Learning tool on Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in agriculture, forestry and other land use sector 18 June 2015 The new FAO Learning tool on Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in agriculture, forestry and other land use sector (AFOLU) is now available. The tool has been designed for colleagues working in the agriculture sectors who want to understand more about the NAMA concept and increase their capacity to contribute to national and global climate change mitigation goals. It provides clear, easy to follow guidance on the identification, development and implementation of country specific climate change mitigation actions in the AFOLU sector. [more]
Climate change and food system - Global assessment and implications for food security and trade 18 June 2015 This book collects the findings of a group of scientists and economists who have taken stock of climate change impacts on food and agriculture at global and regional levels over the past two decades. The evidence presented describes how global warming will impact where and how food is produced and discusses the significant consequences for food security, health and nutrition, water scarcity and climate adaptation. The book also highlights the implications for global food trade. Put together, the different analyses in the book paint a comprehensive perspective linking climate change to food, nutrition, water, and trade along with suggested policy responses. [more]
Understanding the drought impact of El Niño on the global agricultural areas 12 February 2015 During El Niño episodes the normal patterns of tropical precipitation and atmospheric circulation become disrupted triggering extreme climate events around the globe: droughts, floods and affecting the intensity and frequency of hurricanes. Disasters create poverty traps that increase the prevalence of food insecurity and malnutrition. Agriculture is one of the main sectors of the economy that could be severely affected by El Niño event. FAO monitors the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, among other weather related hazards, with a special focus on the potential impacts on the agricultural sector. The objective of this study is to enhance our understanding the El Niño phenomenon using FAO’s Agricultural Stress Index System (ASIS). This study is carried out under the auspices of the new FAO Strategic Framework, for the Strategic Objective 5 “Increase the resilience of livelihoods to threats and crises”. The study outcomes are expected to enhance further discussions on our understanding of the El Niño Phenomenon and add to the growing literature. This would in turn improve effective early warning capabilities of FAO and partners to issue and trigger timely disaster risk reduction measures. [more]
Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agriculture A Manual to Address Data Requirements for Developing Countries 11 February 2015 This Manual seeks to guide the staff of national statistical offices and environmental ministries and agencies in compiling statistics related to GHG emissions and removals. In particular, the Manual provides information on accessing and using the FAOSTAT Emissions database. In addition, the ma nual sets out a step-by-step approach on estimating GHG emissions with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Emission Inventories. The FAOSTAT Emissions database provides Member Countries with the opportunity to identify the official agricultural and forestry statistics (data gap filling) required for GHG emission estimations, and to perform GHG data analysis linked to data gap filling and Quality Assurance/Quality Control processes. [more]
Coping with Climate Change - The Roles of Genetic Resoruces for Food and Agriculture 23 January 2015 Genetic resources for food and agriculture play a crucial role in food security, nutrition and livelihoods and in the provision of environmental services. They are key components of sustainability, resilience and adaptability in production systems. They underpin the ability of crops, livestock, aquatic organisms and forest trees to withstand a range of harsh conditions. Climate change poses new challenges to the management of the world’s genetic resources for food and agriculture, but it also underlines their importance. At the request of the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, FAO prepared thematic studies on the interactions between climate change and plant, animal, forest, aquatic, invertebrate and micro-organism genetic resources. This publication summarizes the results of these studies. [more]
Enabling Farmers to Face Climate Change 9 January 2015 This booklet provides an overview of the characteristics and main activities of the projects that are being implemented as part of the second project portfolio of the Benefit-sharing Fund (BSF) of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. This second portfolio consists of 22 projects that are currently implemented in 33 countries across Africa, Asia, Near East, Latin America and the Caribbean. By the time this booklet is being prepared, the Secretariat is finalizing the agreements for additional eight project proposals that have been approved for funding during the second call for proposals and for which funds have become available during 2013. These additional projects will be implemented in 27 countries across Africa, Asia, Near East, Latin America and the Caribbean and South West Pacific. The aim of this booklet is to give a general overview of the second project portfolio, as well as to share achievements, best practices and lessons learned during its Midterm phase of implementation. A Report on the Second Round of the Project Cycle of the Benefit-sharing Fund will be elaborated at the end of this project cycle and will convey results and achievements in a more comprehensive way, as requested by the Governing Body at its Fifth Session. [more]
Agriculture, forestry and other land use emissions by sources and removals by sinks 7 October 2014 FAO statistical working paper series 14-02. This report discusses new knowledge on anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) activities made available through the new FAOSTAT Emission database. The database is available globally, with country detail, for all agriculture, forestry and land sub-categories available in FAOSTAT and in the Forest Resources Assessment (FRA). GHG emissions are computed from official national activity data and geo-spatial analyses, applying international standard methodologies of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to ensure consistency with GHG Inventory processes established under the climate convention. The analysis shows increases in emissions of agriculture (from 4.6 to 5.0 Gt CO2 eq yr-1 in 1990s and 2000s; 5.3 Gt CO2 eq yr-1 in 2011), decreases in deforestation rates (from 4.6 to 3.8 Gt CO2 eq yr-1 in 1990s and 2000s; 3.7 Gt CO2 eq yr-1 in 2010), and decreases in forest sinks, albeit with a reversal since the mid-2000s (from -2,9 to -1.9 Gt CO2 eq yr-1 in 1990s and 2000s values; -2.1 Gt CO2 eq yr-1 in 2010). At the same time, the data show that GHG intensity of products (i.e., GHG emissions per unit commodity produced) decreased during 1990-2010, but that if no further mitigation measures and technical efficiency improvements are implemented, future emissions may further increase by up to 30% by 2050. Better information on AFOLU emissions is critical in many developing countries, given the potential to identify and fund actions that can usefully bridge national food security, resilience, mitigation and development goals into one coherent package. [more]
Towards climate-responsible peatlands management 2 October 2014 Peatlands are lands with a naturally accumulated peat layer at their surface. In their natural state, peatlands support a large range of habitats and provide a home for unique biodiversity. Even though peatlands extend over a relatively small portion of the earth’s land surface, they hold a large pool of carbon. Along with storing large quantities of carbon, peatlands also play an important role in the retention, purification and release of water and in the mitigation of droughts and floods. When drained, peatlands become net sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because of drainage, organic soils are currently the third-largest emitter of GHGs in the Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use sector. The aim of this guidebook is to support the reduction of GHG emissions from managed peatlands and present guidance for responsible management practices that can maintain peatlands ecosystem services while sustaining and improving local livelihoods. This guidebook also provides an overview of the present knowledge on peatlands, including their geographic distribution, ecological characteristics and socio-economic importance. [more]
Evidence and Knowledge Gaps on Climate Smart Agriculture in Vietnam 1 October 2014 Agricultural production in northern mountainous region (NMR) of Vietnam faces multiple pressures from soil degradation, poverty, food security, and climate change. A close look at agricultural practices that could potentially capture the synergies between food security and climate adaptation and mitigation may help outline a sustainable solution to the multifaceted problems of this region. This paper reviews the site-specific research in the published literature on the economic and climate impacts as well as the barriers to the adoption of agroforestry and sustainable land management in the NMR, and aims to identify knowledge gaps that need to be addressed for an evidence-based agricultural development policy in the region. [more]
Climate-Smart Agriculture and resource tenure in Sub-Saharan Africa: a conceptual framework 1 September 2014 Though many studies document the positive impacts of various climate-smart agricultural (CSA) practices on crop yields, adoption of such practices remains limited in many areas in sub-Saharan Africa. A number of barriers to adoption have been identified, with many researchers noting the importance of property rights systems and tenure insecurity in particular. Nonetheless, few papers document the pathways by which current property rights and tenure security affect the adoption of CSA, or how altering either the bundle of property rights or the degree of tenure security over each piece of the bundle can lead to increased adoption of CSA. In this paper, we first discuss key characteristics of four CSA practices related to sustainable land management. We then lay out a conceptual framework for evaluating the pathways by which expanding property rights and strengthening tenure security affects incentives to adopt technologies broadly, and then apply the framework to each of the four CSA practices. [more]
Climate variability adaptation strategies and food security in Malawi. ESA Working Paper No 14-08 10 July 2014 This paper assesses farmers’ incentives and conditioning factors that hinder or promote adaptation strategies and evaluates its impact on crop productivity by utilizing household level data collected in 2011 from nationally representative sample households in Malawi. We distinguish between (i) exposure to climatic disruptions, (ii) bio-physical sensitivity to such disruptions, (iii) household adaptive capacity in terms of farmers’ ability to prepare and adjust to the resulting stress, and, finally, (iv) system-level adaptive capacity that serve as enabling factors for household-level adaptation. We employ a multivariate probit (MVP) and instrumental variable technique to model farming practice selection decisions and their yield impact estimates. We find that exposure to delayed onset of rainfall and greater climate variability as represented by the coefficient of variation of rainfall and temperature is positively associated with the choice of risk-reducing agricultural practices such as tree planting, legume intercropping, and soil and water conservation (SWC); however, it reduces the use of inputs (such as inorganic fertilizer) whose risk reduction benefits are uncertain. Biophysical sensitivity of plots increases the likelihood of choice of tree planting and SWC. [more]
8 July 2014 This circular examines current and recent climate change adaptation activities and measures in the fisheries and aquaculture sectors. These examples are a selection of current and recent activities and provide an overview of the types of adaptation activities and programmes that are addressing fisheries and aquaculture sectors rather than a comprehensive review of adaptation activities addressing fisheries and/or aquaculture. Some of the highlighted activities are specifically targeted at addressing climate change impacts on the fisheries or aquaculture sectors, and others address related areas (e.g. coastal management and capacity building activities) that also have benefits for fisheries or aquaculture. An overview of climate change impacts on global fisheries and aquaculture and potential adaptation and mitigation strategies is provided in addition to specific examples. Descriptions and benefits to fisheries and other sectors (if relevant) for 26 current or recent activities and programmes focused specifically on or benefiting fisheries and/or aquaculture, primarily in developing countries highlight the diversity of potential adaptation actions at local to regional scales. This circular is intended to provide a starting point for planners, policy makers and practioners who are involved in sectors related to fisheries and aquaculture around the globe. [more]
FAO Success Stories on Climate-Smart Agriculture 6 June 2014 This booklet provides examples of climate-smart systems by showcasing some FAO success stories in various countries. The cases have been selected from the FAO Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) Sourcebook launched in 2013 to show the diversity of potential options across different regions and agricultural systems also covering subjects such as biodiversity and gender. [more]
Cambio climático, pesca y acuicultura en América Latina. Potenciales impactos y desafíos para la adaptación 2 June 2014 Estas Actas reúnen casos de estudio y las deliberaciones de un taller regional de expertos titulado “Cambio Climático, Pesca y Acuicultura en América Latina (LA): Potenciales Impactos y Desafíos para la Adaptación” que llevó a cabo del 5 al 7 de octubre de 2011, en el Centro de Investigación Oceanográfica en el Pacífico Sur Oriental (COPAS) de la Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile. El taller tuvo como principal objetivo ofrecer una perspectiva regional inicial para América Latina sobre de los posibles impactos y potencial de adaptación al cambio climatico en la pesca y la acuicultura, además de discutir y acordar recomendaciones regionales para fortalecer la adaptación a nivel nacional y local y fortalecer la colaboración regional En la reunión se presentaron y discutieron tres casos de estudio provenientes e ambientes diversos; uno en una zona costera tropical, el Golfo de Fonseca en Centro América (Nicaragua, Honduras y El Salvador), el segundo en la provincia de Loreto cubriendo una parte del Alto Amazonas en Perú representando las aguas continentales y el tercero dividido en dos capítulos representado la situación de los ambientes marinos asociados a la corriente de Humboldt y la Patagonia. [more]
Adapting to climate change through land and water management in Eastern Africa. Results of pilot projects in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania 28 May 2014 This publication presents the results and lessons learned from the FAO-Sida supported pilot project “Strengthening capacity for climate change adaptation in land and water management” in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. The project proposed an integrated package of approaches that addressed the drivers of vulnerability and targeted climate change impacts. It focused on technologies that improve soil health and facilitate water conservation, the diversification of the sources of livelihood and income, and the strengthening of local institutions. The publication describes a series of pilot activities that successfully contributed to enhanced resilience of farming communities and offer substantial opportunities for up scaling. This experience shows that a boost in investment is needed to ensure a more sustainable and resilient management of an already declining resource base, and that adapting to climate change in the region will require renewed efforts in improving land and water management through supportive policies, capacity development and targeted investments [more]
