Latin America and the Caribbean
Climate change has forecasted impacts in Latin America and the Caribbean region such as: decrease in water supply and in consequence, the reduction of generation of hydro-electricity energy due to depletion of inter-tropical glaciers; severe reduction of precipitation in arid and semi-arid zones of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile; replacement of tropical forests with savannahs in the eastern Amazonia, and replacement of tropical forests at the Centre and South Mexico due to increase in temperature and reduction of soil water; adverse effects on coral reefs at the Mesoamerican region and distribution of fish populations at the Pacific Southeast coast, due to the increased sea surface temperature.
A climate change projection under the A2 scenario of the IPCC special report on emissions scenarios (SRES-IPCC) suggests that during the 2020 decade, between 7 and 77 millions of people in Latin America will suffer from water scarcity and lack of appropriate water supply, and between the years 2010 and 2050, 5 to 26 millions of people will experience hunger risks. The effects and disturbances that will affect the agro-ecosystems - due to the increase of desertification or to intensification of floods - will determine new and stronger pressure on natural resources, therefore reducing the surface designated to productive systems.
The thematic group for environmental sustainability of the FAO Regional office for Latin America and the Caribbean is developing several strategic initiatives and technologies for the sustainable intensification of the silvo-pastoralism production systems, taking into consideration bio-physical and socio-economic variables in order to assure provisions of food for human populations and facilitate investments in sustainable land management and natural resources, originating from appropriate policies respectful of economic, natural and social elements of the various sectors involved to guarantee a sustainable environment and reduction in poverty and hunger.
For more information
- FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribean
- FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribean (Environmental sustainability)