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The MICCA Pilot Project in Kenya

Reducing the climate change ‘footprint’ of the dairy industry

In Kenya, the MICCA pilot project team is working with smallholder dairy producers in the Rift Valley. The pilot project is being undertaken within the framework of the East Africa Dairy Development Project (EADD). EADD is being implemented in Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda. The Project’s overall goal is to help 179 000 small holder farmers lift themselves out of poverty through more profitable production and marketing of milk. The project has 5 consortium members: Heifer International, the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), TechnoServe (TNS) and African Breeders Services (ABS).

In this pilot project, the MICCA Programme, in close collaboration wit h ICRAF and smallholder dairy producers, is using a life cycle analysis and other approaches to propose and test technical alternatives for reducing the climate change ‘footprint’ of the dairy industry. As part of its work to support farmer in raising climate-smart cattle and to improve the overall greenhouse gas balance of the farming systems, the project is looking at ways of enhancing fodder production, improving manure and livestock management systems to produce fertilizer and biogas and lessening the GHG emissions from the whole farm systems.

Some facts about the project site

The EADD-MICCA pilot project is being carried out in Kaptumo in the Nandi South District in the Rift Valley Province.

  • Climate: tropical moist
  • Soil classification: high activity clay soils
  • Mean annual rainfall: 1 500 - 2 200 mm
  • Altitude: 1 800 – 2 000 meters above sea level 
  • Land: moderately degraded
  • Forest cover: 4 percent (10 percent in 2002)

At the Kaptumo site a milk chilling facility of 5000 litres is installed in the village of Ndurio and a 6 000 litre tank is planned for the village of Kaptumo. The Kapcheno dairy company (Kaptumo hub) is composed of 4 315 member farmers, 2 147 shareholders and 1 600 active milk suppliers, of which 50 percent are women. There are 155 dairy management groups (10-15 members each) that work together on milk packaging and bulking with EADD support.

In 2011 a socio-economic survey team visited 357 households in six locations at the Kaptumo EADD site. Also in 2011, a capacity needs assessment was done. Here are some of the findings from these reports:

  • Each farmer has an average of 2 acres and 3 cows.
  • Milk production by farmer ranges from 2-10 litres with an average of 5-6 litres per day.
  • Most farmers practice both cropping and livestock. The most common animals are cattle (92 percent), which are cross‐breeds of Aryshire and Friesian, and chickens.
  • Households own on average 5.4 animals
  • The daily average volume of milk per cow in the sample is 4.2 to 4.8 litres. The daily average volume for all cows per farm is 9.8 litres.
  • Almost all households use their milk for their own consumption and sell their surplus on a regular basis.
  • The main feed for livestock is grass. Two‐thirds of the farmers feed Napier grass mainly to milk cows. About three‐quarters of the farmers use feed supplements, one‐quarter use feed concentrates, and small number use crop residues as feed.
  • Farmers plant up to six different types of crops on an average size land of 2.2 acres per farm. Maize is the predominant crop (23.2 percent of all given answers), followed by beans (14.9 percent), bananas (12.2 percent) and tea (12.1 percent). Almost all crops (besides tea) are grown for the farmers’ own consumption with surpluses being sold.
  • The annual average income is between 25 000 and 50 000 Kenyan Shillings (290 – 580 USD per crop.
  • Based on poverty lines commonly used by the World Bank, three‐quarters of the sample from the socio-economic survey live below the 1.25 USD line per day and 86.9 percent under the 2 USD line per day.

• Go to the socio-economic survey.
• Go to the capacity needs assessment.

 EX-ACT assessment of mitigation potential

The Ex-Ante Carbon-balance Tool (EX-ACT) EX-ACT provides ex-ante estimates of the impact of activities in the agriculture (including livestock), forestry, and other land use sectors on greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. EX-ACT determines the impacts on the carbon-balance by comparing two scenarios: ‘without project’ (the ‘business as usual’ or ‘baseline’) and ‘with project’. EX-ACT is a land-based accounting system that uses the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology for estimating carbon stocks and stock changes per unit of land and through time.

EX-ACT has provided assessments for the mitigation potential of different farm management options in pilot project area. However, it should be kept in mind that data pertaining to local conditions was difficult to obtain. For this reason, some data was based on national statistics. Furthermore, the assumptions used in the different scenarios may not completely reflect the reality on the ground. Therefore, the results of this EX-ACT assessment should be taken with some caution.

The EX-ACT assessment found that the EADD-MICCA pilot project has the potential to create a net sink of 775 542 tonnes of CO2 equivalent under a relatively optimistic scenario. Under a more conservative scenario, 663 689 tonnes of CO2 equivalent could be mitigated. By themselves, EADD interventions have the potential to create a net sink of 304 627 tonnes of CO2 (equivalent).

• Go to the EX-ACT assessment.

dernière mise à jour:  jeudi 30 juillet 2015