Evidence-based assessment of the sustainability and replicability of integrated food-energy systems. A guidance document 27 March 2014 Bioenergy when managed sustainably and efficiently can be an alternative energy source that helps reduce energy access problems. Rural and urban communities can benefit from increased access to energy, and therefore improved food security when bioenergy feedstock is produced guided by principles of sustainable production intensification and energy efficiency improvements are made by applying agro-ecological practices and locally adapted technologies.. To mitigate the risks of bioenergy production threatening food security and to harness the potential benefits of bioenergy productionFAO recommends appling good practices of bioenergy production from the onset. The production of bioenergy in Integrated Food-Energy Systems (IFES) is one of such good practices since these systems meet both food and energy demands.This publication presents an analytical framework which serves to screen different IFES options systematically and helps to define which IFES systems are sustainable and replicable. In concrete terms, this framework is envisioned to be a guidance document that allows its user to assess which factors make an IFES truly sustainable and which factors need to be considered when replicating such a system - be it a pilot project, a business innovation or a research experiment. Furthermore, it helps to systematically describe the potential contribution of IFES to sustainable agriculture and the growing bioeconomy, and to raise awareness among decision-makers about which factors can facilitate the replication of such innovative projects.While the concept of IFES builds on the principles of sustainable intensification and the ecosystem approach, it stresses the fact that the diversification of crop and livestock species can lead to a sustainable production of both food and energy feedstock, as long as relevant practices and technologies are locally devised and adapted. It further emphasises that energy efficiency can be reached in these systems when applying sound agr... [more]
Mountains and Climate Change-From Understanding to Action 25 March 2014 Mountains are among the regions most affected by climate change. The implications of climate change will reach far beyond mountain areas, as the contributions in the present publication prepared for the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in 2009 show. Themes discussed are water, glaciers and permafrost, hazards, biodiversity, food security, and migration. The case studies included show that concrete adaptive action has been taken in many mountain areas of the world. The publication concludes with a series of recommendations for sustainable mountain development in the face of climate change. [more]
Managing climate risks and adapting to climate change in the agriculture sector in Nepal 19 March 2014 Projected future scenarios of climate suggest that climatic conditions in Nepal will worsen, which may imply even more frequent occurrences of climate-related extremes and negative impacts on food production. However, by adopting the right measures, it is possible to manage the climate risks and adapt to the challenges posed by increasing climate variability and climate change. Efforts to promote such measures require a comprehensive approach that includes strengthening the capacities of institutions and delivering needbased services to farming communities. This report provides detailed information about climate and its variability in Nepal, including past trends, future climate change projections and likely impacts on the agriculture sector. The report elaborates the institutional context for managing climate risks and adaptation and reiterates the need to strengthen the collection and analysis of data and information. A comprehensive typology of coping and adaptation strategies for managing current climate risks and building the necessary knowledge and good practices for advancing adaptation over the longer term is presented. The report also examines the issues and opportunities for mainstreaming climate change concerns into broader agriculture and food security policies, plans and strategies. [more]
An Innovative Accounting Framework for the Food-Energy-Water Nexus 31 October 2013 Human wellbeing relies upon the availability and wisemanagement of food, energy and water. The interconnections between these resources makeclear that the management of each of them cannot be considered in isolation but in an integrated and holistic way. Inter-linkages should be considered also among different scales, between local and global processes of resources use, and between social and economic aspects of a society, in order to properly assess the impacts of new policies or interventions.This report presents the results of the application of an integrated analysis approach, the Multi- Scale Integrated Assessment of Society and Ecosystem Metabolismto three casestudies: (i) an analysis of the option to produce biofuel from sugarcane in the Republic of Mauritius; (ii) an exploration of the future of grain production in the Indianstate of Punjab; (iii) an assessment of two alternative energy sources to produce electricity in the Republic of South Africa. [more]
Climate Change and Agriculture in Jamaica 16 October 2013 Climate change is likely to have adverse effects on the agriculture sector in Jamaica. Increase in the intensity and frequency of climate-related natural hazards, increasing rainfall variability, droughts and floods combined with fragile ecosystems and coastal zones all contribute to Jamaica’s overall vulnerability to climate change. Climate change adaptation is one of the outcomes of the Vision 2030 Jamaica-National Development Plan. In the context of this plan, there is need for more analysis of the likely climate change impacts in the short and medium term, along with identification of agricultural adaptation strategies. This report provides detailed information about current knowledge on vulnerability, past trends in climate, and impacts of climate variability and change on agriculture sector. The scope of the study focused on broader policy directions, technical alternatives and investment priorities in relation to climate change adaptation.The report also provides examples of good practices of coping strategies in agriculture and a detailed list of ongoing and completed projects/initiatives related to climate change and agriculture in Jamaica. [more]
Improving governance of forest tenure 9 October 2013 Forests help us breathe and they give us homes, food and energy. Moreover, human well-being and the health of our whole planet depend on whether and how we grow and look after forests. So ˜forest governance“ or who is allowed to decide what about forests and how – is a matter of life and death for millions of people around the world and is profoundly relevant for us all. But decisions about forests and trees are often in the wrong hands or made badly. Much depends on ‘tenure’ – on who owns and controls the forests and trees themselves. The owners may be those who need the forests and look after them well or those who degrade them with no regard for the well-being of others. In short, it is about power. This Practical Guide aims to inspire and arm those who want to try to improve things so that power is used well for forests; it describes how practical tools can be used to shape better governance of forest tenure. If you are a government policy-maker, or other public sector, private sector or civil society stakeholder concerned with forest governance and tenure reform, this guide is written with you primarily in mind. But we hope others may pick it up and find it useful, too. We are aiming for a broad readership, recognizing that people in different situations have different perspectives on the issues and need to take different approaches in addressing them.You may find this guide useful when you recognize that change is needed and you need help in achieving it. When decisions about forests are made by the wrong people, when decisions are bad, when the process is suspect or when good decisions are made but the capacity to do anything with them is feeble – that is when this guide may be useful. Conversely, you may need help in finding the best way to respond to positive opportunities for reform of policies, laws and institutions. [more]
Tackling climate change through livestock 26 September 2013 As renewed international efforts are needed to curb greenhouse gas emissions, the livestock sector can contribute its part. An important emitter of greenhouse gas, it also has the potential to significantly reduce its emissions. This report provides a unique global assessment of the magnitude, the sources and pathways of emissionsfrom different livestock production systems and supply chains. Relying on life cycle assessment, statistical analysis and scenario building, it also provides estimates of the sector’s mitigation potential and identifies concrete options to reduce emissions. The report is a useful resource for stakeholders from livestock producers to policy-makers, researchers and civil society representatives, which also intends to inform the public debate on the role of livestock supply chains in climate change and possible solutions. [more]
Climate change guidelines for forest managers 17 September 2013 The effects of climate change and climate variability on forest ecosystems are evident around the world and further impacts are unavoidable, at least in the short to medium term. Addressing the challenges posed by climate change will require adjustments to forest policies, management plans and practices. These guidelines have been prepared to assist forest managers to better assess and respond to climate change challenges and opportunities at the forest management unit level. The actions they propose are relevant to all kinds of forest managers – such as individual forest owners, private forest enterprises, public-sector agencies, indigenous groups and community forest organizations. They are applicable in all forest types and regions and for all management objectives. [more]
Foodwastage footprint-Impacts on naturalresources. Summary Report 11 September 2013 This FAO study provides a global account of the environmental footprint of food wastage (i.e. both food loss and food waste) along the food supply chain, focusing on impacts on climate, water, land and biodiversity. A model has been developed to answer two key questions: what is the magnitude of food wastage impacts on the environment; and what are the main sources of these impacts, in terms of regions, commodities, and phases of the food supply chain involved with a view to identify environmental hotspots related to food wastage. [more]
Facing the challenges of climate change and food security: the role of research, extension and communication for development 10 September 2013 The study report is based on case studies from Bangladesh (Sulaiman, 2010), Bolivia (Pafumi and Ulloa, 2010), DR Congo (Mbaye, 2010) and Ghana (Adjei-Nsiah and Dormon, 2010) which were carried out with the purpose of assessing needs and gaps with regard to the provision of innovation support services for climate change adaptation. It took the form of desk-studies complemented with key informant interviews. Research results showed that climate change adds urgency to the need for adaptation in its widest sense in the natural resources sphere (agriculture, forestry, natural resources management, livestock and fisheries). The main message from the study is that not only is technical change for farm-level adaptation and mitigation needed, but also a change of policy and institutional regimes that govern agricultural production, value chains and natural resource management [more]
Forests and climate change after Doha-An Asia-Pacific perspective 6 September 2013 Forests are still at the center of attention in climate change negotiations, and are likely to remain so. However, there is renewed debate about the proportion of global emissions that can be attributed to the forest sector, with estimates revised downwards from 17 to about 12 percent in discussions within the IPCC. Nonetheless, it remains a significant amount. In February 2013, the Center for People and Forests (RECOFTC) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), along with the host institution, the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry, brought together eleven climate change and forestry experts in Bogor, Indonesia, to discuss the implications of decisions taken at the COP 18 held in Doha, Qatar in November and December 2012 on the forestry sector of the Asia-Pacific region. This booklet summarizes their responses to a set of 12 key questions raised at the consultation. [more]
Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into Agriculture- Environment and Natural Resources Management Series 20 26 August 2013 The Philippines is one of the most disaster-prone countries worldwide. Bicol Region is regularly exposed to a variety of natural hazards including tropical storms, typhoons, droughts, drought spells, flash floods, floods, landslides and volcano eruptions, causing frequent destruction, damage and losses. Agriculture is among the most vulnerable sectors to extreme weather events and changing climate. People depending on agriculture are regularly facing the challenge to protect and maintain their livelihoods. This Disaster Risk Reduction project in Bicol Region aimed at (i) strengthening the institutional and technical capacities, risks related services’ provision and coordination in agriculture to better prepare for and manage climate-related risks, and (ii) enhancing the risk reduction capacities and livelihood resilience of farmers and fisher folks, who are highly vulnerable to risks and extreme climatic events. The project was designed in accordance with FAO’s Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security Framework Programme which builds on and supports the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015 from the perspective of agriculture and food and nutrition security. This technical summary report presents results and lessons from the project. [more]
Training Guide for Gender and Climate Change Research in Agriculture and Food Security for Rural Development 15 July 2013 The guide is an important resource for development professionals and researchers working with households and communities. The objective of the gender and climate training guide is to address the lack of information on how men and women adapt to, and mitigate climate change. The Participatory Action Research methods and activities of the guide help ensure that gender is reflected in research activities and outcomes. The guide will help promote gender-sensitive adaptation and mitigation activities in projects for agriculture and food security. A gender-sensitive approach in agriculture is crucial to ensure that all people are supported to respond to climatic challenges. [more]
Status of Disaster Risk Management. Plans for Floods, Hurricanes and Drought in the Agriculture Sector. A Caribbean Perspective 9 July 2013 This document presents the findings of a comparative study which was conducted in 2012, of disaster risk management (DRM) plans in the Caribbean, with focus on the agriculture sector. The study includes the following Caribbean countries: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Turks and Caicos. The document includes specific recommendations related to the development of Agriculture DRM plans (ADRM) within various Ministries of Agriculture throughout the region, the scaling up of awareness raising and education programmes that target all stakeholders, the identification of a regional institution to monitor and hold countries accountable to develop and implement plans within an agreed timeframe and the establishment of a forum to share best practices and innovative technologies for ADRM plans in order to further strengthen the technical capacities within the Ministries of Agriculture (MoAs). [more]
