Publications de la FAO

Collection sur la gestion des ressources naturelles et de l'environnement

No. 23 - Understanding the drought impact of El Niño on the global agricultural areas 12 February 2015 During El Niño episodes the normal patterns of tropical precipitation and atmospheric circulation become disrupted triggering extreme climate events around the globe: droughts, floods and affecting the intensity and frequency of hurricanes. Disasters create poverty traps that increase the prevalence of food insecurity and malnutrition. Agriculture is one of the main sectors of the economy that could be severely affected by El Niño event. FAO monitors the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, among other weather related hazards, with a special focus on the potential impacts on the agricultural sector. The objective of this study is to enhance our understanding the El Niño phenomenon using FAO’s Agricultural Stress Index System (ASIS). This study is carried out under the auspices of the new FAO Strategic Framework, for the Strategic Objective 5 “Increase the resilience of livelihoods to threats and crises”. The study outcomes are expected to enhance further discussions on our understanding of the El Niño Phenomenon and add to the growing literature. This would in turn improve effective early warning capabilities of FAO and partners to issue and trigger timely disaster risk reduction measures. [more]
No. 22 - Managing climate risk and adapting to cliamte change in the agriculture sector in Nepal 19 March 2014 Projected future scenarios of climate suggest that climatic conditions in Nepal will worsen, which may imply even more frequent occurrences of climate-related extremes and negative impacts on food production. However, by adopting the right measures, it is possible to manage the climate risks and adapt to the challenges posed by increasing climate variability and climate change. Efforts to promote such measures require a comprehensive approach that includes strengthening the capacities of institutions and delivering needbased services to farming communities. This report provides detailed information about climate and its variability in Nepal, including past trends, future climate change projections and likely impacts on the agriculture sector. The report elaborates the institutional context for managing climate risks and adaptation and reiterates the need to strengthen the collection and analysis of data and information. A comprehensive typology of coping and adaptation strategies for managing current climate risks and building the necessary knowledge and good practices for advancing adaptation over the longer term is presented. The report also examines the issues and opportunities for mainstreaming climate change concerns into broader agriculture and food security policies, plans and strategies. [more]
2 September 2013 Climate change is likely to have adverse effects on the agriculture sector in Jamaica. Increase in the intensity and frequency of climate-related natural hazards, increasing rainfall variability, droughts and floods combined with fragile ecosystems and coastal zones all contribute to Jamaica’s overall vulnerability to climate change. Climate change adaptation is one of the outcomes of the Vision 2030 Jamaica-National Development Plan. In the context of this plan, there is need for more analysis of the likely climate change impacts in the short and medium term, along with identification of agricultural adaptation strategies. This report provides detailed information about current knowledge on vulnerability, past trends in climate, and impacts of climate variability and change on the agriculture sector. The scope of the study focused on broader policy directions, technical alternatives and investment priorities in relation to climate change adaptation. The report also provides examples of good practices of coping strategies in agriculture and a detailed list of ongoing and completed projects/initiatives related to climate change and agriculture in Jamaica. [more]
No. 20-Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into Agriculture- Environment and Natural Resources Management Series 20 26 August 2013 The Philippines is one of the most disaster-prone countries worldwide. Bicol Region is regularly exposed to a variety of natural hazards including tropical storms, typhoons, droughts, drought spells, flash floods, floods, landslides and volcano eruptions, causing frequent destruction, damage and losses. Agriculture is among the most vulnerable sectors to extreme weather events and changing climate. People depending on agriculture are regularly facing the challenge to protect and maintain their livelihoods. This Disaster Risk Reduction project in Bicol Region aimed at (i) strengthening the institutional and technical capacities, risks related services’ provision and coordination in agriculture to better prepare for and manage climate-related risks, and (ii) enhancing the risk reduction capacities and livelihood resilience of farmers and fisher folks, who are highly vulnerable to risks and extreme climatic events. The project was designed in accordance with FAO’s Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security Framework Programme which builds on and supports the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015 from the perspective of agriculture and food and nutrition security. This technical summary report presents results and lessons from the project. [more]
No. 19 - Adaptation to Climate-Change in Semi-Arid Environments - Experience and Lessons from Mozambique 10 May 2012 Southern Africa and Mozambique are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The region is frequently exposed to droughts, floods, variable rainfall and heat, which are expected to worsen, and sensitivity to such exposure of the natural resource-based livelihood system is very high. The project area is remote and highly underdeveloped and the population is poor, food insecure, and not resilient to the impact of climate shocks. Due to water scarcity, not sufficient for humans and livestock except in a few communities along the Limpopo River, livelihood options are limited. Livelihoods are underpinned almost entirely by the little available water, agricultural lands and rangelands, and natural forests, and current practices and usage are threatening to become unsustainable. Existing coping mechanisms and safety nets are heavily reliant on the natural resources base, and livelihoods are seriously at risk under the projected climate changes. Urgent action is required to strengthen resilience now and into the future, when climate change will present significant additional stress. [more]
