate-resilient agriculture.

Global Environment Facility

The Global Environment Facility (GEF) provides funding for climate change mitigation through its Climate Change Strategy, as well as for climate change adaptation through its Special Climate Change Adaptation Fund and Least Developed Countries Fund. All three funds offer opportunities for countries to access finance to support the transition to climate-smart food and agricultural systems. FAO is already implementing a number of CSA projects funded by GEF and continues its efforts to support countries in mobilizing GEF funding for the implementation of CSA. Ongoing GEF projects include:

  • Sustainable Land Management and Climate Friendly Agriculture (Turkey)
  • Strengthening the Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change in the Fisheries and Aquaculture Sector of Chile.
  • Community-based Climate Resilient Fisheries and Aquaculture Development in Bangladesh.
  • Climate Change Adaptation in the Eastern Caribbean Fisheries Sector.
  • Promotion of climate-smart livestock management integrating reversion of land degradation and reduction of desertification risks in vulnerable provinces (Ecuador).<//b><//b><//b>