Climate Change Adaptation in Mozambique
Implementation: August 2008 - August 2012
Mozambique is a country especially exposed to extreme climatic events due to its geographic location and the frail socio-economic context of its population, part of which is already living in extreme poverty conditions. Recurrently, and with increasing magnitude, it endures the adverse impact of droughts and cyclones - particularly in semi-arid areas - increasing the susceptibility of people and infrastructure in those areas to overcome the negative impact. In spite of its remarkable progress, Mozambique still faces severe limitations of various natures (financial, infrastructural, human, environmental, etc.). Due to the State's limited budget –50% of which depends on external aid – investment restrictions are imposed on critical sectors such as education and health.
Inevitably, insufficient resources are dedicated to environment and the improvement of people's lives. Poverty reduction is one of the main objectives for the Government of Mozambique, and it is included in major country development plans, such as the second Action Plan for the Reduction of Absolute Poverty. However, poverty alleviation in the long-term is impossible if due consideration is not given to the sustainable use of natural resources and conservation of the environment on which people are dependent and build their livelihoods upon. Addressing environmental concerns is critical for sustainable production, food security and economic growth. Depletion of natural resources and degradation of the environment can cause poverty, and poverty can exacerbate environmental degradation.
These factors have an inextricable relationship which, if incorporated into the country's main policies at national, regional and local levels, will guarantee an improvement in the livelihoods of the poorest sectors of the population. Ongoing and planned development initiatives and investments, which often have an important impact on the livelihoods of dispersed communities, are threatened to varying degrees. The communities' strong dependence on subsistence farming and consequent vulnerability to climate related events, make it imperative to strengthen the preventive and adaptive capacity of the local population that is necessary to improve their resilience and future survival.
The Joint Programme on Environment Mainstreaming and Adaptation to Climate Change proposal aimed to achieve five significant outcomes, through the implementation of specific activities in some of the most affected and at risk areas, namely along the Limpopo River Basin and the District of Chicualacuala.
Joint Programme Outputs:
The current situation in the proposed target areas evidences a population living in precarious conditions. The most pressing need, identified through extensive consultation with the government, civil society, and other affected stakeholders, is access to water for human consumption and productive uses, as well as the quality of available water. Climate change evidences itself in water related events or the lack thereof. Furthermore, the balance of ecosystems and conservation of the environment depends for the most part on water. This Joint Programme will address that crisis and the related implications at the macro level, through the mainstreaming of environmental concerns into existing government policies through: