Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in animal feeding


Proceedings of the FAO Expert Consultation
held in CIAT, Cali, Colombia
21–25 January 1991
edited by
David Machin
Solveig Nyvold

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ISBN 92-5-103138-X

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List of participants

Overview of needs and justification for use of roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in animal feeding.
by D.H. Machin

Roots, tubers and plantains: recent trends in production trade and use.
by C. Calpe

Recent developments in cassava agronomy.
by R.A. Moreno

Processing of cassava tuber meals and chips.
by B. Ospina and C. Wheatley

Quality aspects of tradeable cassava products including problems of adulteration.
by J.F. Wood

Detoxification of cassava products and effects of residual toxins on consuming animals.
by O.O. Tewe

Ensilage of cassava products and their use as animal feed.
by R. Loeza Limon

Preparation of cassava leaf products and their use as animal feeds.
by V. Ravindran

Improving the nutritional value of cassava products using microbial techniques.
by C. Balagopalan, G. Padmaja and M. George

Use of cassava products in poultry feeding.
by S. Khajarern and J.M. Khajarern

Use of cassava products in pig feeding.
by G.G. Gomez

Economics of cassava products use in animal feeding.
by G. Henry and C. Correa

Sweet potatoes as animal feed in developing countries: present patterns and future prospects.
by G.J. Scott

Cultivation, harvesting and storage of sweet potato products.
by G. Paneque Ramirez

Feeding of sweet potato to monogastrics.
by P.L. Dominguez

Feeding systems for tropical rabbit production emphasizing roots, tubers and bananas.
by P.R. Cheeke

Availability of banana and plantain products for animal feeding.
by G.M. Babatunde

Economic aspects of banana and plantain use in animal feeding: the Cameroon experience.
by R.T. Fomunyam


The FAO Expert Consultation on Roots, Tubers, Plantains and Bananas in Animal Feeding was held in Colombia at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) near Cali, from 21 to 25 January 1991.


Over the last two decades the total amount of animal feed used in developing countries has increased rapidly so that by 1988 approximately 280 million tons were produced. More than half of this feed (149 m.tons) was produced from cereals, of which more than 38 million tons were imported in the late 1980's. During the 1970's the use of cereals in animal feed in developing countries was estimated by FAO to have increased by 7.1% per annum whilst in the 1980's the rate of increase was 2.8%.

Levels of imports of this order clearly place pressure on limited foreign exchange supply, whilst the overall use of cereals and other feedstuffs, used in this way, might well be at the expense of human need.

The main purpose of such feed use is to increase the production and availability of animal protein within such countries, for which there is a clear need. In order to achieve a rapid increase in the production of such products, many developing countries have directly transferred technologies from developed, often temperate countries. Often this has involved the direct use of raw materials of temperate origin at the expense of potential local equivalents. Often such local materials outyield more conventional feedstuffs (though sometimes requiring more handling and processing) or may even be byproducts of other industries which are poorly used or discarded.

The incentives to develop appropriate livestock systems, based largely on locally produced materials, have not been sufficient in many developing countries till recent times. Now many such countries are experiencing population pressure with increased demands on both food supply and foreign exchange, difficulties in servicing foreign debts and reduced earnings from exports. As a result FAO has on various occasions been requested by developing countries to assist them to develop local substitutes for imported materials for animal feeding. Concern has been expressed on this subject in many regions of the developing world and in particular in Asia, the Near and Far East, the Pacific and Latin America.

In order to resolve this problem it is strongly felt that livestock production systems should be developed for developing countries, matching locally available resources and in particular feed resources to local needs.


This Expert Consultation was aimed at establishing:


The speech of welcome was delivered by Dr C. Bastanchuri, FAO Representative in Colombia. First of all he thanked the Director-General of CIAT, Dr G. Nores, and his staff for so generously welcoming the consultation and for the active participation in the preparation of the meeting.

In his speech he reminded the participants of the great needs to resolve the economic problems of developing countries through making them less dependent on exports of primary materials. He also emphasized that this consultation particularly addressed this problem and that the presence of Dr. Jaime Navas Alvarado, who is deputy director of the Instituto Colombiano de Agropecuaria, reflected the importance that the Colombian Government gave to the subject to be considered.

Dr. Alvarado then gave an address of welcome on behalf of the Colombian Government. He confirmed the great interest in his country towards becoming more self sufficient in animal feeds and agreed that the subjects under discussion would be particularly relevant to the national and regional situation. He also noted the great spread of international interest in the subjects covered which was reflected in the range of countries from which the experts were drawn. From this he concluded that major breakthroughs in the field would have particular significance in many countries undergoing development problems. In particular he hoped that the presence of such an experienced group of experts interacting with staff of CIAT and other Colombian contacts would greatly facilitate the exchange of ideas and information between countries and regions for the common good of all.

Dr. Gustavo Nores, Director-General of CIAT, gave the opening speech and welcomed all participants. He stated his pleasure in hosting the consultation because of the tremendous importance of the event in relation to the challenges the world scientific communities will face over the coming decades to make technologies available that will link the growing numbers of small farmers to expanding markets.

In particular, he pointed out that the fastest growing demand in the developing countries is for animal products to which this particular consultation was specifically addressed. Also he noted that with cereal prices likely to drop over the next decade producers of commodities addressed in this consultation would be under greater competitive pressure. The development of more appropriate and economic technology would greatly assist such producers to compete effectively.

Prior to the introduction session a short speech was given by Dr. D.H. Machin, technical secretary of the Expert Consultation. He explained that the consultation fell within the overall framework of meetings organized by the Animal Production and Health Division of FAO in the last ten years, to review the possible feed resources present in the developing world and to promote a better utilization of these local feed resources in such countries.

List of participants

 Dept. of Feed Technology
 Faculty of Food Engineering (FEA)
 State Univ. Campinas (UNICAMP)
 Barao, Garaldo
 Sao Paulo

 Researcher Nutrition
 Institute of Research
 in Animal Science
 Centre de Mankon

 Senior Cassava Technologist
 Projecto Integrado para o desenvolvimento
 da Mandioca - CIAT - Fundacao Kellogg
 Rua IIdefonso Albano, 1585
 Aldeota 60115
 Fortalesa, Ceara

 Research Nutritionist
 Instituto de Investigaciones Porcinas
 Gaveta Postal No. 1
 Punta Brava 19200
 Ciudad de la Habana
 Research Agronomist
 Faculty of Animal Science
 Las Villas Universidad Central
 Villa Clara

 Post Harvest Technologist
 Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
 Trivandrum 695-017
 Kerala State

 Research Nutritionist
 Estación Experimental “La Posta”
 Paso del Toro

 Dean, College of Agriculture
 Production and Technology
 University of Agriculture
 P.M.B. 2240
 Senior Lecturer
 Dept. of Animal Science
 University of Ibadan

 Associate Professor
 Dept. of Animal Science
 University of Peradeniya

 Associate Professor of
 Animal Nutrition
 Dept. of Animal Science
 Faculty of Agriculture
 Khon Kaen University
 Khon Kaen

 Head of Feed Division
 Livestock Section
 Natural Resources Institute
 Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime
 Chatham, Kent. ME4 4TB

 Dept. of Animal Science
 Oregon State University
 Corvallis, Oregon 97331-6702
 University of Hawaii
 Dept. of Animal Science
 1800 East-West Road
 Honolulu, HI 968222

 Head of Cassava Agronomy Section
 Cali, Colombia
 Leader of the Cassava Programme
 Cali, Colombia
 Head of Cassava Utilization Section
 Cali, Colombia

 Marketing Specialist
 Lima, Peru

 Animal Production Officer
 (Feed Resources)
 Animal Production and Health Division
 FAO, 00100 Rome
 Associate Professional Officer
 Animal Production and Health Division
 FAO, 00100 Rome