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Climate Change



The impacts of increased climate variability as well as more extreme and frequent weather events are jeopardizing agriculture, livelihoods and infrastructure. Farmers, pastoralists, fisherfolk and community foresters depend on activities that are intimately and inextricably linked to climate. They are the ones who are affected the most by climate change yet are the least able to cope.


The increasing use of fossil energy in agriculture leads to increasing GHG emissions from the agricultural sector, which in turn impacts agricultural production itself. At the same time, access to modern energy is inadequate in many developing countries. FAO through its Energy Smart Food for People and Climate (ESF) program helps countries promote energy-smart agri-food systems that spur agricultural growth and rural development.

Climate change is a growing threat to the fisheries and aquaculture sector. The negative effects are already being felt and they will only get worse overtime. This infographic booklet is intended to give a clear outline of FAOs work on addressing this threat and the negative effects on production and the livelihoods of those who depend on fisheries and aquaculture. Also available here in Arabic.

When managed sustainably, forests can increase the resilience of communities by providing fundamental economic, social and environmental services such as food, wood energy, shelter, fodder and fibre, as well as income and employment, and the conservation of biodiversity. Through Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) activities, forests contribute to reducing emissions and enhancing carbon stock in forests while contributing to sustainable development.

At the Paris climate conference (COP21) in December 2015, 195 countries adopted the first-ever universal global climate agreement that sets out a global action plan to limit global warming to well below 2°C. Sustainable farming, livestock-raising, fisheries and forestry can help countries identify opportunities for reducing emissions while addressing their food security, resilience and rural development goals. Also available here in Arabic.

Climate change impacts livestock directly (for example through heat stress and increased morbidity and mortality) and indirectly (for example through quality and availability of feed and forage, and animal disease). At the same time, the livestock sector contributes significantly to climate change. In fact, 14.5 percent of all human-caused greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions come from livestock supply chains.

Climate change is a growing threat to the agriculture sectors: crops, livestock, forestry, fisheries. The negative effects on agricultural production and livelihoods of farmers, foresters and fisher folk are already being felt in many places. They will only get worse overtime. This infographic booklet is intended to give a clear outline of FAOs work on addressing this threat to support sustainable agricultural production and the livelihoods of farmers, foresters and fisher folk.

As part of its strategic objective on increasing the resilience of livelihoods to threats and crises, FAO works with member countries to enhance and harmonize the assessment of damage and losses from disasters in crops, livestock, fisheries, aquaculture and forestry, as well as the monitoring and evaluation of DRR/M and CCA good practice technologies in agriculture. 

Soils constitute the largest store of terrestrial carbon. When managed using Sustainable Soil Management (SSM) techniques, soils can play an important role in climate change adaptation, mitigation and could enhance the provision of ecosystems services by storing carbon (carbon sequestration) and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

With the adoption of the new Sustainable Development Agenda 2030, countries have renewed their commitment to fight against poverty, hunger and malnutrition, acknowledging that tackling climate change is key for moving people out of poverty. Target 1.5 of SDG 1 (End poverty) pays special attention to building resilient livelihoods and helping the rural poor reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters.