Uso de la tierra y cobertura del suelo

Physical and biological coverage of land as combinations of vegetation types, soils, water bodies or human relaed activities such as agriculture and built environments. Human modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as fields, pastures and settlements.
Keywords: grass, trees, bare ground, soil, water bodies,  fields, pastures, settlements, urban sprawl, land use change, land degradation, deforestation, landscape fragmentation, habitat loss.

Land use systems of the World - East Asia and Pacific 3 April 2009 Version 1 of a thematic grid of Land Use Systems (LUS) and its attributes for East Asia and Pacific with a spatial resolution of 5 arc minutes or 0.083333 decimal degrees. This dataset, presented as beta version, is developed in the framework of the LADA project (Land degradation Assessment in Drylands) by the Land Tenure and Management Unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and is copyright of FAO/UNEP GEF. The LUS map implementation is based on a innovative methodology combining more than 10 global datasets. [more]
Land Use Systems of the World - Western Europe 3 April 2009 Version 1 of a thematic grid of Land Use Systems (LUS) and its attributes for Western Europe with a spatial resolution of 5 arc minutes or 0.083333 decimal degrees. This dataset, presented as beta version, is developed in the framework of the LADA project (Land degradation Assessment in Drylands) by the Land Tenure and Management Unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and is copyright of FAO/UNEP GEF. The LUS map implementation is based on a innovative methodology combining more than 10 global datasets. [more]
Land use systems of the World - North Africa and Near East 3 April 2009 Version 1 of a thematic grid of Land Use Systems (LUS) and its attributes for North Africa and Near East with a spatial resolution of 5 arc minutes or 0.083333 decimal degrees. This dataset, presented as beta version, is developed in the framework of the LADA project (Land degradation Assessment in Drylands) by the Land Tenure and Management Unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and is copyright of FAO/UNEP GEF. The LUS map implementation is based on a innovative methodology combining more than 10 global datasets. [more]
Land use systems of the World - Australia and New Zealand 3 April 2009 Version 1 of a thematic grid of Land Use Systems (LUS) and its attributes for Australia and New Zealand with a spatial resolution of 5 arc minutes or 0.083333 decimal degrees. This dataset, presented as beta version, is developed in the framework of the LADA project (Land degradation Assessment in Drylands) by the Land Tenure and Management Unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and is copyright of FAO/UNEP GEF. The LUS map implementation is based on a innovative methodology combining more than 10 global datasets. [more]
Land Use Systems of the World - North America 3 April 2009 Version 1 of a thematic grid of Land Use Systems (LUS) and its attributes for North America with a spatial resolution of 5 arc minutes or 0.083333 decimal degrees. This dataset, presented as beta version, is developed in the framework of the LADA project (Land degradation Assessment in Drylands) by the Land Tenure and Management Unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and is copyright of FAO/UNEP GEF. The LUS map implementation is based on a innovative methodology combining more than 10 global datasets. [more]
Land Use Systems of the World - Latin America and Caribbean 3 April 2009 Version 1 of a thematic grid of Land Use Systems (LUS) and its attributes for Latin America and Caribbean with a spatial resolution of 5 arc minutes or 0.083333 decimal degrees. This dataset, presented as beta version, is developed in the framework of the LADA project (Land degradation Assessment in Drylands) by the Land Tenure and Management Unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and is copyright of FAO/UNEP GEF. The LUS map implementation is based on a innovative methodology combining more than 10 global datasets. [more]
Land use systems of the World - Sub-Saharan Africa 21 March 2009 Version 1 of a thematic grid of Land Use Systems (LUS) and its attributes for Sub-Saharan Africa with a spatial resolution of 5 arc minutes or 0.083333 decimal degrees. This dataset, presented as beta version, is developed in the framework of the LADA project (Land degradation Assessment in Drylands) by the Land Tenure and Management Unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and is copyright of FAO/UNEP GEF. The LUS map implementation is based on a innovative methodology combining more than 10 global datasets. [more]
Global Positive Trend of RUE-Adjusted NDVI (1981-2003) 22 October 2008 Land improvement, or bright spots, is preliminarily identified by 1) a positive trend in sum NDVI for those areas where NDVI does not depend on rainfall and 2) for areas where NDVI is correlated with rainfall, a positive trend in rain-use efficiency. This is so-called positive RUE-adjusted NDVI. The positive RUE-adjusted NDVI is further adjusted by a positive trend in energy-use efficiency, that is so-called climate-adjusted NDVI. [more]
Global Residual Trend of Sum NDVI (RESTREND) 1981-2003 22 October 2008 There is a significant negative correlation between RUE and rainfall and RUE fluctuates wildly from year to year so that RUE, used in isolation, says as much about rainfall variability as about land degradation. To avoid the correlations between RUE and rainfall, and to distinguish land degradation from the effects of rainfall variability, Wessels and others (2007) suggest the alternative use of Residual Trends (RESTREND). [more]
Global Negative Trend in RUE-adjusted NDVI (1981-2003) 22 October 2008 Land degradation means a loss of net primary productivity but a decrease in productivity is not necessarily land degradation. To distinguish between declining productivity caused by land degradation and decline due to other factors, it is necessary to eliminate false alarms arising from climatic variability and changes in land use and management. Rainfall variability has been taken into account by using both rain-use efficiency(RUE) and RESTREND. [more]
Global NPP Loss In The Degrading Areas (1981-2003) 22 October 2008 Land degradation means a loss of net primary productivity (NPP). To provide a more tangible measure of land degradation that may be subjected to economic analysis, the GIMMS data are translated to NPP using MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer) NPP data (Running and others 2004) for the overlapping period 2000-2003; this translation is approximate. A pixel-based NPP loss is estimated for the degrading areas identified by RUE-adjusted NDVI. [more]
Global Positive Trend of Climate-Adjusted NDVI (1981-2003) 22 October 2008 Land improvement, or bright spots, is identified by combination of: 1) a positive trend in sum NDVI for those areas where NDVI does not depend on rainfall; 2) for areas where NDVI is correlated with rainfall, a positive trend in rain-use efficiency; and 3) a positive trend in energy-use efficiency, i.e., climate-adjusted NDVI. [more]
Global Pattern, Trends and Confidence Levels of Annual Sum NDVI (1981-2003) 22 October 2008 The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data from July 1981 to December 2003 are produced by the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) group from measurements made by the AVHRR radiometer on board US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellites. The fortnightly images at 8km-spatial resolution are corrected for calibration, view geometry, volcanic aerosols, and other effects not related to vegetation cover (Tucker and others 2004). [more]
Global Correlation Between Annual Sum NDVI And Annual Rainfall 1981-2003 22 October 2008 In Global assessment of land degradation and improvement, rainfall variability is taken into account in two ways: by adjustment of NDVI/NPP for rain - use efficiency, and by calculation of residual trends of departures of observed NDVI from values predicted by the rainfall-NDVI relationship (RESTREND). In addition, NDVI/NPP was adjusted for energy-use efficiency using global temperature data. [more]
Global Pattern, Trends and Confidence Levels of NDVI Coefficient of Variation (1981-2003) 22 October 2008 Coefficient of variation (CoV) can be used to compare the amount of variation in different sets of sample data. NDVI CoV images were generated by computing for each pixel the standard deviation of the set of individual NDVI values and dividing this by the mean of these values. It is recommended that the maps should be considered in the field investigation - in particular the land use change during the study period (1981- 2003). [more]
Global Pattern, Trends and Confidence Levels of NDVI Standard Deviation (1981-2003) 22 October 2008 NDVI standard deviation is the root mean square deviation of the NDVI time series values (annual) from their arithmetic mean. It is recommended that the maps should be considered in the field investigation - in particular the land use change during the study period (1981-2003). [more]
Global Change in Rain-Use Efficiency 1981-2003 22 October 2008 Rain-use efficiency (RUE) is considered to make allowance for the effect of fluctuations in rainfall on biomass productivity. RUE may fluctuate dramatically in the short term - often, there is a sharp decline in RUE in a wet year and we assume that the vegetation, whether cultivated or semi-natural, cannot make immediate use of the additional rain. However, where rainfall is the main limiting factor on biomass productivity, we judge that the long-term trend of RUE is a good indicator of land degradation or improvement (Houerou 1984, 1988, 1989; Snyman 1998; Illius and O'Connor 1999; O'Connor and others 2001). [more]