No. 18 - Strengthening Capacity for Climate Change Adaptation: Experience and Lessons from Lesotho 10 June 2011 This publication aims to create awareness and prompt action amongst policy-makers and practitioners to address the impact of climate change (notably changes in temperature and rainfall) to the countrys food security. It serves as a good example of how the ongoing FAO and Government of Lesotho project activities Environment, are complementing identified by the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) on climate change. [more]
No. 16 - Bioenergy and Food Security - The BEFS Analytical Framework 11 January 2011 A potent argument for bioenergy development lies in the ability of the sector to unlock agricultural potential by bringing in much needed investments to raise agricultural productivity to spur food security and poverty reduction. This document presents the BEFS Analytical Framework (AF) developed to test this argument. Agriculture lies at the heart of the BEFS AF and allows governments to consider viable pro-poor strategies for bioenergy development. The set of tools within the BEFS AF offers an integrated approach to decision-making that combines the technical viability with the country’s prevailing social and economic development objectives. This document explains the rationale and structure of the BEFS AF, provides a general overview of the tools and their application, and illustrates how the analytical information generated assists policy makers in making informed decisions concerning the many varied consequences of bioenergy developments on food security, poverty reduction and agriculture development and economic growth. [more]
No. 15 - Coping with a changing climate: considerations for adaptation and mitigation in agriculture, 2009 12 January 2010 Changing climatic conditions are projected to affect food security from the local to global level. The predictability in rainy season patterns will be reduced, while the frequency and intensity of severe weather events such as floods, cyclones and hurricanes will increase; other predicted effects will include prolonged drought in some regions; and water shortages; and changes in the location and incidence of pest and disease outbreaks. Growing demand for biofuels from crops can place additional pressure on the natural resource base. New policy driven options are required to address the emerging challenges of attaining improved food security.The first two chapters of this book presents historical evidence of relationship between climate and food security, as well as current challenges of world food security posed by climate change. The “introduction” chapter highlights the need for baseline diagnostics on impacts, vulnerability and resiliency patterns and decision making under uncertainty. Chapter 2 elaborates on the impacts of climate change on agriculture and stresses how to effectively address these impacts, focusing on ecosystem goods and services and social well being. The chapter on “the setting: baseline information” underlines that mapping, such as capacity to cope in a country, is as important as mapping vulnerabilities to climate variability and change. [more]
No. 14 - Community Based Adaptation in Action - A case study from Bangladesh , 2008 10 January 2010 Bangladesh, due to its geo-physical position and socio-economic context, is highly prone to regular natural hazards and the impacts of climate change. In 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) initiated a project at the request of the Bangladesh government that was designed to improve the adaptive capacities of rural populations and their resilience to drought and other climate change impacts. It also aimed to inform service providers and policy-makers of the learning and findings, in order to improve support to future adaptation processes. The project is implemented under the Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management Programme (CDMP), by the Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE), and in collaboration with the Departments of Fisheries, Livestock and Forestry and national research institutes such as Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) and Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI). [more]
No. 13 - Disaster risk management systems analysis A guide book, 2008 8 January 2010 The conclusions given in this report are considered appropriate at the time of its preparation. They may be modified in the light of further knowledge gained at subsequent stages of the project. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. [more]
No. 12 - Rapid Agriculture Disaster Assessment Routine, 2008 14 December 2009 Agricultural disaster impact analyses used for planning emergency operations are mainly based on empirical in situ analysis, and largely dependent on access to the affected area and on experts’ experience. Not only are disaster impacts difficult to model but emergency situations often prevent sufficient collection of detailed georeferenced information, which would allow the calibration of impact models. Moreover, the urgency of relief operations hampers the development of necessary tools. The Rapid Agricultural Disaster Assessment Routine (RADAR) is based on the idea that a disaster is the "product" of extreme factors and a vulnerable agricultural system. The current state of agricultural systems can be routinely collected in an information system. For extreme factors of geophysical origin, detailed quantitative and georeferenced data about their characteristics are known almost immediately after the event. [more]
No. 11 - Mapping biophysical factors that influence agricultural production and rural vulnerability , 2007 1 December 2009 This monograph is part of a series of reports that explain how techniques of spatial analysis can be used to investigate poverty and environment links worldwide. It combines rural population distribution data contained in the global rural population database for the year 2000 (FAO, 2005) with methods and results of the Global agro-ecological assessment for agriculture in the 21st Century (Fischer et al., 2002), in order to estimate the distribution of the world’s rural population by agricultural suitability class, land use category and type of farming system. Refinements in GIS databases and analysis techniques have been developed collaboratively by FAO and IIASA in the project Improving Methods for Poverty and Food Insecurity Mapping and its Use at Country Level, which was jointly implemented by FAO, UNEP/GRID-Arendal and CGIAR centers and funded by the Government of Norway. [more]
No. 10 - Frost Protection: fundamentals, practice and economics - Volume II , 2005 15 November 2009 This volume reviews concepts of probability and risk of frost damage and uses that information to help readers make economic decisions about frost protection. Computer application programs are included with the book to help simplify complex calculations. [more]
No. 10 - Frost Protection: fundamentals, practice and economics Volume I , 2005 15 November 2009 This book describes the physics and biology of frost occurrence and damage, passive and active protection methods and how to assess the cost-effectiveness of active protection techniques. Night-time energy balance is used to demonstrate how protection methods are used to reduce the likelihood of frost damage. Simple methods and programs are provided to help predict temperature trends and to help determine the timing for active methods. Plant physiology related to freeze damage and critical damage temperatures for a wide range of crops and ornamentals are presented. Finally, an economic analysis program with examples is included to assist users to evaluate cost-effectiveness of various active methods. [more]
No. 9 - Coastal GTOS Strategic design and phase 1 implementation plan, 2005 12 November 2009 This document presents the strategy developed by the GTOS coastal panel of scientific experts to establish C-GTOS. The first sections of the document describe the design for a mature observing system and contributions to global observation needs. In the sections following, further details are provided on the five products that implement this strategy during the initial phase of the programme and a discussion of milestones for development of a mature system. [more]
No. 8 - Land Cover Classification System Classification concepts and user manual Software version (2), 2005 6 November 2009 The Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) has been developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to meet the need for improved access to reliable and standardized information on land cover and land cover change.LCCS is a comprehensive, standardized a priori classification system designed to meet specific user requirements, and created for mapping exercises, independent of the scale or means used to map. It enables a comparison of land cover classes regardless of data source, thematic discipline or country. The LCCS system enhances the standardization process and minimizes the problem of dealing with a very large amount of pre-defined classes. [more]
No. 7 - The Application of a Spatial Regression Model to the Analysis and Mapping of Poverty, 2003 7 October 2009 Although the classical econometric methods provide information on the geographic distribution of poverty, they do not take into account the spatial dependence of the data and generally they do not consider any environmental information. Therefore, methods which use spatial analysis tools are required to explore such spatial dimensions of poverty and its linkages with the environmental conditions. This study investigates an approach based on the spatial regression model, for mapping poverty in Ecuador. It also documents the use and impact of such an approach and the opportunities it offers. Following a brief introduction, the study reviews two econometric methods that are widely used for analysing poverty and compares their results with the results obtained by the spatial regression method. The differences in numerical results were not large, but statistically significant for the Ecuador data. The study also includes a simulation study on sensitivity analysis for scenarios for public policy intervention. [more]
No. 5 - Terrestrial Carbon Observation - The Frascati Report on In Situ Carbon Data and Information, 2002 25 June 2008 Data on the spatial and temporal distribution of carbon sources and sinks in the terrestrial biosphere are needed by both the scientific and the policy communities working on climate change issues. To gather the necessary data the Terrestrial Carbon Observation (TCO) initiative was launched in 1999 by the Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership (IGOS-P). It is a component of the Integrated Global Carbon Observations (IGCO) theme which also includes the ocean and atmosphere.The concept behind TCO is to focus on assembling and generating terrestrial carbon data using in situ (ground based) and satellite data in combination with a number of climate models in order to obtain a more accurate understanding of global stocks and fluxe.This report summarizes the workshop objectives and the discussions, conclusions and recommendations made by the international carbon experts who attended the meeting. [more]
No. 4 - Organic agriculture: Environment and food security, 2002 10 June 2008 Organic agriculture is defined as an environmentally and socially sensitive food supply system. This publication examines its many facets, looking at the contribution of organic agriculture to ecological health, international markets and local food security. It builds on empirical experiences throughout the world and analyses the prospects for a wider adoption of organic agriculture. Numerous scenarios depicted in this publication represent the millions of people from all social and economic backgrounds who have adopted this new agrarian ethic on the integrity of food. An introduction to the general concepts of organic agriculture includes an overview of its agronomic, economic, social and institutional performance. Further, the publication presents scientific evidence of the impact of organic agriculture on environmental goods and services and offers an evaluation of its possible contribution to the implementation of international environmental agreements. It also reviews the current status, trends and prospective development of certified organic agriculture production and trade. [more]
No. 3 - Terrestrial Carbon Observation - The Rio de Janeiro Recommendations for Terrestrial and Atmospheric Measurements 14 May 2008 The Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership (IGOS-P) is using specific policy-relevant themes as an approach to implementing systematic global observations. In November 1999, IGOS-P requested Global Terrestrial Observing System with FAO support, to lead the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle theme. In response to the request, the Terrestrial Carbon Theme Team was established to prepare this report. The report identifies a set of systematic, long-term terrestrial and atmospheric observations needed to implement an effective terrestrial carbon observation programme, highlights a number of challenges that need to be addressed, and outlines an approach to implementing an initial observing system. “Terrestrial carbon” refers to carbon contained in terrestrial vegetation or soil stocks and the fluxes from or to the atmosphere through which it participates in the global carbon cycle. [more]
dernière mise à jour:  mardi 11 janvier 2011