APPENDIX C COST DATA


C.1 Cost of Equipment and Plants
C.2 Cost of Raw Material
C.3 Labour Rates in the Fishery Industry
C.4 Cost of Utilities
C.5 Cost of Packaging in the Fishery Industry


C.1 Cost of Equipment and Plants

(i) Cost of Packaging Machines (Graham. 1984)  

Method 

Manpower

Throughput

Energy, W

Cost, US$

Heat Sealing 

Manual

-

70-300

75-300

 

Manual

-

500

900

 

Semi-automatic

Up to 200 mm/s

900

2 000

Continuous 

Semi-automatic

150-200 mm/s

1 400

7000-10000

Vacuum Packing

       

Bag fed 

Manual

15-20s cycle

550

2700-3200

 

(ii) Cost of Processing Equipment in Fish Filleting and Freezing Plants, 500 t Raw Material/Year, Uruguay (Kelsen et al., 1981)  

Fillet, skinned, few bones, interleaved 

US$

TRIO skinning machine for removing fat (*) 

35000

Mechanical V cut table, 20 workers 

25000

Lighted control table, 4 workers 

8000

Mechanical fish block table, 8 workers 

10000

600 trays of 7.5 lb aluminum ea. 

9000

Weighing machine 

2500

Plastic Trays 

500

TOTAL 

90000

(*) With possibility to adjust cut thickness for removing sub-cutaneous fat.

 

(iii) Freezing Plants. Data for a Frozen Shrimp Plant. 900 kg/day, UK (Graham. 1984)

Item

US$

Building; 250 m2, US$ 135/m2

33750

Plate Freezer, 180 kg/load 

22275

0 °C Chilling Room, 10 t 

9900

-30 °C Cold Store, 20 t 

17550

Freezer trays, 30 x 2 

2925

Fish boxes, 500 

6 187

Ice plant, 2.7 t/24 h 

19800

Ice storage bin (local construction) 

4950

Standby generator, 70 kVA 

13983

Weighing machine, 100 kg flat bed 

675

Work tables, 6, stainless steel top, wooden supports 

4500

Steam cleaner, with water input, Diesel powered 

2925

Production line items 

4950

Office equipment, clothing, etc. 

4950

Pick-up truck

2375

Sub-total 

151 695

10% contingency 

15 169

Total 

166864

CIF at 20% items (excluding building) 

23589

10% installation and commissioning items (excluding building) 

11 794

Total 

202 247

 

(iv) Cost of Processing Equipment, Fish Protein Concentrate Plant. FPC, Type B, Senegal. 13,6 t Finished Product/day (Vaaland & Piyarat. 1982)

 

US$

Installation of complete processing equipment: coagulator, press, rotadisk drier and evaporator including freight, insurance, assembly, starting-up and running in-costs 

1236400

Laboratory equipment 

43000

Packaging machinery for 75 kg bags 

27400

Buildings 

385420

Total

1692220

 

(v) Cost of Drying Plants (Waterman, 1977)

1. Small freshwater fish, East Africa, dried in a mechanized drier or naturally by the sun (0.2 t finished product/day

Drying Method (N) 

Mechanical (M)

Natural

Land (M: 500 m2; N: 1 800 m2) x US$ 1/m2

500

1 800

Storage 20 M2 X US$ 75/M2, 10 t capacity 

1 500

1 500

Buildings for offices and processing, M: 100 m2, N: 10 m2 x US$ 75/m2

7500

750

Mechanized drier, with attachments, installed 

9000

---

Drying frames, 600 m2 x US$ 1.2/m2

---

720

Other equipment and incidentals expenses

1 500

1 230

Total Fixed Investment 

20000

6000

 

2. Simple drying/smoking. Small freshwater sardine (Stolothrissa tanganicae) in East Africa. The fish is first brined (10%), sun dried on frames for about 10 h and smoked in a non-mechanized smoke-house for 4 h. Maximum period of production: 220 days/year

Investment Cost

US$

Construction of drying and smoking plant

22000

Equipment (scales, seamer, generator, hydraulic pump, others)

8000

Total Investment

30000

 

3. Highly mechanized drying of salted fillets in small and large scale driers.

Investment Cost Large Drier Small Drier
(driers only)

190000

8000

 

(vi) Investment for Artisanal Fishmeal Plants, Tanzania, 20 kg Finished Product/day (Mlay and Mkwdizu 1982)

 

US$

Cooking area, covered 

17

Drying and milling 

14

Storage 

57

Drying materials 

22

Working capital 

57

Total 

168

 

(vii) Small scale fishmeal 121ants, 80 kg/day (Etoh, 1932)

 

US$

Equipment (heater, cooker, cooking basket, press, crusher, drier, grinder, others)

1 433.0

Miscellaneous including fittings, rakes, shovel, etc. 

145.6

Total 

1 578.9

 

(viii) Large-scale Fishmeal Plants (Atlas. 1975)

 

Cost, US$

Capacity t of raw material/24 h 

Concentration of Stickwater

 

Without

With

15

200 000

 

25

235 000

 

30

320 000

 

60

 

455 000

150

 

800 000

250

 

1 100000

 

(ix) Cost of Equipment for the Fishery Industry

Equipment

Throughput

Unit

Cost, US$

Country

Reference

Steamboiler 

3 500

kg/h

45500

Norway

(Myrseth, 1985)

Compressed air plant 

2500

1/h

3 250

"

"

Can seaming machines

150

cans/min

49400

"

"

Overpressure retort 

5500

cans of 450 g

58500

"

"

Gutting machines 

30

fish/min

22500

UK

(Graham, 1984)

Heading machines 

35

fish/min

7500

"

"

Heading and gutting machines 

180

fish/min

22600

Argentina

1994

Battering and breading machines

350

kg/h

22500

   UK

   (Graham, 1984)

Forming machine 

2000

kg/h

22500

"

"

Filleting table 

1

post (0.85 m2)

340

Argentina

1994

Whole fish washer (recycling water) 

40

t/8 h

25900

"

   "

 

C.2 Cost of Raw Material

Raw material

US$

Unit

Country

References

Hake

230-280

Argentina

1990

Hake

250

Uruguay

(Kelsen et al., 1981)

Sea Salmon

650

Argentina

1990

Kingclip

800

"

"

Croaker

580

Uruguay

(Kelsen et al., 1981)

Anchovy

700

Argentina

1989

Sardine for drying/smoking

195

Africa

(Waterman, 1977)

Sardines

183

Tropical Countries

(Edwards et al., 1981)

Sardines

197

Norway

(Myrseth, 1985)

Tuna (Yellowfin)

250

 Indonesia

(Bromiley et al., 1973)

Tuna

1000

Cape Verde

1990

Shrimp

361

Indonesia

(Bromiley, 1973)

Fish for fishmeal plants

40-50

Tropical Countries

(Shaw, 1976)

Fish for fishmeal

45

Europe

 (Atlas, 1975)

Fish for fishmeal

41.7

Tanzania

(Mlay and Mkwizu, 1982)

Fish for fishmeal and drying

80

Brazil 

(Vaaland & Piyarat, 1982)

Fresh water fish for fishmeal

60

African Countries

(Waterman, 1977)

Fish, Pacific Pollock

121

USA

(Bartholomai, 1987)

Fish for canning and freezing,including shellfish

160-380

Tropical Countries

(Shaw, 1976)

Sunflower oil 

0.5

kg 

Cape Verde

(1990)

Bread crumbs

0.52

kg

Argentina

1990

Medium quality salt

0.3

kg

"

"

Salt

0.5

kg

Cape Verde

(1990)

Salt

0.182

kg 

African Countries

(Waterman, 1977)

Wood

1.3

m3

"

"

 

C.3 Labour Rates in the Fishery Industry

Process

Labour, US$

Unit

Country

Reference

Frozen

       

Filleters

0.06

kg skinless hake fillet

Argentina

1990

Labourers

1.12

hour

"

"

Packagers

1.11

hour

"

"

Freezer Attendants

1.49

hour

"

"

Salted, dried and canned

       

Labourers

0.80

hour

Argentina

1990

Packagers

0.79

hour

"

"

Workers, drying

0.30

day 

African Countries

(Waterman, 1977)

Workers, canning

1.35(*)

day

Indonesia

(Bromiley et al., 1973)

Workers

10. 00(*)

day

Cape Verde

1990

Supervisor

14.00(*) 

day

"

"

Industrial Workers

       
 

3-4

day

Tropical Countries

(Shaw, 1976)

Untrained workers

0.78

hour

 Brazil

 (Vaaland & Piyarat, 1982)

Specialized workers

0.11

hour

Africa

(Waterman, 1977)

Processing workers

155.4

month

Senegal

(Jarrold & Everett, 1978)

Salaries, permanent personnel

       

Administrative employee

200-300

month

Argentina

1990

Foreman

300-500

month

"

"

Production Chief

1 000

month

"

"

Managers

1 500-2000

month

"

"

Maintenance Officials

400-600

month

"

"

Machinists

400-600

month

"

"

Managers

4 059

year

Brazil 

(Vaaland & Piyarat,   1982)

Foreman

1 462

year 

"

"

Manager

1 125

month

UK

(Graham, 1984)

Supervisor

560

month

"

"

Administrative

337

month

"

"

Mechanical

150

month

"

"

Workers

90 

month

"

"

Administrative

333

month

Senegal

(Jarrold & Everett, 1978)

Technicians

444

month

"

"

Catching

       

Captain

39 

month

Bangladesh

(Eddie & Nathan, 1980)

Crew

19.5

month

"

"

Non-specialized fisherman

133.2

month

Senegal

(Jarrold & Everett, 1978)

(*) Includes social benefits

 

C.4 Cost of Utilities

Utility

Cost, US$

Unit

Country

Reference

Electricity

       
 

0.20

kWh

Argentina

1990

 

0.10-0.15

kWh

Tropical Countries

(Shaw, 1976)

 

0.1125

kWh

UK

(Graham, 1984)

 