Global Change In Net Primary Productivity (1981-2003) 22 October 2008 Land degradation is defined as a long-term decline in ecosystem function and measured in terms of net primary productivity(NPP). Long-term NPP measurement is not available; the remotely-sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used as a proxy; its deviation from the norm may serve as an indicator of land degradation and improvement if other factors that may be responsible (climate, soil, terrain and land use) are accounted for. NDVI is a ratio measuring of photosynthetically active green biomass. [more]
Land Use Systems of the World 9 April 2008 Version 1 of a thematic grid of Land Use Systems (LUS) and its attributes with a spatial resolution of 5 arc minutes or 0.083333 decimal degrees. This dataset, presented as beta version, is developed in the framework of the LADA project (Land degradation Assessment in Drylands) by the Land Tenure and Management Unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and is copyright of FAO/UNEP GEF. The LUS map implementation is based on a innovative methodology combining more than 10 global datasets. [more]
Land Use Systems of the World - East Europe and Central Asia 8 April 2008 Version 1 of a thematic grid of Land Use Systems (LUS) and its attributes for East Europe & Central Asia with a spatial resolution of 5 arc minutes or 0.083333 decimal degrees. This dataset, presented as beta version, is developed in the framework of the LADA project (Land degradation Assessment in Drylands) by the Land Tenure and Management Unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and is copyright of FAO/UNEP GEF. The LUS map implementation is based on a innovative methodology combining more than 10 global datasets. [more]
Land Use Systems of the World - South East Asia 8 April 2008 Version 1 of a thematic grid of Land Use Systems (LUS) and its attributes for South East Asia with a spatial resolution of 5 arc minutes or 0.083333 decimal degrees. This dataset, presented as beta version, is developed in the framework of the LADA project (Land degradation Assessment in Drylands) by the Land Tenure and Management Unit of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and is copyright of FAO/UNEP GEF. The LUS map implementation is based on a innovative methodology combining more than 10 global datasets. [more]
Projected expansion of cropland and pasture to lands poorly suited to rainfed agriculture, 2000-2010 25 June 2007 The map is a regional (Neotropics) raster data layer with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes. It gives an indication of areas of low agricultural suitability at risk of conversion to agriculture in parts of South America. Wassenaar et. al. (2006) identified the areas at highest risk of conversion to pasture and croplands, using a model that explicitly incorporates dimensions such as location, suitability and various factors affecting relative economic values of land uses. [more]
Projected expansion of cropland and pasture, 2000-2010 25 June 2007 The map is a regional (Neotropics) raster data layer with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes. The mapgives an indication of areas at risk of conversion to agriculture in parts of South America. Wassenaar et. al. (2006) identified the areas at highest risk of conversion to pasture and croplands, using a model that explicitly incorporates dimensions such as location, suitability and various factors affecting relative economic values of land uses. The map identifies deforestation hotspot areas (at risk of conversion to pasture and cropland). The data sources are from FAO. [more]
Farming system classes in developing and transition countries, 2000 (FGGD) 21 June 2007 The FGGD farming system classes map is a global raster datalayer with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes. Each pixel is classified as belonging to one of seven farming system classes, aggregated from the original 45 farming systems contained in the farming systems map. [more]
Protected Areas (FGGD) 12 June 2007 The FGGD protected areas map is a global raster datalayer with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes. Each pixel is classified as protected area where agriculture should not be occurring, protected area where agriculture could be occurring, or non-protected area. The data are taken from the UNEP-WCMC World database on protected areas, 2003. [more]
 Irrigated area and land not currently available for rainfed agriculture, total (FGGD) 12 June 2007 The FGGD total currently available land map is a global raster datalayer with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes. Pixels classified as urban, closed forest, or irrigated are indicated as land not currently available for rainfed agriculture. All remaining pixels classified as other land represent land currently available for rainfed agriculture. The method is described in FAO and IIASA, 2007, Mapping biophysical factors that influence agricultural production and rural vulnerability, by H. von Velthuizen et al. [more]
