SLOPE AGRICULTURE LAND TECHNOLOGY (SALT)
The mid hill region in Nepal is characterized by natural slopes and ridges, prone to landslides and slope instability due to intensive cultivation and cropping without any terrace and bunds. This situation adds to increasingly erratic rainfall patterns, causing landslides and severe soil erosion among others. In this context, the Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT) is a cost effective and simple option to increase productivity in the area. SALT is a package of technologies for soil conservation, crop cultivation and sustainable food production that includes hedge row contour planting, allay cropping and terrace improvement among others.
PINEAPPLE AS ALTERNATE CROPPING FOR SOIL EROSION CONTROL
Farmers in hilly areas of Nepal witness high variability in crop yields due to adverse weather conditions and loss of fertile soil. Farmers in the hilly areas (eg. Bengri village) adopted cultivation of pineapple, instead of maize so as to reduce the rate of soil erosion and increase the use of degraded land. Cultivation of pineapple is appropriate in sloppy land, erosion prone areas and even in degraded lands. Pineapple cultivation has important economic advantages for small and marginal farmers in mid-hills of Nepal. If this practice is carried out with commercial aims, it can generate local labour and additional income.
BAGAR FARMING IN RIVER BANKS
Farmers located along the river banks in the Kapilvastu district in Nepal face frequent floods and subsequent land degradation that deeply affects their livelihoods, as the sand that deposits in this area makes cultivation of crops unfeasible. The introduction of water melon and sweet potato crops along the river banks, also known as bagar farming protects the land from excessive degradation. In addition, this livelihood activity ensures additional income and benefits not only local farmers, but also some local businessmen of Taulihawa, as well as the local haat bazar.
MULTI-STORIED AGROFORESTRY CROPPING SYSTEMS FOR MICRO CLIMATIC MODIFICATION AND EROSION CONTROL
Floods and droughts have become major causes of land degradation and deterioration of natural ecosystems. Practicing multi-storied cropping systems and agro-forestry systems help to reduce problems of land degradation and to meet the needs of local people for firewood, fodder and timber. Under multi-storied cropping, the crops underneath the tall trees or horticultural crops withstand shading effects and provide micro-climatic conditions needed by the crops underneath. The objective is to grow the best combination and interface between crops and trees for checking land degradation, increasing system productivity and meeting domestic needs of food, fuel, fodder and timber of rural people.
ZERO/MINIMUM TILLAGE UNDER RICE-WHEAT SYSTEMS
Farmers in the Terai region of Nepal generally face difficulties to plant wheat in time on marshy or wet lands after rice, as land preparation is very difficult under such conditions. Zero or minimum tillage, on the other hand, provides minimum disturbance of the soil and places the seeds in furrows. Zero tilled fields need about 30% less water compared to the conventional tillage. Conservation tillage practices reduce soil erosion due to crop residue left in the soil. This method will facilitate planting of wheat in time, protect the environment, conserving the available resources and reducing production costs by minimizing fuel and energy.
BIO-ENGINEERING FOR CONTROL OF RIVER BANK CUTTING
Soil erosion and landslides in the up-streams of the Churia range lead to heavy sedimentation on river beds. Continuous erosion due to severe river cutting has led to flood water inundation, deposition of sand, silt and boulders in agricultural lands. The revestments along the embankments with fast growing live fences controlled river cutting and soil erosion effectively. Training related to these practices lead to better conservation of productive land along the river bank, increased agricultural productivity, sustainability and additional income for farmers.
last updated: Thursday, January 10, 2013