Balanced feeding for improving livestock productivity: Increase in milk production and nutrient use efficiency and decrease in methane emission 21 June 2013 In developing countries feed shortages notwithstanding, considerable potential exists to increase production levels across a range of growing, lactating and beef animals by addressing the problem of imbalanced nutrition. The data on improving milk production efficiency in dairy animals through balanced feeding suggests that there is considerable scope for enhancing milk production with strategic use of the existing feed resources. This is possible through the transfer of scientific knowledge, in an easy-to-use and easy-to-implement manner to milk producers. The aim should be to promote feeding of a balanced ration in sufficient quantities and containing all essential nutrients. This paper outlines an approach used by National Dairy Development Board, India to balance rations at the doorsteps of smallholder farmers. This initiative has relevance for many other developing countries. [more]
Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Livestock Production - A review of technical options for non-CO2 emissions 21 June 2013 This report presents a unique and exhaustive review of current knowledge on mitigation practices for greenhouse gas emissions in the livestock sector. It focuses specifically on non-CO2 emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management. It is part of a stream of activities being carried out by FAO to identify low greenhouse gas emission pathways for the livestock sector. The report references over 900 publications on the mitigation of direct nitrous oxide and methane emissions and highlights the most promising options, given their demonstrated effectiveness and feasibility for adoption. The review was deliberately limited to in vivo experiments to reflect what can be achieved with available mitigation practices. This in-depth assessment will inform the livestock industry, academia, governmental and non-governmental organizations that are interested in identifying and designing mitigation interventions for the sector. It will also help to identify research and development priorities in the area. [more]
FAO Statistical Yearbooks - World food and agriculture 19 June 2013 The FAO Statistical Yearbook presents a visual synthesis of the major trends and factors shaping the global food and agricultural landscape and their interplay with broader environmental, social and economic dimensions. It aims to be a unique reference point on the state of world food and agriculture for policy-makers, donor agencies, researchers and analysts, as well as the general public. [more]
Climate-Smart Agriculture: capturing the synergies among mitigation, adaptation and food security-Emerging issues in the northern mountainous region of Viet Nam 14 June 2013 This brief provides an update on the Climate-Smart Agriculture project in the Northern Mountainous Region of Viet Nam. In particular, it provides some key information on this area to highlight the importance of climate change, agriculture and food security. [more]
Climate-Smart Agriculture: capturing the synergies among mitigation, adaptation and food security-Emerging evidence from Zambia 14 June 2013 This brief provides emerging evidence from the implementation of the Climate-Smart Agriculture project in Zambia. The analysis clearly indicates that better screening of agro-ecological and socio-economic constraints and incentives for adoption of conservation farming are needed in order to achieve its effective and durable adoption. It also suggests that alternative approaches to sustainable agricultural intensification that better address the constraints and objectives of sustainable agricultural intensification in the near term are needed. This may include modifications of the current conservation farming technologies as well as broadening the range of technologies considered to include other forms of sustainable land management and agricultural intensification. [more]
Climate-Smart Agriculture: capturing the synergies among mitigation, adaptation and food security-Emerging evidence from Malawi 14 June 2013 This brief provides emerging evidence from the implementation of the Climate-Smart Agriculture project in Malawi. We analyze factors governing farmers’ decision to adopt adaptation strategies and evaluate the potential impact of adoption on crop productivity by using multivariate econometric regression. We also try to uncover distributional impact, particularly where these households are heterogeneous on key dimensions such as land holding, gender and geographical region. The findings suggest positive synergies between adaptation strategies and food security. However, some caution needs to be taken given the interdependence of practices as well as the heterogeneity of impacts across farm size, gender and geographical region. [more]
National planning for GHG mitigation in agriculture: A guidance document - MICCA Series 8 10 June 2013 This guide describes two of the main approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation planning in developing countries: Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) and Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). It explains the possible relationships between them and their status within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). National mitigation planning processes have policy, technical and institutional dimensions that need to be addressed in an integrated and iterative manner. For each of these dimensions four key elements are outlined. Examples from mitigation planning processes in developing countries are provided to illustrate the range of options for addressing these key elements in country-specific ways. Special considerations for including smallholder farmers in the planning process are highlighted. [more]
Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook 5 June 2013 The purpose of the sourcebook is to further elaborate the concept of CSA and demonstrate its potential, as well as limitations. It aims to help decision makers at a number of levels (including political administrators and natural resource managers) to understand the different options that are available for planning, policies and investments and the practices that are suitable for making different agricultural sectors, landscapes and food systems more climate-smart. This sourcebook is a reference tool for planners, practitioners and policy makers working in agriculture, forestry and fisheries at national and subnational levels. The sourcebook indicates some of the necessary ingredients required to achieve a climate-smart approach to the agricultural sectors, including existing options and barriers. [more]
National integrated mitigation planning in agriculture: a review paper-MICCA Series 7 3 June 2013 his review of national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning in the agriculture sector provides national policy makers and others in the agriculture sector with an overview of national mitigation planning processes to aid them in identifying the relevance of these processes for promoting agricultural development. It also gives policy makers and advisors involved in low-emission development planning processes an overview of mitigation planning in the agriculture sector and highlights the relevance of agriculture to national mitigation plans and actions. The review provides an overview of agreements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on GHG mitigation in developing countries. It examines 32 low-emission development strategies (LEDS) from 18 developing countries and 62 nationally appropriate mitigatioin actions (NAMAs) in the agriculture sectors of 30 countries. It describes the status of development of the NAMAs, the agricultural activities proposed and the alignment of the NAMAs with other policies and policy goals. The report summarizes the status of and trends in national agricultural mitigation planning, the barriers and risks involved, and the opportunities and potentials for agricultural NAMAs. It also suggests an approach to NAMA development in the agriculture sector based on 12 basic building blocks. [more]
Advancing Agroforestry on the Policy Agenda 3 June 2013 Agroforestry is a dynamic, ecologically based, natural resources management system that, through the integration of trees on farms and in the agricultural landscape, diversifies and sustains production for increased social, economic and environmental benefits for land users at all levels (ICRAF). These guidelines are an invaluable addition to the agroforestry global agenda. [more]
Organic Agriculture: African Experiences in Resilience and Sustainability 20 May 2013 The experiences featured in this publication show that the complexity of plant and animal interactions with the environment can be managed for improved productivity and resilience, and that farming requires enhancing natural processes, rather than substituting them with external inputs. [more]
Forests and water:a complex relationship 29 April 2013 This publication provides an overview of forest and water interactions and describes the increasing international momentum gained by this topic. It then presents, in chronological order, summaries of the various events held between 2008 and 2011, as well as their main outcomes and recommendations. It concludes with the most important part of thepublication; namely, the analysis of the key recommendations and the forests and water agenda for the next years. [more]
Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture 8 April 2013 This report reflects the conclusions of the Workshop and the analysis undertaken by FAO and Platform for Agrobiodiversity Research (PAR) over the past year. This Workshop, held at FAO in April, 2010, explored the different challenges that confronted agriculture and the options that existed or could be developed that would be needed to meet the challenges of feeding the world, coping with climate change and improving impact of agriculture on the environment. [more]
ROADMAP ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND GENETIC RESOURCES FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 8 April 2013 The present document introduces a proposed Roadmap on Climate Change and Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and provides an indicative estimate of the extra-budgetary resources required for the implementation of the Roadmap activities. The proposed Roadmap is presented in Appendix I and the estimated extra-budgetary resource requirements in Appendix II. [more]
SELECTED PROCESSES AND INITIATIVES ON CLIMATE CHANGE OF RELEVANCE TO GENETIC RESOURCES FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 8 April 2013 This document compiles information on processes and initiatives related to genetic resources for food and agriculture and climate change. [more]
State of Mediterranean Forests 2013 21 March 2013 Global changes (changes in societies, lifestyles and climate) strongly affect the Mediterranean region. If unmanaged, such changes could lead to the loss of biodiversity, an increased risk of wildfire, the degradation of watersheds, and desertification, with serious consequences for the sustainable provision of forest goods and ecosystem services. [more]
Quinoa: An ancient crop to contribute to world food security 21 February 2013 This technical report is an updated and detailed compilation of the nutritional benefits and agricultural versatility of quinoa. The report discusses the expansion of the crop to other continents and demonstrates quinoa's high potential to contribute to food security throughout the world -- especially in areas where the population does not have access to adequate protein sources or where production conditions are limited by low humidity, reduced availability of inputs, and aridity. [more]
Helping smallholder farmers mitigate climate change 18 February 2013 This joint FAO CCAFS policy brief stresses that carbon payments for mitigation are unlikely to be adequate to incentivize changes in behaviors due to challenges related to low returns, transaction costs and long timeframes for payback. It argues that incentives related to food security and adaptation to climate change are central to promote mitigation, and that policies and investment are required to provide up-front finance and long-term rewards. [more]
Advancing agroforestry on the Policy Agenda 5 February 2013 Aimed at decision-makers, key policy advisors, NGOs and governmental institutions, the policy guide shows how agroforestry can be integrated into national strategies and how policies can be adjusted to specific conditions. The policy guide provides examples of best practices and success stories, as well as lessons learned from challenges and failures. [more]
Agriculture, forestry and other land use mitigation project database - MICCA Series 6 14 January 2013 Land use projects are especially exposed to the insecurities regarding the future of international climate change regulations. Therefore, it is imperative that the long term structures of the climate change framework are settled as soon as possible, including the reconsideration of the existing crediting schemes as the appropriate remuneration approach for AFOLU projects in developing countries. This second publication in the MICCA series aims to set the global agricultural mitigation survey (as presented in the first publication) in context. The AFOLU MP database is a compilation of publicly available data on mitigation projects in agriculture and forestry, and this paper describes, first, the analysis and output of the database and, second, which implications can be derived for the development of mitigation activities in agriculture and forestry. [more]
FAO, Forests and Climate Change 29 November 2012 This publication summarizes the work that FAO is undertaking, with its partners, to assist countries to mitigate and adapt to climate change as it relates to forests, trees and the people who depend on them. It is organized in four of the five main areas of FAO's integrated approach to sustainable forest management (SFM):*Monitoring and Assessment*Management planning and practices*Policy and governance*Forest products, services and industry The fifth main area of work, Intersectoral cooperation and coordination, cuts across the other four areas. [more]
Building resilience for adaptation to climate change in the agriculture sector 28 November 2012 Summary report of the of the joint workshop organized by FAO and OECD on Building resilience for adaptation to climate change in the agriculture sector held April 2012.The various sessions of the workshop questioned the notion of resilience from very different angles, confronting concepts, specific risk management strategies, case studies and national policies, from different perspectives, biophysical, economic, or social and institutional, and at various scales, from farm and household to national and global. [more]
Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines for FAO Field Projects 13 November 2012 This publication provides guidelines for all FAO units to undertake environmental impact assessments (EIA) of field projects. The use of these guidelines apply to all FAO field projects and activities, requring implications to be fully considered early in the planning process so as to avoid significant negative impacts of environmental or associated social nature. [more]
Potential Impacts of climate change on food security in Mali 12 November 2012 This paper examines how climate change could affect projections for agricultural production and rural poverty in Mali by performing a sensitivity analysis with the Threshold21 model, an integrated scenario-analysis tool. The simulation suggests potentially important impacts on agriculture production and more pronounced impacts in the rural population. The paper further examines the effectiveness of public investment, namely research and development for agriculture, as a crucial measure for adaptation. The large amount of resources that would be necessary to avoid the worst case scenario suggests the necessity of continued support from the international community to improve food security in the country and Sub-Saharan Africa as a whole more pronounced impacts on the rural population. [more]
Community guidelines for accessing forestry voluntary carbon markets 12 November 2012 These guidelines were developed to assist smallholders and smallholder groups, community-based forest managers, non-governmental organizations and local forestry officials to decide whether or not to undertake a forestry voluntary carbon market project and, once a decision has been taken to proceed, to provide guidance on how to design and implement the project. [more]
Invisible Guardians : Women manage livestock diversity 8 November 2012 This publication presents an analysis of women’s role in the sustainable use, development and conservation of animal genetic resources. The importance of small-scale famers and pastoralists as custodians of these resources is well recognized, but has never previously been disaggregated by gender. The differential roles of men and women have largely been neglected in studies of animal genetic resources management, but by piecing together several strands of argument and indirect evidence it can be concluded that women are the main guardians of livestock diversity. [more]
Adaptation in Action 31 October 2012 FAO-Adapt consolidates FAO’s multidisciplinary expertise on climate change adaptation. Through this Organization-wide framework, FAO provides countries with best practices, key principles and priority themes on which member nations can focus adaptation efforts in agriculture and food security.Since launching FAO-Adapt in June 2011, the Organization has: developed and implemented new, adaptation-focusedprojects and programmes; and enhanced FAO’s own capacity to deliver adaptation support to member countries.FAO-Adapt also promotes synergies between adaptation, mitigation and sustainable development activities. As additionalneeds emerge, FAO-Adapt will continue to evolve in order to best leverage the Organization’s climate change expertise. [more]
Potential Effects of Climate Change on Crop Pollination 24 October 2012 Climate change has the potential to severly impact ecosystem services such as pollination. FAO has developed a Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture. This report discusses the causes of pollinator decline and its impact on pollination services. [more]
Greening the economy with climate-smart agriculture 5 September 2012 Agriculture has to address simultaneously three intertwined challenges: ensuring food security through increased productivity and income, adapting to climate change and contributing to climate change mitigation. To accomplish this, food systems have to become, at the same time, more efficient and resilient, at every scale from the farm level to the global level. Radical changes are needed in agricultural and food systems. These changes can play an essential role in greening the economy and contributing to sustainable development.This paper considers the intertwined challenges of food security and climate change, potential impacts of climate change on agriculture, and the impact of agriculture on climate. It further develops and illustrates with concrete examples the concepts of increasing resource efficiency and building resilience as guiding principles to address these challenges. It shows how changing practices in the field can drive sustainable economic development. [more]
Mainstreaming climate-smart agriculture into a broader landscape approach 5 September 2012 Today’s large diversity of semi-natural and manmade landscapes is the result of centuries of human interventions. The management and use of natural resources and ecosystem services have provided for humanity’s multiple needs for food, fibre, fodder, fuel, building materials, medicinal products and water. However, this has often been undertaken in an unsustainable manner causing the degradation of the natural resource base and loss of ecosystem services. Increasing pressure from population growth, changes in food consumption patterns, climate change and competition from other sectors is further weakening the viability of current systems. The triple challenges to simultaneously mitigate the effects of climate change, safeguard natural resources more efficiently and produce more food and ensure food security for future generations require effective policies and approaches. This paper examines how landscape approaches can be used in developing integrated multipurpose production systems that are environmentally and socially sustainable. The paper assesses the key policy, governance, financial and institutional interventions required, and looks at how a landscape approach can support the adoption of climate-smart agriculture and generate green growth. Finally, the paper considers how synergies between the agriculture and forestry sectors can be improved and how this can be facilitated through REDD+ implementation. [more]
Developing a climate-smart agriculture strategy at the country level: lessons from recent experience 5 September 2012 Since the Global Conference on Climate Change, Food Security and Agriculture held at the Hague in 2010, the concept of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) has gained increasing attention at international and national levels, with several countries initiating related activities. The objective of this paper is to highlight recent experiences with country-level implementation of CSA to identify some key lessons to incorporate in ongoing efforts to expand the use of the approach in developing countries. Section 1 describes the evolution of the concept of CSA since the Hague conference. Section 2 introduces the building blocks for developing a CSA strategy and combines them into a coherent framework. In sections 3 to 6 the paper goes into more depth on the building blocks, the data needed and potential approaches for prioritizing action. Finally section 7 provides some guiding principles on CSA investments. [more]
Incorporating climate change considerations into agricultural investment programmes. A guidance document 4 September 2012 The world’s agricultural sectors, including agriculture, forestry and fisheries,1 face many challenges in meeting the food requirements of an ever-increasing population – such as intensive competition for land and water resources and a degrading environment – and these are compounded by a changing climate. Climate change alters the basics of productive ecosystems (e.g. temperature and rainfall), impacts on natural resources (e.g. land and water availability) and affects food security, rural livelihoods and sustainable development at global, regional and local levels. Smallholder farmers, forest dwellers, herders and fishers will be the most affected by climate change because of their limited capacity to adapt to its impacts. These groups could immensely benefit from efforts to strengthen their adaptation capacity. Adaptation is needed now. Postponing action increases adaptation costs. [more]
Appropriate food packaging solutions for developing countries 4 September 2012 The study assesses the state of packaging and packaging technologies in developing countries, with the challenge of global food losses and the potential for agri-food systems as the backdrop. The purpose of the exercise is to identify packaging solutions in developing countries, within the limits of prevailing levels of development and conditions, and in an attempt to make better use of the locally available packagingmaterials. This is done within the framework of developing countries’ role as major supplier to the global food system and, consequently, as contributor to the search for global food loss solutions. [more]
Global InitiatIve on Food loss and Waste Reduction 4 September 2012 The impacts of food losses and waste are multifaceted. Food losses and waste have repercussions on hunger and poverty alleviation, nutrition, income generation and economic growth. Food losses are indicative of poorly functioning and inefficient value chains and food systems, and as such they represent a loss of economic value for the actors in these chains. [more]
Global food losses and food waste 3 September 2012 This publication is based on studies on global food losses (one for high/medium-income countries and one for low income countries). This publication aims at awareness raising on global food losses and waste, and on the impact of these on poverty and hunger in the world, as well as on climate change and on the use of natural resources. [more]
Coping with Water Scarcity: An Action Framework for Agriculture and Food Security 3 September 2012 This report aims to provide a conceptual framework to address food security under conditions of water scarcity in agriculture. It has been prepared by a team of FAO staff and consultants in the framework of the project `Coping with water scarcity: the role of agriculture?, and has been discussed at an Expert Consultation meeting organized in FAO, Rome in December 2009 on the same subject. It was subsequently edited and revised, taking account of discussions in the Expert Consultation and materials presented to the meeting. The document offers views on the conceptual framework on which FAO's water scarcity programme should be based, proposes a set of definitions associated with the concept of water scarcity, and indicates the main principles on which FAO should base its action in support to its member countries. [more]
Sustainable Diets and Biodiversity - Directions and solutions for policy, research and actions 8 August 2012 The book presents the current state of thought on the common path of sustainable diets and biodiversity. The articles contained herein were presented at the International Scientific Symposium “Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets: United Against Hunger” organized jointly by FAO and Bioversity International, held at FAO, in Rome, from 3 to 5 November 2010. The Symposium addressed the linkages among agriculture, biodiversity, nutrition, food production, food consumption and the environment. [more]
Greening the Economy with Agriculture 7 August 2012 Greening the Economy with Agriculture refers to ensuring the right to adequate food, as well as food and nutrition security in terms of food availability, access, stability and utilization and contributing to the quality of rural livelihoods, while efficiently managing natural resources and improving resilience and equity throughout the food supply chain, taking into account countries individual circumstances. [more]
INARI: A proposal for financing sustainable land use at scale 5 July 2012 Whether in agriculture, forestry or elsewhere, the challenge with sustainable land use is not so much determining what to do, but rather, how to pay for it and change the incentive structure necessary to achieve a quantum shift in practices on a large scale. Existing investment schemes, both public and private, do not match the practices that drive sustainable land use.This paper proposes the development of an innovative finance mechanism to address these problems. This mechanism, known as “Inari”, draws on collective expertise in finance, science, governance and rural economic development.Inari is designed to drive financing to sustainable producers in a way that improves their livelihoods and protects the environment. It accomplishes this by aggregating payments from those producers into investment grade securities that offer a compelling risk-reward profile.Making Inari a reality requires public support, both for the remaining research needed to develop the concept into something ready for implementation, as well as to drive down the risk of investment in a way that enables extensive private sector participation.Our goal is to catalyze significant transformative changes in agriculture and land use. Taking Inari from concept to reality will require broad collaboration. We hope this paper will offer a basis for that collaboration to begin, with an eye towards implementing Inari in 2014. [more]
Food Security and Climate Change. A report by The High Level Panel of Experts (HLPE) on Food Security and Nutrition. Report #3. 4 July 2012 The High Level Panel of Experts (HLPE) on food security and nutrition report #3. With many of the resources needed for sustainable food security already stretched, the food security challenges are huge. Climate change will make it even harder to overcome them, as it reduces the productivity of the majority of existing food systems and harms the livelihoods of those already vulnerable to food insecurity. The likelihood of the nations of the world being able to meet the 2°C target of maximal average temperature rise set by the UNFCCC negotiations in Cancun is diminishing with time. If negotiations for global climate policies fail, temperature rises of the order of 4°C by the end of the century, corresponding to the best estimate of the higher emissions scenarios of the IPCC, cannot be discarded. While some might benefit, people in some regions will be affected more than others by changes in average temperature and precipitation. In addition, the likelihood of increased variability and extreme events means that management of risk, both locally and internationally, will be even more important than it is today [more]
No 53 - Energy-Smart Food at FAO: An Overview 14 June 2012 This paper presents FAO’s work on energy in relation to specific components of the agrifood chain. It complements two recent publications, Energy-Smart Food for People and Climate Issues Paper and the policy brief, Making the Case for Energy-Smart Food. These publications presented the findings of a 2011 study commissioned by FAO that examined the linkages between energy and agrifood systems and their implications for food security and climate. The study looked at energy uses along the entire agrifood chain from field to plate and the potential of agrifood systems to produce energy. Findings confirmed that agrifood systems use a large share of the global energy supply, rely heavily on fossil fuels to meet production targets and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. The study concluded that agrifood systems will have to become ‘energy-smart’ to meet future food and energy challenges, and recommended establishing a major long-term multipartner programme on energy-smart food systems based on three pillars (i) improving energy efficiency in agrifood systems, (ii) increasing the use of renewable energy in these systems and (iii) improving access to modern energy services through integrated food and energy production. In response to these recommendations, FAO has launched the multi-partner Energysmart Food for People and Climate (ESF) Programme. This paper illustrates how FAO’s longstanding work in the area of energy and agrifood systems contributes towards the ESF Programme’s objectives. [more]
Global Partnership for Climate, Fisheries and Aquaculture 1 June 2012 This document has been prepared by the Global Partnership Climate Change, Fisheries and Aquaculture (PaCFA) to support the process of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in response to the need for concerted action on fisheries, aquaculture and climate change. [more]
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department Strategy for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Climate Change: Framework and aims 2011-2016 1 June 2012 More than 500 million people depend directly or indirectly on fisheries and aquaculture for their livelihoods. Fish also provides essential nutrition for 3 billion people and at least 50 percent of animal protein and essential minerals for 400 million people in the poorest countries. However, climate change is creating huge challenges for a sector already facing serious threats from overfishing and poor management. The broader threat posed by climate change to development and food security is increasingly well recognized and is now a major local, national and international priority. [more]
Towards the future we want: end hunger and make the transition to sustainable agricultural and food systems 31 May 2012 FAO has three main messages for the Rio+20 summit:1. The Rio vision of sustainable development cannot be realized unless hunger and malnutrition are eradicated.2. The Rio vision requires that both food consumption and production systems achieve more with less.3. The transition to a sustainable future requires fundamental changes in the governance of food and agriculture and an equitable distribution of the transition costs and benefits. [more]
Forests and Climate Change Working Paper 11. Forest Management and Climate Change: stakeholder perceptions 23 May 2012 FAO, in collaboration with forest management, climate change experts and relevant stakeholders, is developing guidelines to assist forest managers to effectively respond to climate change challenges and opportunities. These guidelines will include actions related to both climate change adaptation and mitigation and will be relevant to all types of forests, all management objectives and all types of managers. To facilitate the development of the guidelines, a survey was conducted through which forest stakeholders provided their views and perceptions on factors that influence the ability of forest managers to respond to climate change. This publication presents the results of the survey [more]
Peatlands – guidance for climate change mitigation by conservation, rehabilitation and sustainable use 17 May 2012 Peatlands provide many important ecosystem services, including water regulation, biodiversity conservation and carbon secuestration and storage. This report informs on management and finance options to achieve emissions reductions and enhance other vital ecosystem services from peatlands. Methodologies and data available for quantifying GHG emissions from peatlands and organic soils are summarized and practical solutions are given concerning measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) and accounting. Country-specific case studies illustrate the problems, soultions and opportunities of peatland management. This report is a good handbook for policy makers, technical audiences and others interested in peatlands. [more]
Adaptation to Climate-Change in Semi-Arid Environments - Experience and Lessons from Mozambique 10 May 2012 Southern Africa and Mozambique are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The region is frequently exposed to droughts, floods, variable rainfall and heat, which are expected to worsen, and sensitivity to such exposure of the natural resource-based livelihood system is very high. The project area is remote and highly underdeveloped and the population is poor, food insecure, and not resilient to the impact of climate shocks. Due to water scarcity, not sufficient for humans and livestock except in a few communities along the Limpopo River, livelihood options are limited. Livelihoods are underpinned almost entirely by the little available water, agricultural lands and rangelands, and natural forests, and current practices and usage are threatening to become unsustainable. Existing coping mechanisms and safety nets are heavily reliant on the natural resources base, and livelihoods are seriously at risk under the projected climate changes. Urgent action is required to strengthen resilience now and into the future, when climate change will present significant additional stress. [more]
Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management in Agriculture - Priority Framework for Action 2011-2020 2 May 2012 A comprehensive priority framework to support and provide strategic direction to the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, its technical services and agencies for the implementation of Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management (DRM) priorities in Agriculture and allied sectors. [more]
Forests and Climate Change Working Paper No. 10 29 March 2012 This document summarizes knowledge and experiences in forest management as a response to climate change, based on a literature review and a survey of forest managers. This is part of an FAO-led process to prepare climate change guidelines for forest managers. It examines climate change impacts on forests and forest managers throughout the world. The document also reviews the main perceived challenges that climate change poses to forests and their managers. It summarizes experiences in preparing for and reacting to climate change in different types of forests. Finally, it indicates a number of gaps in enabling conditions (related to knowledge, institutional setting and culture) that hamper forest managers from responding effectively to climate change and its impacts. [more]
Action on Climate Change in Agriculture: Linkages to Food Security, Markets and Trade Policies in Developing Countries 14 March 2012 The objective of this report is to catalyse thinking about the ways in which agriculture – which has a vital role in global food security, development and natural resources use – can and must be fully integrated into national strategies and a consensus-based multilateral framework to address the challenges of climate change. The report brings forth questions that will occupy the world community over the next decade or more regarding the role of agriculture in climate change adaptation and mitigation. The report offers some answers and concrete proposals – while recognizing that much more needs to be learned, more questions formulated, and more experience gained, to build an effective strategy to support global agricultural adaptation while harnessing its significant potential contribution to climate change mitigation and taking into consideration development objectives and food security concerns. [more]
Training Guide for Gender and Climate Change Research in Agriculture and Food Security for Rural Development 8 March 2012 The guide provides users with resources and participatory action research tools for collecting, analysing and sharing gender-sensitive information about agricultural communities, households and individuals who are facing climate changes. [more]
Resilient Livelihoods-Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security 20 January 2012 A Framework Programme to support and provide strategic direction, to FAO member countries and partners, for the implementation of Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security at global, regional, national and local levels. [more]
Climate-Smart Agriculture: Smallholder Adoption and Implications for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation 30 December 2011 This paper provides a brief review of the adaptation and mitigation benefits from various practices, and then focus in detail on empirical evidence concerning costs and barriers to adoption, both from household and project-level data. [more]
Climate-Smart Agriculture: A Synthesis of Empirical Evidence of Food Security and Mitigation Benefits from Improved Cropland Management 30 December 2011 This paper synthesizes the results of a literature review reporting the evidence base of different sustainable land management practices aimed at increasing and stabilizing crop productivity in developing countries. By assessing the impact of adopting sustainable land management practices on the level of food production, this paper highlights the state of knowledge on where synergies between food security and climate change mitigation in croplands are most likely to be found. [more]
Identifying opportunities for climate smart agriculture investments in Africa 21 December 2011 This paper – produced by the Economics & Policy Innovations for Climate-smart Agriculture ( EPIC ) Progamme in the Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA), with support from TCI - proposes a rapid screening methodology to examine the 14 existing National Agriculture and Food Security Investment Plans (NAFSIPs) in Africa, prepared in the context of CAADP, to ascertain their potential to generate climate change benefits. The screening showed that the activities planned would generate climate benefits in terms of adaptation to slow-onset climate change (60%), adaptation to extreme events (18%) and climate change mitigation (19%). [more]
Climate Change Mitigation Finance for Smallholder Agriculture: A guide book to harvesting soil carbon sequestration benefits 20 December 2011 This guidebook – produced by the Economics & Policy Innovations for Climate-smart Agriculture ( EPIC) Progamme in the Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA), with support from the IDWG/CC and MICCA – explores opportunities for and obstacles to potential climate mitigation finance for soil carbon sequestration, particularly for smallholders, and as part of broader climate-smart agriculture interventions. In countries that opt to apply climate-smart agricultural approaches, wherein adaptation and mitigation potential are incorporated into agricultural development strategies, mitigation financing could play a role, along with other sources of funding, in transforming agricultural systems. However, FAO recognizes that adaptation rather than mitigation may be the priority for most LDCs over the short and medium term. [more]
Linking Climate Change Financing and Sustainability 30 November 2011 This paper points out that, in order to effectively couple climate financing with strong and measurable sustainable development criteria, there is a need to move beyond carbon as a standalone tradeable commodity, by increasingly valuing the significant range of additional ecosystem and socio-economic services provided by sustainable agriculture practices and programmes that simultaneously address climate concerns and sustainable rural development priorities. [more]
Payments for Ecosystem Services and Food Security 30 November 2011 This book is meant to take those with background knowledge into new realms of technical understanding, but also to take newcomers to the PES mandate on a thoughtful journey,raising awareness in their consciousness as to what is needed and what can be accomplished by individuals with a strong sense of commitment. A functioning Payment for EcosystemServices (PES) system has the potential to renew individuals’ shared sense of responsibility and involve them in supporting initiatives that can contribute to the collective preservation of our planet. [more]
Energy-Smart Food for People and Climate - Issue Paper 29 November 2011 The aim of this paper is to discuss how the entire food sector, from the farmer's field to the consumer's plate, can become more 'energy-smart'. Becoming energy-smart will require a transformation along the food chain that involves: - relying more on low-carbon energy systems and using energy more effi ciently; - strengthening the role of renewable energy within food systems; - providing greater access to modern energy services for development, and at the same time supporting the achievement of national food security and sustainable development goals. This paper provides examples of energy-smart practices for both small-and large-scale enterprises and covers the entire food sector. [more]
Climate-Smart Agriculture-Managing Ecosystems for Sustainable Livelihoods 25 November 2011 Business-as-usual scenarios of population growth and food consumption patterns indicate that agricultural production will need to increase by 70 percent by 2050 to meet global demand for food. The impacts of climate change will reduce productivity and lead to greater instability in production in the agricultural sector (crop and livestock production, fisheries and forestry) in communities that already have high levels of food insecurity and environmental degradation and limited options for coping with adverse weather conditions. [more]
Climate Change for Forest Policy-Makers 11 November 2011 The critical role of forests in climate change mitigation and adaptation is now widely recognized. Forests contribute significantly to climate change mitigation through their carbon sink and carbon storage functions. They play an essential role in reducing vulnerabilities and enhancing adaptation of people and ecosystems to climate change and climate variability, the negative impacts of which are becoming increasingly evident in many parts of the world. [more]
Environmental Impact Assessment 13 October 2011 This publication provides guidelines for all FAO units (headquarters departments and offices, as well as decentralized offices) to undertake environmental impact assessments (EIA) of field projects. The use of these guidelines apply to all FAO field projects and activities, as further specified in the sections below, requiring implications to be fully considered early in the planning process (and all the more so prior to taking financial decisions) so as to avoid significant negative impacts of environmental or associated social nature. [more]
1 September 2011 The impacts of climate change on the global hydrological cycle are expected to vary the patterns of demand and supply of water for agriculture – the dominant user of freshwater. The extent and productivity of both irrigated and rainfed agriculture can be expected to change. As a result, the livelihoods of rural communities and the food security of a predominantly urban population are at risk from water-related impacts linked primarily to climate variability. The rural poor, who are the most vulnerable, are likely to be disproportionately affected. Adaptation measures that build upon improved land and water management practices will be fundamental in boosting overall resilience to climate change. And this is not just to maintain food security: the continued integrity of land and water systems is essential for all economic uses of water. This report summarizes current knowledge of the anticipated impacts of climate change on water availability for agriculture and examines the implications for local and national food security. It analyses expected impact of climate change on a set of major agricultural systems at risk and makes the case for immediate implementation of ‘no-regrets’ strategies which have both positive development outcomes and make agricultural systems resilient. It is hoped that policy makers and planners can use this report to frame their adaptation responses when considering both the water variable in agriculture and the competing demands from other users. [more]
FAO-Adapt: Framework Programme on Climate Change Adaptation 1 August 2011 The increasing spectre of soaring food prices and global warming has brought food security and climate change concerns to the top of the international agenda. Agriculture – namely its agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors – now faces the double challenge of dealing with the impact of climate change at the same time that it must increase production to meet the food demands of a global population projected to reach 9.1 billion by 2050. Looking ahead, FAO recognizes that these two challenges must be addressed together. Climate change adaptation, a must for the agricultural sectors, will require substantial technical and financial investments in order to achieve food and nutrition security, particularly in food-insecure developing countries. [more]
Climate change and food systems resilence in Sub-Saharan Africa 30 July 2011 This volume, Climate Change and Food Systems Resilience in Sub-Saharan Africa, demonstrates the possibility of harmonizing agricultural production with the wellbeing of the biosphere and that this can be achieved in Africa, our biosphere's least developed continent, and the continent which is likely to suffer most from climate change. [more]
Reforming forest tenure. Issues, principles and process 14 June 2011 FAO’s Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010) shows that 80 percent of the world’s forests are publicly owned, but forest ownership and management by communities, individuals and private companies are increasing (FAO, 2010c). Globally, State ownership and management dominate forest tenure, but transitions are under way – more in some countries than in others. A more diversified tenure system could provide a basis for improving forest management and local livelihoods, particularly where State capacities to manage forests are weak. [more]
Strengthening Capacity for Climate Change Adaptation: Experience and Lessons from Lesotho 10 June 2011 This publication aims to create awareness and prompt action amongst policy-makers and practitioners to address the impact of climate change (notably changes in temperature and rainfall) to the countrys food security. It serves as a good example of how the ongoing FAO and Government of Lesotho project activities Environment, are complementing identified by the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) on climate change. [more]
The State of Forests in the Amazon Basin, Congo Basin and Southeast Asia 10 June 2011 This report was prepared as a background document for the Summit of the Three Rainforest Basins, taking place in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, on 31 May-3 June 2011. It draws on work undertaken by the FAO Forestry Department and the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), two international organizations at the forefront of providing information on these forests and promoting their sustainable management. [more]
The fisheries and aquaculture sector in national adaptation programmes of action: importance, vulnerabilities and priorities 10 June 2011 The main purpose of this review is to support least-developed countries (LDC), development partners and donors in planning and implementing climate change adaptation actions for the fisheries and aquaculture sector. In particular, it is aimed at the LDCs eligible for support from the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) (operated by the Global Environment Facility [GEF]), the GEF and its Agencies and the United Nations [more]
Climate Change Financing - What are the Challenges and opportunities for financing agriculture in Africa? 3 May 2011 This paper aims at providing a global overview of agriculture activities that contribute to coping with climate change in Africa and how to reach climate change financing. It highlights the main conditions required to access climate change financing, the different financing available in Africa, some practical examples, and the remaining challenges towards a greening of agriculture. [more]
Mainstreaming Carbon Balance Appraisal in Agriculture: Ex-Act a tool to measure the carbon-balance 3 May 2011 This paper analyses the current context in which carbon balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) indicators face growing interest in agriculture development. It highlights the multi-objective significance of carbon balance and multi benefits of improved carbon soil in terms of mitigation, adaptation, cropping systems and local community resilience building. It proposes that Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) be used as the Agri-Environmental indicator in agriculture policy monitoring for developing countries and carbon balance as performance indicator in policy analysis. It also presents EX-ACT as the specific tool to allow for a quick appraisal of the potential mitigation impacts of agricultural investment projects, available to donors and planning officers, project designers and decision makers within agriculture and forestry sectors in developing countries. [more]
Climate Change and Agriculture Policies - How far should we look for synergy building between agriculture development and climate mitigation 3 May 2011 This paper aims at providing a more objective vision of advantages and drawbacks highlighted thinking on the link between climate change and development. The agriculture sector is part of the solution to cope with climate change and can be remunerated through climate change funds. Its impacts can be appraised through the carbon balance appraisal thanks to several tools and methodologies. [more]
On solid ground - Addressing land tenure issues following natural disasters 21 March 2011 This publication contains national briefs analysing natural disasters occurred in the past 10 to 15 years and the land tenure lessons learned in Indonesia, Bangladesh, Mozambique, Philippines, Ecuador and Honduras. For the analysis the briefs describe the land tenure context in the country as well as the socioeconomic conditions of the people affected by the natural disaster. Finally the briefs identify lessons learned which can be very useful to consider when dealing with natural disasters management, prevention and mitigation programmes in the concerning countries. The publication is the result of a joint initiative between FAO, UN-HABITAT, Early Recovery Cluster of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee working on emergency operations, and the Global Land Tools Network. [more]
Land tenure and natural disasters - Addressing land tenure in countries prone to natural disasters 21 March 2011 This publication analyses land tenure issues in the framework of natural disasters management policies and programmes in Mozambique, Bangladesh, Philippines and Ecuador. The publication is useful for these and other countries and professionals trying to include land tenure issues into their country disaster risk management systems. Moreover due to the few literature and data that examine the direct impacts and effects of natural hazards on land tenure at national and local level, this publication can be an interesting contribution. The publication is the result of a joint initiative between FAO, UN-HABITAT, Early Recovery Cluster of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee working on emergency operations, and the Global Land Tools Network. [more]
Promoting the Growth and Development of Smallholder Seed Enterprises for Food Security Crops 16 March 2011 The performance of agriculture should ensure food security and provide a strong economic base. Towards this aim, improved seeds have been widely recognized as a key ingredient for enhancing farm productivity and overall crop production and thereby attaining the goal of food security. However, medium to large private companies, so far, do not effectively produce and distribute seeds of most major non-hybrid food security crops in developing countries. Case studies undertaken in Africa, Asia and Latin America indicate that smallholder seed enterprises could provide a valid alternative if supported. This publication aims at raising the awareness of decision makers and provides guidelines of best practices and policy options for promoting and supporting the growth and development of smallholder seed enterprises. [more]
Gardens of Biodiversity 16 March 2011 Gardens of biodiversity highlights the importance of maintaining the genetic resources of the Southern Caucasus and integrating state-of-the-art information and technologies with the traditional practices that proved to be so efficient in the past. It illustrates how a close, detailed study of local agro-ecological and social conditions can contribute to identify solutions for global problems, and how it is possible to build on the knowledge and selection of the best local resources and practices and efficient technologies to transform agriculture for sustainable development. [more]
State of the World's Forests 2011 3 February 2011 The ninth biennial issue of State of the World’s Forests, published at the outset of 2011, the International Year of Forests, considers the theme ‘Changing pathways, changing lives: forests as multiple pathways to sustainable development’. It takes a holistic view of the multiple ways in which forests support livelihoods. The chapters assembled for this year’s State of the World’s Forests highlight four key areas that warrant greater attention: regional trends on forest resources; the development of sustainable forest industries; climate change mitigation and adaptation; and the local value of forests. Considered together, these themes provide insights on the true contribution of forests to the creation of sustainable livelihoods and alleviation of poverty. [more]
Forests and Climate Change in the Near East Region 14 January 2011 The primary objective of this FAO, Forests and Climate Change Working Paper is to provide an overview of the actual and potential impact of climate change on forests and forest dependent people in the Near East region, of climate change mitigation opportunities in the forestry sector, and of needs for effective national and regional responses. [more]
Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture: Contributing to food security and sustainability in a changing world 3 January 2011 This report reflects the conclusions of the Workshop and the analysis undertaken by FAO and Platform for Agrobiodiversity Research (PAR) in 2010. The Workshop explored the different challenges that confronted agriculture and the options that existed or could be developed that would be needed to meet the challenges of feeding the world, coping with climate change and improving impact of agriculture on the environment. [more]
Building resilence to climate change 21 December 2010 This Food Security Toolkit, designed specifically for Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), aims to improve Pacific Islanders ability to produce and access safe and nutritious foods that meet their dietary and cultural needs. Targeting food security in the Pacific region is a critical action in the face of climate change, which will continue to place added pressure on existing food and water resources. The ultimate aim of the toolkit is to help ensure that Pacific Island communities continue to produce and have access to a wide range of nutritious food for the dinner plate and market place. [more]
“Climate-Smart” Agriculture 30 November 2010 This paper examines some of the key technical, institutional, policy and financial responses required to achieve climate-smart agriculture which sustainably increases productivity, resilience (adaptation), reduces/removes Greenhouse Gases (mitigation), and enhances achievement of national food security and development goals. Building on case studies from the field, the paper outlines a range of practices, approaches and tools aimed at increasing the resilience and productivity of agricultural production systems, while also reducing and removing emissions. The second part of the paper surveys institutional and policy options available to promote the transition to climate‐smart agriculture at the smallholder level. Finally, the paper considers current financing gaps and makes innovative suggestions regarding the combined use of different sources, financing mechanisms and delivery systems. [more]
MICCA-series 2: Agriculture, forestry and other land use database 29 November 2010 Land use projects are especially exposed to the insecurities regarding the future of international climate change regulations. Therefore, it is imperative that the long term structures of the climate change framework are settled as soon as possible, including the reconsideration of the existing crediting schemes as the appropriate remuneration approach for AFOLU projects in developing countries. This second publication in the MICCA series aims to set the global agricultural mitigation survey (as presented in the first publication) in context. The AFOLU MP database is a compilation of publicly available data on mitigation projects in agriculture and forestry, and this paper describes, first, the analysis and output of the database and, second, which implications can be derived for the development of mitigation activities in agriculture and forestry. [more]
FAO Forestry Paper 162-What woodfuels can do to mitigate climate change 4 November 2010 Climate change can be mitigated in several ways, but most strategies emphasize reducing greenhouse gas emissions by reducing energy use and switching to energy sources that are less carbon intensive than fossil fuels. This publication explores the scope, potential and implications for using woodfuels to replace fossil fuels and thereby contribute to climate change mitigation. It analyses the current woodfuel offset mechanisms in place and their relative emission reduction potentials. The scope is limited to solid woodfuels (fuelwood, charcoal, prepared biomass such as woodchips and pellets, and recovered products or residues from wood processing industries). However, some themes covered will be applicable to all woodfuels, notably the socio-economic and environmental impacts, financing options and overall development implications of more intensive and efficient use of woodfuels. The publication will be of interest to specialists and policy-makers in forestry, climate change and renewable energy, as well as to forest managers, students and general audiences interested in learning more about the role of forests in energy production and the resulting mitigation potential. [more]
Integrated Crop Management Vol. 9 - 2010 - Challenges and opportunities for carbon sequestration in grassland systems 22 October 2010 Practices that sequester carbon in grasslands can enhance productivity, and policies designed to encourage these practices could lead to near-term dividends in greater forage production and enhanced producer incomes. This report reviews the current status of opportunities and challenges for grassland carbon sequestration and identifies components that could foster the inclusion of grasslands in future climate agreements to enhance longer term adaptation to climate variability. It includes a policy brief to assist policy-makers in their development plans. [more]
Farmers in a changing climate. Does gender matter? 8 October 2010 This report presents the findings of research undertaken in six villages in two drought-prone districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, Mahbubnagar and Anantapur1. The study, carried out by an international team led by FAO, used gender, institutional, and climate analyses to document the trends in climate variability men and women farmers are facing and their responses to ensure food security in the context of larger socio-economic and political challenges to their livelihoods and well-being. [more]
Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 5 October 2010 The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010) is the most comprehensive assessment of forests and forestry to date - not only in terms of the number of countries and people involved - but also in terms of scope. It examines the current status and recent trends for about 90 variables covering the extent, condition, uses and values of forests and other wooded land, with the aim of assessing all benefits from forest resources. Information has been collated from 233 countries and territories for four points in time: 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010. The results are presented according to the seven thematic elements of sustainable forest management. FAO worked closely with countries and specialists in the design and implementation of FRA 2010 - through regular contact, expert consultations, training for national correspondents and ten regional and subregional workshops. More than 900 contributors were involved, including 178 officially nominated national correspondents and their teams. The outcome is better data, a transparent reporting process and enhanced national capacity in developing countries for data analysis and reporting. The final report of FRA 2010 was published at the start of the latest biennial meeting of the FAO' Committee on Forestry and World Forest Week, in Rome. [more]
Impact of climate change and bioenergy on nutrition 21 September 2010 Food security has deteriorated since 1995 and reductions in child malnutrition are proceeding too slowly to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for halving hunger by 2015. Three major challenges threaten to drastically complicate efforts to overcome food insecurity and malnutrition: climate change, the growing use of food crops as a source of fuel and soaring food prices. Food security has four dimensions: food availability, access to food, stability of supply and access and safe and healthy food utilization. It is a key factor in good nutrition, along with health, sanitation and care practices. Globally, one billion people are currently without access to safe water and over 2 billion lack adequate sanitation facilities. [more]
MICCA Series 1 - Global survey of agricultural mitigation projects 8 September 2010 This global survey of agricultural mitigation projects provides a summary of the state-of-the-art of different projects currently developed in this sector. It contains data on 50 agricultural projects focusing on climate change, of which 22 were developed specifically with a greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation objective. The data on the projects were submitted to an online survey in April 2010. The inventory is by no means meant to provide a complete picture of all currently developed agricultural mitigation projects, but rather aims to provide an overview of the status of activities within this field. The analysis reflects on the focus of these projects, their objectives and main activities, the entry points for their establishment, as well as the management of the carbon benefits. More in-depth information is provided on 22 case studies. The report contributes to the current discussion on finding ways to integrate smallholder farmers into agricultural mitigation activities, and calls for developing financial mechanisms that could facilitate the transformation of current agricultural systems to climate-smart agriculture. [more]
31 August 2010 Lessons from the field provides an overview of experiences from 12 projects and programmes across Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Each case addresses an aspect of climate change adaptation and mitigation, disaster risk management and food security in the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors. The documented experiences range between issues of (i) project design, (ii) technologies/methodologies, (iii) data needs and (iv) capacity development and coordination. [more]
No 37 - Household level impacts of increasing food prices in Cambodia 13 August 2010 There has been widespread concern regarding the surge in staple prices over the last few years and developments have been widely recognized, although to a varying degree, as one of the recent price surge and increased price volatility. Within the Asian context, food security conditions are mostly related to rice production and the price of rice. The analysis presented in this paper sheds light on the impacts of the increase in the prices of key food staples on different household groups and identifies the vulnerable segments of the population. The analysis shows that generally Cambodia gains from an increase in the price of rice although particular segments of the poor stand to lose. The analysis concludes that from a food security perspective, the price of rice should be monitored closely while considering the identified vulnerable household groups. [more]
No 35 - Bioenergy and Food Security. The BEFP Analysis for Tanzania 12 August 2010 Bioenergy developments are high on the gendas of many countries today in an effort to improve energy access, energy security and in the context of concerted efforts towards lowering global greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, bioenergy offers enormous potential to boost agricultural growth. Decades of inadequate public investment has resulted in a stagnant sector characterized by declining productivity with serious implications for longterm food production. Biofuel developments in Tanzania could provide an important vehicle through which to revitalize agriculture by bringing a variety of investments needed to boost productivity. However, although the arguments for promoting bioenergy are strong, over time serious concerns about the environmental and social feasibility and sustainability of bioenergy have arisen, especially with first generation bioenergy. [more]
Data, Tools and Methods for climate impact assessment in agriculture and planning of climate change adaptation practices 13 July 2010 Brochure on data, tools and methods for climate impact assessment in agriculture and planning of climate change adaptation practices. FAO Climate Offer. [more]
Impact of the global forest industry on atmospheric greenhouse gases 6 July 2010 This new FAO forestry publication examines the complex connections between the global forest products industry and the global carbon cycle, with the objective of characterizing the carbon footprint of the sector. The analysis finds that the industry’s main sources of emissions are manufacturing and disposal of used products in landfills. Data from some countries suggest that sustainable forest management practices can be effective in keeping forest carbon stocks stable over time. Indirect greenhouse gas benefits resulting from the activities or products of the forest products industry, while difficult to measure, can be large and could be increased. [more]
Estimating Mitigation Potential of Agricultural Projects: an Application of the EX-Ante Carbon-balance Tool (EX-ACT) in Brazil 24 June 2010 Agriculture can play an important role in climate change mitigation while contributing to increased food security and reductions in rural poverty. The EX-Ante Carbon-balance Tool(EX-ACT) can estimate the mitigation potential of rural development projects generated from changes in farming systems and land use. The study presents and discusses the EX-ACT analysis performed on two World Bank-supported projects in Brazil (Santa Catarina RuralCompetitiveness and Rio de Janeiro Sustainable Rural Development). The projected estimates of the impact of project activities on green house gas emissions and Carbon sequestration demonstrate the additional environmental benefits achieved through protecting forested areas(riparian zones, ecological corridors), enhancing production systems (promotion of improved cropland and grasslands management) and expanding agro-forestry and perennial systems. The study demonstrated possible synergies between mitigation and rural development goalswhile the EX-ACT sensitivity analysis has indicated that projected results will be intermediate between “pessimistic” and “optimistic” scenarios. Cost-benefit analysis showed that both projects would generate environmental benefits associated with climate change mitigation.However, the Santa Catarina Rural Competitiveness project demonstrated higher mitigation potential, a result primarily due to the size of the project area and the nature of thedevelopment activities, thus providing a better opportunity to be eventually considered for public co-financing for low-Carbon agriculture. [more]
Forests and Climate Change after Copenhagen-An Asia-Pacific perspective 8 June 2010 The 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was held 7-18 December 2009, in Copenhagen, Denmark. The spotlight fell on forests, forestry and REDD+ and although no legally binding agreement was reached, some significant outcomes were achieved. Following Copenhagen, forestry stakeholders in the Asia-Pacific have raised many questions about the meaning of COP 15 for people, forests, and forestry.In this context, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in collaboration with RECOFTC – The Center for People and Forests, convened a meeting on 3 February 2010, in Bali, Indonesia. The meeting had two aims:1. To discuss and answer questions that forest stakeholders have been asking following the COP15 negotiations.2. To debate the key issues that foresters and forestry institutions will face in developing climate change policies and strategies.Twelve regional and international experts attended, along with 29 observers affiliated with the Responsible Asia Forestry and Trade Program’s REDD Learning Network.1 This report presents the experts’ answers to a dozen key questions. [more]
Datasets for use in the IPCC Guidelines 19 May 2010 IPCC Guidelines provide the methodological guidance for countries to report their annual inventories of greenhouse gas emissions and removals to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The methods contained in the IPCC Guidelines differ in their complexity ranging from the simplest Tier 1 method that are based on globally or regionally applicable default parameters; through Tier 2 methods based on country specific data; to Tier 3 methods involving more detailed modelling and/or inventory based approaches. Agriculture Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) presents a unique challenge to the inventory compilers especially from developing countries due to the paucity of national data. [more]
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Dairy Sector - A Life Cycle Assessment 20 April 2010 This study assesses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the global dairy cattle sector. The overall goal of this report is to provide estimates of GHG emissions associated with milk production and processing for main regions and farming systems of the world. These results will help to inform the public debate on GHG emissions, and will support research, development and extension efforts to improve the sustainability performance of dairy farming. [more]
Enduring Farms: Climate Change, Smallholders and Traditional Farming Communities. Environment and Development Series 6 30 March 2010 The threat of global climate change has caused concern among scientists as crop growth could be severely affected by changes in key climatic variables (i.e., rainfall and temperature) and agricultural production and food security could be affected both globally and locally. Although the effects of changes in climate on crop yields are likely to vary greatly from region to region, anticipated changes are expected to have large and far-reaching effects predominantly in tropical zones of the developing world with precipitation regimes ranging from semiarid to humid(Cline 2007). Hazards include increased flooding in low-lyingareas, greater frequency and severity of droughts in semiarid areas, and excessive heat conditions, all of which can limit crop growth and yields. [more]
26 March 2010 The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010) is the most comprehensive assessment of forests and forestry to date - not only in terms of the number of countries and people involved - but also in terms of scope. It examines the current status and recent trends for about 90 variables covering the extent, condition, uses and values of forests and other wooded land, with the aim of assessing all benefits from forest resources. Information has been collated from 233 countries and territories for four points in time: 1990, 2000, 2005 and 2010. The results are presented according to the seven thematic elements of sustainable forest management. [more]
Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change in Post-Copenhagen Processes - A FAO Information Note 15 March 2010 A dedicated drafting group was established within FAO to negotiate a text on “Cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions in agriculture”, under a broader chapter on mitigation. While only a limited number of Parties have made submissions in response to the Copenhagen Accord, the proportion of these that included agriculture may be an indicator that this sector is likely to become an important component of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in developing countries. [more]
Carbon Finance Possibilities for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects in a Smallholder Context 9 March 2010 This guide is intended to direct extension service advisors and institutions who work with small‐scale farmers and foresters with an interest in Carbon Finance and Carbon Projects. Its aim is to support setting‐up carbon projects involving small‐scale farmers. Their participation allows them to be involved in the development and implementation of the projects, influence the design of the project to generate positive impacts for the farmers and increase their knowledge about carbon finance. [more]
Food Security and Agricultural Mitigation in Developing Countries:Options for Capturing Synergies 6 January 2010 Two key challenges facing humanity today stem from changes within global food and climate systems. The 2008 food price crisis and global warming have brought food security and climate change to the top of the international agenda. Agriculture plays a significant role in both, and these two challenges must be addressed together rather than in isolation from each other. Farmers will need to feed a projected population of 9.1 billion in 2050. Meeting this demand together with challenges from climate change, bioenergy and land degradation puts enormous pressure on the agricultural sector to provide food, feed and fibre as well as income, employment and other essential ecosystem services. [more]
Harvesting agriculture’s multiple benefits: Mitigation, Adaptation, Development and Food Security 6 January 2010 Farming practices, which capture carbon and store it in agricultural soils, offer some of the most promising options for cost effective, early action on climate change in developing countries. These practices are already available and can have multiple benefits for climate change mitigation, adaptation, sustainable development and food security.To accelerate mitigation and adaptation action, climate financing mechanisms need to target agriculture, reward synergistic action and leverage investment for up-scaling. [more]
Organic Agriculture and Carbon Sequestration 5 January 2010 This document discusses the opportunities and constrains of carbon accounting for organic agriculture management in developed and developing countries. Recent studies have highlighted the substantial contribution of organic agriculture to climate change mitigation and adaptation (Niggli et al., 2009; Scialabba and Muller-Lindenlauf, 2010, in print). The potential of organic agriculture to mitigate climate change is mostly claimed on the basis of assumptions concerning the soil carbon sequestration potential of organic management. [more]
Climate change implications for fisheries and aquaculture 14 December 2009 An overview of the current scientific knowledge available on climate change implications for fisheries and aquaculture is provided through three technical papers that were presented and discussed during the Expert Workshop on Climate Change Implications for Fisheries and Aquaculture (Rome, 7–9 April 2008). A summary of the workshop outcomes as well as key messages on impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystems and on fisheries- and aquaculture-based livelihoods are provided in the introduction of this Technical Paper. [more]
FAO Profile for Climate Change 3 December 2009 With this Profile for Climate Change, FAO outlines its priorities for its current and future work on climate change. FAO’s work focuses on adaptation mitigation agricultural sectors and advocates for better management synergies trade-offs among both. It also points to the areas where adaptation mitigation activities merge with ongoing development efforts to improve sustainable use of natural resources for increased production, income, food security and rural development. [more]
Sustainable management of forests and REDD+ 30 November 2009 The scope of a REDD+ instrument is a key issue in the negotiations leading up to UNFCCC’s COP15 in Copenhagen in December 2009. There is still no clear consensus among Parties on what activities should or should not be eligible for incentives under a REDD+ instrument. There are, however, signs that the lack of a common understanding of the terms “sustainable management of forests” and “sustainable forest management (SFM)” is confusing the debate. [more]
Climate Change and Food Security in the Pacific - Policy Brief 25 November 2009 This brief has been prepared for the UN Convention on Climate Change meeting in Copenhagen, December 2009, to raise awareness of the imminent impacts of climate change on food security in Pacific island countries and territories and to urge participants to consider the importance of mainstreaming food security in climate-related policies, strategies and programmes. By providing a snapshot of the imminent impacts of climate change on food security in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), this report illustrates the need to combat climate-related vulnerability through the effective implementation of National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs). It also advocates “climate proofing” existing food security initiatives and broadening the NAPA process to include all PICTs. [more]
Voluntary Guidelines for Good Governance in Land and Natural Resource Tenure - Civil Society Perspectives. Land Tenure Working Paper 8. 6 November 2009 This paper articulates the views and demands of marginalised groups regarding the tenure of land and other natural resources. It points out the importance of adopting human rights framework when developing Voluntary Guidelines. Such framework means addressing the unequal relationships of power and corruption within and behind prevailing land tenure structures. It makes the governance of tenure of land and other natural resources more accountable, transparent, democratic and participatory. [more]
