Pêches

© FAO/13488/I. De Borhegyi

Les pêches et l’aquaculture ont un rôle important à jouer pour la sécurité alimentaire et la création de revenus, car elles emploient plusieurs centaines de millions de pêcheurs, pisciculteurs et ouvriers dans toutes les activités associées à ce secteur. Les aliments aquatiques fournissent 20% ou plus des apports moyens en protéines animales par habitant pour plus de 2,8 milliards de personnes, dont la majorité vit dans les pays en développement. Les impacts du changement climatique- réchauffement des océans, fleuves et lacs et modification des précipitations, de la salinité de l’eau et de l’acidité des océans, ainsi qu’accroissement des phénomènes météorologiques extrêmes- rendront plus incertaines les disponibilités de poisson pour les pêches de capture et l’aquaculture. La disponibilité de nourriture variera, positivement et négativement, en fonction des changements intervenant dans les habitats, les stocks et la répartition des espèces dans les écosystèmes continentaux, côtiers et marins. Des fluctuations plus fréquentes à long terme des environnements marins, telles que les phénomènes El Niño et les accroissements des phénomènes météorologiques extrêmes se répercuteront sur la stabilité des approvisionnements. Les risques accrus d’invasions d’espèces dus au changement climatique et de propagation de maladies transmises par des vecteurs pourraient mettre en péril la qualité des aliments. Toutefois, de nouvelles opportunités et impacts positifs (ex. dérivant des changements d’espèces et de nouveaux débouchés) feront également partie des transformations que l’avenir nous réserve.

Activités

Les activités de la FAO ont pour but d’accroître la capacité d’adaptation des communautés dépendantes des pêches et de l’aquaculture et de réduire l’empreinte carbone du secteur par la promotion de pratiques de gestion améliorées. Les principaux domaines d’activités sont les suivants:

  • Collection et diffusion de données et d’informations sur les impacts du changement climatique sur les pêches, l’aquaculture et les moyens d’existence qui en dépendent;
  • Élaboration et diffusion de lignes d’orientation afin de promouvoir des approches écosystémiques de pêche et d’aquaculture, de gestion intégrée du littoral, et de gestion adaptative en conditions d’incertitude;
  • Orientations techniques sur les technologies appropriées de pêche et d’aquaculture (ex. espèces résistantes) et d’agriculture intégrée (ex. pisciculture);
  • Sensibilisation à l’importance du secteur pour les moyens d’existence et la sécurité alimentaire;
  • Mise au mettre au point de stratégies, priorités et politiques nationales et régionales sur le changement climatique et la sécurité alimentaire; et -Promotion d’une coordination intersectorielle (technique, sociale, politique, juridique et institutionnelle).

Publications

Climate-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook 24 July 2013 There has been a rapid uptake of the term Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) by the international community, national entities and local institutions, in the past years. However, implementing this approach is challenging, partly due to a lack of tools and experience. Climate-smart interventions are highly location-specific and knowledge-intensive. Considerable efforts are required to develop the knowledge and capacities to make CSA a reality. The purpose of the sourcebook is to further elaborate the concept of CSA and demonstrate its potential, as well as its limitations. This sourcebook is a reference tool for planners, practitioners and policy makers working in agriculture, forestry and fisheries at national and subnational levels, dealing with the effects of climate change. [more]
Building resilience for adaptation to climate change in the agriculture sector 24 July 2013 Globally, climactic conditions are increasingly variable, and the intensity of their effects stronger. As climate change brings new uncertainties, risks and changes to already existing risks, one of the most efficient ways for agriculture to adapt is increasing its resilience. In April 2012, the joint FAO/OECD Workshop on “Building Resilience for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Agriculture Sector” was held to address these issues in different agro-ecological and socio-economic contexts, and to illustrate how building resilience is critical to adapting to climate change. The various sessions of the Workshop questioned the notion of resilience from very different angles, confronting concepts, specific risk management strategies, case studies and national policies, from different perspectives – biophysical, economic, or social and institutional – and at various scales, from farm and household to national and global. This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the Workshop, and the Workshop Summary. [more]
• Proceedings on priority adaptations to climate change for Pacific fisheries and aquaculture 24 July 2013 • Proceedings on priority adaptations to climate change for Pacific fisheries and aquaculture

This publication includes: (i) a summary of the technical presentations provided to the Workshop participants on the implications of climate change for Pacific fisheries and aquaculture; and (ii) the outcomes of discussions by participants on the priority adaptations that Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs) can implement to reduce risks and take advantage of opportunities. The Workshop was hosted by Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) as the culmination of 3.5 years of work to assess the vulnerability of Pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change. It also formed part of a series of climate change awareness-raising and adaptation planning workshops around the globe financed through a Japanese-funded, and FAO-implemented, project “Climate Change, Fisheries and Aquaculture: Understanding the Consequences as a Basis for Planning and Implementing Suitable Responses and Adaptation Strategies” (GCP/INT/253/JPN). The technical presentations and range of possible adaptations and supporting policies presented were based on SPC publications. Discussions focused on priority adaptations for economic development and government revenue, food security and sustainable livelihoods for Melanesian, Micronesian and Polynesian nations. The adaptations identified reflect the different fisheries participation rates and importance of fish to economic development and as a source of local food and income in these different regions. The Workshop discussions recommended immediate action by all PICTs to manage fisheries resources sustainably now and into the future, to establish systems to minimize impacts of various drivers facing the sector now and from future climate change, and to capitalize on opportunities. Cooperation between PICTs and partnerships among governments, regional and international organizations and communities were highlighted as important ways to implement effective adaptation.

Johnson, J., Bell, J. & De Young, C. 2013. Priority adaptations to climate change for Pacific fisheries and aquaculture: reducing risks and capitalizing on opportunities. FAO/Secretariat of the Pacific Community Workshop, 5–8 June 2012, Noumea, New Caledonia. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceedings No. 28. Rome, FAO. 109 pp.


[more]
Fuel savings for small fishing vessels 24 July 2013 Fuel savings for small fishing vessels

The recent sharp increase in the price of fuel has had a major impact on the economics of operating fishing vessels. Fishing boat owners and operators struggle to meet this challenge and ask what measures can be taken to reduce the heavy burden of increased fuel cost. Litres of fuel required per tonne of fish landed varies widely depending on the fish specia and fishing method used. Fuel saving methods have to be tailored to each fishing method and fishery. This manual aims to provide practical advice to fishing boat owners and crews, boatbuilders and boat designers and fisheries administrators on ways to reduce fuel costs. It focuses on small fishing boats measuring up to 16 m (50 ft) in length and operating at speeds of less than 10 knots. This covers the majority of the world's fishing boats. It also serves as a guide for those involved with fuel savings for small vessels used in support of aquaculture activities. The manual provides information to boat designers and boat builders on hull shape for low resistance and the selection of efficient propellers. The first chapters of this manual deal with fuel saving measures that can be taken on existing boats without incurring major investment costs. The most effective measures include reducing boat service speed, keeping the hull and propeller free from underwater fouling and maintaining the boat engine. It also suggests that changing fishing methods can save fuel. The final chapters of this manual provide information regarding the fuel savings that are possible by changing from a 2-stroke outboard engine to a diesel engine, installing a diesel engine, and using sail. Selecting economic engine power on the basis of the waterline length and the weight of the boat is discussed. Advice is given on the choice of gear reduction ratio and of propeller related to service speed, service power and propeller rpm. Data are provided to assist with the design of a new fuel-efficient boat and the selection of an optimum propeller. The information contained in this manual is accompanied by many illustrations to make the main points more easily understood. Detailed background information is provided in the appendices. The appendices also contain blank tables that may be used to calculate potential fuel savings, cost of engine operation, the weight of a boat and the diameter and pitch of a propeller.

Gulbrandsen, O. 2012. Fuel savings for small fishing vessels – a manual. Rome, FAO. 57 pp.


[more]


dernière mise à jour:  jeudi 17 octobre 2013