0.069-0.076

kWh

Tropical Countries

(Edwards, 1981; Street, 1980)

 

0.044

kWh

Norway

(Myrseth, 1985)

 

0.05

kWh

African Countries

(Waterman, 1977)

 

0.0078

kWh

Brazil

(VaaIand & Piyarat, 1982)

 

0.20

kWh

Cape Verde

1990

Self-generated

       
 

0.02-0.05(*)

kWh

USA

(Jelen & Black, 1983)

 

0.016-0.045

kWh

"

"

Fuels

       

Fuel Oil

0.20

1

Argentina

1990

 

0.40

1

USA

 (Bartholomai, 1987)

 

0.2-0.28 

1

 

(Jelen & Black, 1983)

 

0.31

 Tropical Countries

(Edwards, 1981)

 

0.26

Norway

(Myrseth, 1985)

 

0.2

kg

Cape Verde 

1990

 

0.235

kg

Brazil 

(Vaaland & Piyarat, 1982)

 

0.2

kg 

African Countries

(Waterman, 1977)

 

0.74 

Seychelles

(Parker, 1989)

 

0.27

1

Thailand

"

Fuel(**)

40

t

Peru

(Engstrom et al., 1974)

Inboard engines

0.15

1

Senegal 

(Jarrold and Everett, 1978)

Outboard engines

0.24

1

Senegal

"

Diesel Oil

0.21

Bangladesh

(Eddie & Natham, 1980)

 

0.6

1

 Indonesia

"

Gas Oil

0.23

kg

Morocco

(Haywood and Curr, 1987)

Natural Gas

       
 

0.26

m3

USA

(Bartholomai, 1987)

 

0.07-0.16

m3

"

(Jelen & Black, 1983)

Water

       

Processing

1

m3

Argentina

1990

"

1

m3

USA

(BarLholomai, 1987)

"

0.195

m3

Norway

(Myrseth, 1985)

"

0.1

m3

Tropical Countries

(Edwards, 1981)

"

0.066 - 0.26

m3

USA

(Jelen & Black, 1983)

"

1

m3

Cape Verde

 

Freezing

0.56

m3

UK

(Graham, 1984)

Ice

0.046

kg

Seychelles

(Parker, 1989)

Block lce, 110-120 kg

1.95

block

Bangladesh

(Eddie & Natham, 1980)

 

10.2

Thailand

(Haywood and Curr, 1987)

 

23.92

 t

Morocco

"

 

0.022

kg

Paraguay

(FAO, 1991)

Flake Ice

0.035

kg 

 

(FAO, 1991)

Ice (ready for sale)

0.16

kg 

Tanzania

(Lupin, 1985b)

 

0.017

kg

Europe

"

(*) Highly dependent upon the consumption and location.

(**) This price being weighted to include estimated costs for lubricants and greasing.

 

C.5 Cost of Packaging in the Fishery Industry

Packaging materials

Cost, US$

Unit

Country

References

Lithographed cans, 170 g

0.17

can

Argentina

1991

Cans, 380 g

0.16

can

   

Cans, 125 g

0.058

can

Venezuela

1990

Cans, 425 g

0.08 

can

Tropical Countries

(Shaw, 1976)

Cans, N 2

0.1 - 0.25

can

USA

(Bartholomai, 1987)

Cans, 115 g

0.06

can

Tropical Countries

(Edwards, 1981)

Cans, 180 g

0.12 

can

Cape Verde

1990

         

Vacuum packs for frozen fish

0.075

kg prod.

France

(Jul, 1985)

         

Polyethylene

1.7-2.1 

kg

Argentina

1990

Plastic bags

15

1 000 bags

Tropical Countries

(Shaw, 1976)

Bags for dried fish

13 

1 000 bags

African Countries

(Waterman, 1977)

Nylon, interleaved 

1.33

t prod.

Uruguay

 (Kelsen et al., 1981)

         

Polypropylene bags, 50 kg

0.25

bag

Argentina

1990

Bags for fishmeal

0.60

bag

Tropical Countries

(Shaw, 1976)

Bags for fishmeal

0.28

bag

Europe

(Atlas, 1975)

Packaging for dry products and fishmeal

16

ton prod.

Brazil

(Vaaland & Piyarat, 1982)

Waxed cardboard boxes, 7 kg

0.26

box

Argentina

1990

Corrugated cardboard box, 21 kg

0.46-0.50

box 

Argentina

1990

Master box, 15 kg

0.48

box

Uruguay

(Kelsen et al., 1981)

Boxes for cans of fish

0.27

box 

Tropical Countries

(Shaw, 1976)

Boxes for dried fish

0.32

box

African Countries

(Waterman, 1977)

Cardboard boxes (x 24 cans)

0.15

box

USA 

(Bartholomai, 1987)

Boxes (x 100 cans)

0.50

box

Tropical Countries

(Edwards, 1981)

Boxes (x 24 cans)

0.30

box 

Cape Verde

1990

Straps and labelling

4

t FB

Argentina

1990

Plastic drums, 200 kg

25

drum

Argentina

1994