Selected adaptation practices screened based on hazard specificity and location specific preferences are presented below. Many of these paractices are field tested to find out suitability for replication in similar areas. The list provides selected typology of practices.

Crop Improvement for Drought and Flood Tolerance:
Sustained efforts are crucial to strengthen research and development links. New crops and varieties that are better adapted to climate variability, including drought-tolerant varieties of wheat, maize, and rice are evaluated in farmers’ fields in participation with local farmer groups.
Management of High/Low Temperature Stress: Managing climate variability and adaptation to climate change are location-specific issues. Temperature records of Nepal for last 30 years indicate an increasing trend. Warming is more pronounced in the high and mid-hill regions of Nepal compared to Terai. Summer temperature exceeds the thresholds of crops and fluctuations in winter temperature causes occurrence of pest and diseases.
Soil and Water Conservation: Sustainable natural resource management practices at the individual and community levels need to be promoted and supported. Rainwater harvesting and slop protection measures reduce the risk of drought periods and soil erosion.

  Restoration of Degraded Community Resources: Need to recognize and enhance the opportunities for adaptation-mitigation synergies. Restoration of forest and communal land areas affected by landslides, gullying, and river bank cutting is promoted through climate-appropriate fodder grasses and tree species together with risk reduction measures. Forest user groups (FUGs), which operate community forestry (CF) activities are closely engaged.
Slope Stabilization and Management:  Intensive use of the land resource for agriculture, grazing and fuel wood and development of infrastructure with out adequate conservation measures has accelerated surface gully and erosion. Slope Agriculture Land Technology (SALT) can improve slope land management by plantation of fodder trees and coffee in terrace to control erosion in mid-hills. The practice provides dual benefit: soil erosion control and fodder for livestock. Similarly, hedge row planting involves rows of perennial crops such as coffee, cacao, citrus and banana on every third alley created by contoured hedge rows. The alleys not occupied by permanent crops are planted alternately to cereals such as corn, upland rice, sweet potato, melon and legumes such as mungbean, soybean etc.
  Resource Conservation: Practice of cultivating rice and wheat is unique in Indo-Gangetic Plains. In many places, the pressure to intensify agriculture lead to land degradation. Conservation tillage, surface retention of adequate crop residues, and diversified, economically viable crop rotations can stabilize the yield levels under the rice-wheat systems. Conservation agriculture and System of Rice Intensification are the best combination to show the synergies between adaptation and mitigation.
Strengthen Agriculture Support Services: Institutional and technical capacity building for effective management of climate risks is the key. A series of local and national level training programmes are conducted for agriculture service providers. Local capacity building efforts are combined with multi-stakeholder dialogue and local consultations for preparation of district risk management plans.
Strengthening community groups: Forest user groups (FUGs) implement activities to protect, produce and distribute forest products. FUG members participate in decision-making processes. The project engaged community members to use locally available resources to reduce the impact of natural hazards and extreme climate events. Strengthening of FUGs, farmer groups and women groups provided a basis for characterizing adaptation and mitigation synergy in Nepal.
Participatory Learning and Awareness-raising: The climate education approach promotes farmer participatory learning by doing. Climate knowledge of farmers improved through Farmer’s Field School (FFS) and Forest User Groups to raise awareness on climate change and disaster risks. Climate education initiatives empower farmers to make appropriate decisions and adopt climate resilient technologies in a proactive way.
last updated:  Thursday, January 10, 2013