Changement climatique

Publications

Type: Publications
Year: 2014

Approximately one-third of all food produced for human consumption is lost or wasted. The economic costs of this food wastage are substantial and amount to about USD 1 trillion each year. However, the hidden costs of food wastage extend much further. Food that is produced, but never consumed, still causes environmental impacts to the atmosphere, water, land and biodiversity. These environmental costs must be paid by society and future generations. Furthermore, by contributing to environmental degradation and increasing the scarcity of natural resources, food wastage is associated with wider social costs that affect people’s well-being and livelihoods. Quantifying the full costs of food wastage improves our understanding of the global food system and enables action to address supply chain weaknesses and disruptions that are likely to threaten the viability of future food systems, food security and sustainable development. This document introduces a methodology that enables the full-cost accounting (FCA) of the food wastage footprint. Based on the best knowledge and techniques available, FCA measures and values in monetary terms the externality costs associated with the environmental impacts of food wastage. The FCA framework incorporates several elements: market-based valuation of the direct financial costs, non-market valuation of lost ecosystems goods and services, and well-being valuation to assess the social costs associated with natural resource degradation.

Type: Publications
Year: 2014

In recent years, progress has been made globally in establishing sustainable food production systems aimed at improving food and nutrition security and the judicial use of natural resources. Yet, all of those efforts are in vain when the food produced in those systems is lost or wasted and never consumed. As food wastage increases in parallel with production increases, it becomes even more important to recognize that reducing food wastage must be part of any effort aimed at sustainable production and food security. In addition to this, there also are environmental repercussions, including all of the natural resources used and greenhouse gases emitted during the production or disposal of food that is not consumed. Analysis of food wastage causalities suggests that it is economically rational to loose food as part of the costs are externalized, and incentives to producers and consumers along the supply chain further encourages not taking into account negative externalities such as environmental costs. However, food wastage has huge environmental impacts and corresponding societal costs that need to be dealt with. Mitigation of this wastage must become a priority for each actor along the food chain. This paper presents a portfolio of potential food wastage mitigation measures, illustrating the gross and net economic, environmental and societal benefits of each. Adopting appropriate food wastage mitigation measures can offer corresponding huge environmental benefits, leading to associated net gains for societies in terms of reduced economic losses and external costs. The performance of measures aiming at avoiding food wastage tends to be higher than for reusing, recycling of food products and certainly higher than landfilling.

Type: Publications
Year: 2014

This circular examines current and recent climate change adaptation activities and measures in the fisheries and aquaculture sectors. These examples are a selection of current and recent activities and provide an overview of the types of adaptation activities and programmes that are addressing fisheries and aquaculture sectors rather than a comprehensive review of adaptation activities addressing fisheries and/or aquaculture. Some of the highlighted activities are specifically targeted at addressing climate change impacts on the fisheries or aquaculture sectors, and others address related areas (e.g. coastal management and capacity building activities) that also have benefits for fisheries or aquaculture. An overview of climate change impacts on global fisheries and aquaculture and potential adaptation and mitigation strategies is provided in addition to specific examples.

Type: Publications
Year: 2014

Responsible management practices can help to maintain peatland ecosystem services while sustaining and improving local livelihoods. This publication gives guidance on responsible peatland management practices, supporting the reduction of GHG emissions from managed peatlands. it is an overview of current knowledge on peatlands and includes data related to their geographic distribution, ecological characteristics and socio-economic importance. The guide has been written to assist land managers and other decision makers. It documents case studies of responsible management practices: rewetting, paludiculture, degraded pasture restoration and forestry in all climatic regions. 

Type: Publications
Year: 2014

This brief was produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as part of the project "Climate-Smart Agriculture: capturing the synergies between mitigation, adaptation and food security" implemented within the Economics and Policy Innovations for Climate-Smart Agriculture (EPIC) Programme of the Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA).

The project, funded by the European Commission, was launched in January 2012 in Malawi, Viet Nam and Zambia.