 Irrigated area and land not currently available for rainfed agriculture, by land cover type (FGGD) 12 June 2007 The FGGD currently available land map by land cover type is a global raster datalayer with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes. Each pixel is classified as urban, closed forest, irrigated or other land, that is considered available for rainfed agriculture. The method is described in FAO and IIASA, 2007, Mapping biophysical factors that influence agricultural production and rural vulnerability, by H. von Velthuizen et al. [more]
Global land cover distribution, by dominant land cover type (FGGD) 12 June 2007 The FGGD global land cover map is a global raster datalayer with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes. Each pixel contains a class value representing the dominant land cover type found in the pixel. The method is described in FAO and IIASA, 2007, Mapping biophysical factors that influence agricultural production and rural vulnerability, by H. von Velthuizen et al. [more]
Occurrence of irrigated areas (FGGD) 11 June 2007 The FGGD irrigated areas map is a global raster datalayer with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes. Each pixel in the map contains a value representing the percentage of the area equipped for irrigation. The data are a IIASA modification of FAO and University of Kessel (2002), Digital Global Map of Irrigated Areas v. 2.1. Please for the latest version refer to www.fao.org/ag/agl/aglw/aquastat/irrigationmap/index10.stm [more]
Occurrence of forest (FGGD) 29 May 2007 The FGGD land cover occurrence maps are global raster datalayers with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes. Each pixel in each map contains a value representing the percentage of the area belonging to the land cover type concerned. The method is described in FAO and IIASA, 2007, Mapping biophysical factors that influence agricultural production and rural vulnerability, by H. von Velthuizen et al. [more]
Occurrence of cropland (FGGD) 29 May 2007 The FGGD land cover occurrence maps are global raster datalayers with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes. Each pixel in each map contains a value representing the percentage of the area belonging to the land cover type concerned. The method is described in FAO and IIASA, 2007, Mapping biophysical factors that influence agricultural production and rural vulnerability, by H. von Velthuizen et al. [more]
Occurrence of pasture and browse (FGGD) 29 May 2007 The FGGD land cover occurrence maps are global raster datalayers with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes. Each pixel in each map contains a value representing the percentage of the area belonging to the land cover type concerned. The method is described in FAO and IIASA, 2007, Mapping biophysical factors that influence agricultural production and rural vulnerability, by H. von Velthuizen et al. [more]
Occurrence of barren and sparsely vegetated land (FGGD) 29 May 2007 The FGGD land cover occurrence maps are global raster datalayers with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes. Each pixel in each map contains a value representing the percentage of the area belonging to the land cover type concerned. The method is described in FAO and IIASA, 2007, Mapping biophysical factors that influence agricultural production and rural vulnerability, by H. von Velthuizen et al. [more]
Land use in the Neotropics 1 December 2004 This map presents the baseline land use situation as used in the Livestock, Environment And Development (LEAD) initiative's study on predicting hotspots of deforestation related to pasture and/or cropland expansion. The map presents the situation around the year 2000 and it is the only map at this scale distinguishing within the agricultural area between cropland and pasture dominated areas. [more]
Hotspots of deforestation in the Neotropics 1 December 2004 Hotspots of deforestation related to pasture and/or cropland expansion result from a Livestock, Environment And Development (LEAD) initiative's study based on a system based modelling of land use change over the 2000 - 2010 period.The chosen modeling framework (Conversion of Land Use and its Effects - CLUE-s) incorporates a number of essential aspects of the complexity of land use change, such as the interrelation of spatial and temporal dynamics, land use history and scale dependence. [more]
Farming Systems by Regions 1 March 2003 Farming systems map made originally in 6 different regions, digitized from paper maps, classified according to John Dixon and used by Chris Aulrich to prepare the Farming Systems and Poverty project (FAO, World Bank, 2001). [more]

última actualización:  martes 17 de marzo de 2009