Towards National Financing Strategies for Sustainable Forest Management in Latin America: Overview of the Present Situation and the Experience in Selected Countries 1 September 2009 An analysis of existing forest financing mechanisms in Latin America, a region that has become the leader in the development and implementation of innovative forest financing mechanisms. The analysis led to a better understanding of the range of existing resources and mechanisms available for the financing of SFM, the possibilities of finding alternative forms of financing and the steps to be taken in order to maximize the effectiveness ofexisting ones. The present study provides a synthesis of the information and experience obtained, followed by a resulting series of key messages. [more]
Assessment of energy and greenhouse gas inventories of Sweet Sorghum for first and second generation bioethanol 11 August 2009 The assessment of energy and greenhouse gas balances is part of a larger effort by UN-Energy to provide decision-making tools and aids to Governments and others involved in the planning and implementation of bioenergy development. The report’s choice of tools is based on the international state of discussions at the time of writing and presents a building block to the Environmental Assessment Framework currently under development at FAO. The study focuses on three main topics: a) The energy and greenhouse gas balances of different Sweet Sorghum pathways; b) Additional environmental impacts from the cultivation of Sweet Sorghum are examined qualitatively; c) Sweet Sorghum is compared to other biofuel crops. [more]
FAO and traditional knowledge: The linkages with sustainability, food security and climate change impacts 17 July 2009 FAO has included traditional and local knowledge and activities in policies, programmes and projects related to a wide range of issues, including farmers’ rights, poverty alleviation, nutrition and health, and gender equity, among many others. More recently, it has used traditional knowledge to tackle the emerging problems of soaring food prices and climate change. Traditional farming, fishing, pastoralism/herding, foraging and forestry are based on long established knowledge and practices that help to ensure food and agricultural diversity, valuable landscape and seascape features, livelihoods and food security. However, traditional livelihoods and indigenous plant varieties, landraces and animal breeds are now increasingly endangered by large-scale commercialization of agriculture, population dynamics, land-use/cover changes and the impacts of climate change. FAO is developing innovative projects that support the use of traditional knowledge to promote rural development, gender equity, conservation of biocultural diversity, and sustainable management of agro-ecosystems, among others. At the same time, the projects seek to manage the risks to food and agriculture that result from natural and human-induced disasters, climate change impacts, soaring food prices and other emerging issues. FAO is also promoting international and interdisciplinary collaboration to strengthen the interface between traditional knowledge and cutting-edge science and technology, to help maintain and enhance the world’s food and agricultural diversity and sustainability. [more]
Low Greenhouse Gas Agriculture. Mitigation and adaptation potential of sustainable farming systems 8 July 2009 Is low greenhouse gas emission (GHG) agriculture possible? Is it, in fact, desirable? In seeking answers to these two basic but extremely relevant questions, this study examines current farming practices and incorporates scientific databases from long‑term field experiments as case studies for low GHG agriculture. Further, the study examines the changes that will be needed for low greenhouse gas agriculture systems to become a reality. It also elucidates the adaptive capacity of agro-ecological farming system approaches, using organic system case studies from the scientific literature. [more]
State of the World’s Forests 2009 6 July 2009 State of the World’s Forests 2009 provides a global view of major developments affecting forests and examines some key questions of the forestry sector. What will be the impact on forests of future increases in global population, economic development and globalization? Is the explosion in global trade having positive or negative effects on the world’s forests? Will the forest sector continue to have a major role in providing livelihoods for rural communities? It is intended to serve as a source of information to support policy and research related to forests, and should help stimulate creative thinking and debate about the future of the world’s forests. [more]
Small-scale bioenergy initiatives. Brief description and preliminary lessons on livelihood impacts from case studies in Asia, Latin America and Africa 25 May 2009 This report is based on a series of 15 international case studies conducted between September and November 2008 under a joint initiative of FAO and the Policy Innovation Systems for Clean Energy Security (PISCES) Energy Research Programme Consortium funded by DFID. The case studies focussed on developing an improved understanding of the linkages between Livelihoods and Small-Scale Bioenergy Initiatives. The study was developed in consultation with the PISCES Consortium Advisory Group. This is made up of leading international participants in the field of energy and development, including members from the IEA, UNEP, ENERGIA, DFID and FAO, as well as policymakers and research organisations in the PISCES target countries of India, Kenya, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. The focus of the study was on the impacts that different types of local level Bioenergy initiatives can have on Rural Livelihoods in different contexts in the developing world. Livelihoods are understood as the enhancement of the full range of natural, financial, human, social and physical capitals on a sustainable ongoing basis. [more]
Good practice examples for disaster risk reduction in Cuban agriculture 25 May 2009 Assistance to Improve Local Agricultural Emergency Preparedness in Caribbean Countries Highly Prone to Hurricane Related Disasters (TCP/ RLA/3101). The vulnerability of the Caribbean region to hydro- meteorological hazards such as hurricanes, floods, drought, high magnitude rainfall and related hazards such landslides is underscored. The recurrent impacts of these events have wreaked havoc on environment, economy and society throughout the region. Although the contribution of agriculture to Caribbean regional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has steadily declined over the last two decades, this sector has remained a major employer of labour and as such a main player in the livelihood profile of the region. The extreme vulnerability of the agricultural sector to a variety of hazards/disaster has been a perpetual focus of hazard/disaster management and interventions in the Caribbean. Over the past decade, the FAO has regular responded to the relief/rehabilitation/reconstruction needs of the sector in the aftermath of hurricane-related disasters. [more]
The State of the World's Forests 2009 26 March 2009 The State of the World's Forests reports on the status of forests, recent major policy and institutional developments and key issues concerning the forest sector. It makes current, reliable and policy-relevant information widely available to facilitate informed discussion and decision-making with regard to the world's forests. [more]
Adapting to climate change - Unasylva No. 231/232 26 March 2009 The question of how forests and forest-dependent people will adapt to climate change is a growing area of research and has been at the heart of a number of recent conferences. One of these, the international conference on Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Changing Climate with Emphasis on Forest Health: A Review of Science, Policies and Practices (Umeå, Sweden, August 2008), spawned the contents of this special double issue of Unasylva. The conference, organized by FAO, the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, brought together over 300 researchers, managers and decision-makers from 50 countries. [more]
Terrestrial Essential Climate Variables for Climate Change Assessment, Mitigation and Adaptation 16 March 2009 GTOS 52 - Biennial Report Supplement. The 2007 IPCC assessment unequivocally states that humans have significantly changed the composition of the atmosphere and that, as a result, our climate is changing. To be able to attribute the causes of climate change, analyse the potential impacts, evaluate the adaptation options and enable characterization of extreme events such as floods, droughts and heat waves, globally consistent sets of observational data are needed. Without such baseline data it will not be possible develop the products needed by policy and other stakeholders [more]
Climate Change and Food Security in Pacific Island countries 30 January 2009 With increasing global temperatures, rising sea levels and more frequent and intense extreme weather events, Pacific islands countries, especially those in warmer latitudes, are the most vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Their populations are expected to be among the first that will need to adapt to climate change or even abandon their traditional homeland and relocate. Unless we act now, climate change will constitute a major barrier to the achievement of sustainable development and viable food production goals for all Pacific island countries, while threatening the very existence of many of them. [more]
CPF - Strategic framework for forests and climate change 30 January 2009 The Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF) has prepared this document to support theUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process, particularly theBali Action Plan, as well as the Non-Legally Binding Instrument on All Types of Forests ofthe United Nations Forum on Forests and other agreements, and in response to the need forconcerted action on forests and climate change. It lays the groundwork for a coordinatedresponse from the forest sector to climate change, notably through the widespread adoptionof sustainable forest management and its integration into broader development strategies. [more]
Climate change and food security: a framework document - Summary 29 January 2009 From a food security perspective, the most immediate risks arising because of climate change are from extreme events. Significant changes in climatic conditions have an impact on agricultural production and affect all components of global, national and local food systems, with consequent disruption of food supply chains. This framework document takes a wider view at the problem by examining the effects of global warming and climate change on food systems and food security. It also proposes climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies in the main areas with an importance for food security. [more]
Community based adaptation in Action. A case study from Bangladesh. 29 January 2009 In 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) initiated a project at the requestof the Bangladesh government that was designed to improve the adaptive capacities of rural populations and their resilience to drought and other climate change impacts implemented under the Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management Programme (CDMP), by the Department ofAgricultural Extension (DAE), and in collaboration with the Departments of Fisheries, Livestock and Forestry and national research institutes. This report provides a summary of the working approach developed and tested to promote community-based adaptation within agriculture. It presents lessons learned from the implementation process as well as the details of good practice options for drought risk management in the context of climate change. [more]
The State of Food and Agriculture 2008. Biofuels: prospects, risks and opportunities 29 January 2009 The implications of the recent rapid growth in production of biofuels based on agricultural commodities. The boom in liquid biofuels has been largely induced by policies in developed countries [more]
Climate Change & Food Security: a Framework Document. 29 January 2009 Until recently, most assessments of the impact of climate change on the food and agriculture sector have focused on the implications for production and global supply of food, with less consideration of other components of the food chain. This paper takes a broader view and explores the multiple effects that global warming and climate change could have on food systems and food security. It also suggests strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change in several key policy domains of importance for food security. [more]
The State of Food and Agriculture 2007: Paying farmers for environmental services 29 January 2009 The State of Food and Agriculture 2007 explores the potential for agriculture to provide enhanced levels of environmental services alongside the production of food and fibre. The report concludes that demand for environmental services from agriculture – including climate change mitigation, improved watershed management and biodiversity preservation – will increase in the future, but better incentives to farmers are needed if agriculture is to meet this demand. As one among several other possible policy tools, payments to farmers for environmental services hold promise as a flexible approach to enhancing farmer incentives to sustain and improve the ecosystems on which we all depend [more]
The State of food and agriculture 2008. Biofuels: prospects, risks and opportunities 11 December 2008 The State of food and agriculture 2008 analyses the consequences of biofuels based on agricultural commodities’ rapid growth. The high demand for liquid biofuels has a major impact on global agricultural markets, on the environment and on food security. This new source of demand for agricultural commodities may offer an opportunity for developing countries to harness agricultural growth for broader rural development and poverty reduction. However, there is a risk that higher food prices may have severe negative implications for the food security of the world’s poorest people. In addition, demand for biofuels could place substantial additional pressure on the natural resource base, with potentially harmful environmental and social consequences. [more]
Climate change and food security in Pacific Island Countries 16 July 2008 With increasing global temperatures, rising sea levels and more frequent and intense extreme weather events, Pacific islands countries, especially those in warmer latitudes, are the most vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Their populations are expected to be among the first that will need to adapt to climate change or even abandon their traditional homeland and relocate. Unless we act now, climate change will constitute a major barrier to the achievement of sustainable development and viable food production goals for all Pacific island countries, while threatening the very existence of many of them. [more]
1 June 2008 This document analyzes the implications for land tenure and land policy of climate change. It assesses the implications of ongoing anthropogenic climate change resulting from greenhouse gas emissions for land tenure and the role that land policy can play in climate change adaptation planning in the developing world; it also sets out a simple framework for tracing the linkages between climate change, impacts on land use systems, and the land tenure implications, including those which result from adaptation and mitigation responses to global warming. [more]
Good practices for Risk Hazard Management in Cuban Agriculture 30 April 2008 The exposure of the Caribbean countries to weather-related disasters such as hurricanes, floods, droughts, heavy rain and landslide-related risks is underestimated. The impacts of these recurrent phenomena have caused extensive environmental, economic and social damages in the entire Caribbean region. Agriculture’s extreme vulnerability to a range of climate-related risks/disasters has always been a top priority of disaster management in the region. During the last decade, FAO has regularly responded to agriculture’s emergency and rehabilitation needs after hurricane-related disasters through its “Assistance to improve Local Agricultural Emergency Preparedness in Caribbean countries highly prone to hurricane-related disasters” (TCP/RLA/3101) by strengthening “institutional frameworks and technical options for hurricane-related disaster preparedness, emergency response and post-emergency agricultural assistance”. [more]