Drug management

and parasite resistance

in bovine trypanosomiasis in Africa


The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

M-27
ISBN 92-5-104185-7

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Information Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

FAO 1998


Contents

SUMMARY

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Chapter 1

CURRENT SITUATION OF RESISTANCE AGAINST TRYPANOCIDAL DRUGS

 

Chapter 2

PATHOGENICITY OF DRUG-RESISTANT PARASITES AND THE IMPACT ON LIVESTOCK PRODUCTIVITY

 

Chapter 3

MECHANISMS AND GENETICS OF RESISTANCE TO TRYPANOCIDES

Isometamidium

Homidium salts

Diminazene

 

Chapter 4

DETECTION OF DRUG RESISTANCE

Tests in ruminants

Tests in mice

In vitro assays

Trypanocidal drug ELISAs

Longitudinal parasitological data

New tests (in development) for detection of resistance to ISMM

 

Chapter 5

GUIDELINES ON THE DELAY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF DRUG RESISTANCE

Reducing the number of treatments by integrating drug usage with other control measures

Use of the correct dose

Avoiding exposure of the whole parasite population to a drug

Ban on the use of quinapyramine in cattle

 

Chapter 6

GUIDELINES ON THE CONTROL OF DRUG RESISTANCE ONCE PRESENT

Resistance against a single drug

Multiple drug resistance at the level of individual trypanosomes

 

CONCLUSIONS

 

REFERENCES