Previous PageTable Of Contents

Appendix five - Notes from the villages

Appendix five - Notes from the villages

Relevant records of discussions with women in villages visited by the consultant are given here as well as verbal information from numerous informants.


Torres Islands

Hiu, Tegua. Lob & Linua, Toga:

Coconut crabs and lobster fishing.

Fisheries officers reported from a recent visit that one small island in the group is being managed as a coconut crab reserve by the sole resident. The officers also reported that the community was very interested in their presentations.

Anglaise (fish) never has ciguatera here.

Banks Islands

Mota Lava:

* Flying fish caught dry season by men and women: use a line from a canoe - like trolling; done in daytime. No memory of custom use of nets and fire on canoe stern

* Use goggles (men and women), handlines (women); bamboo rods (men and women); bow and arrow, spear (men only); short fishing spears (women)

* Diving (speargun, underwater torch) for lobsters and reef walking (men). No lobster pots (?custom memory of pots; one person said they did but may have been from another island, as other people always said no). Are paid 600 vt/kg clear by their friends in Vila and Santo after the Banks people pay the airfreight (150/kg) ® profit of 450 vt/kg.

* Gillnets used in several in villages. The three measured were 2" stretched mesh. Said to have 2 cm mesh ones also - both gillnets and as cast ('parachute') nets. Scoop net in Valuwa village (near airport).

* Do have customary ownership but until recently no tabus been put. Short (3 month) tabu on a one kilometre reef section (opened when we were there)

* Sell trochus when buyer comes.

* No green snail.

* Have sold beche-de-mer: two buyers. Sell either fresh of dry (max. 400 vt/kg). Ra Island women reported the price is 600 vt/kg for fresh sandfish. 800 vt for dried.

* Fish drive (coconut sweep net) during change of tide; for celebrations or special occasions, e.g. for St Bartholomew's day. Whole community engaged; beat water.

* No (few) pearl oysters

* Have natalai (at least two kinds) - no buyers. Said they do/did make clam gardens (Ra Island)

* Only one kind of mangrou - season from about July. Size described would be either Selar or Decapterus. Short season, but in some years it is longer (no length stated).

* Have sardines.

* Three poisons used - narvel, a bush wood and leaves, and roots and stems of another.

* Custom use of stone weirs.

* No tabus specific to women, except that only men go in boats beyond the reefs (would troll) (women don't prefer to)

* Have rock salt (Ra Island)

* Eat some species of sea cucumber (cooked) - couldn't say which (Var village)

* Churches on the island: Anglican, Assemblies of God, SDA and Renewal

* First time I have observed bottle-feeding babies.

Santa Maria (Gaua):

* Freshwater prawns (man has a business there - grow-out)

* Custom and current use of double freshwater prawn traps; also divert streams to catch

* Crater lake is the largest freshwater lake in the western Pacific outside of PNG. Eels and freshwater prawns in the lake.

Mere Lava:

* Lobster fishing using chiton as bait and a coconut mid-rib line

* Women here also fish with arm extensions of coconut leaves (to keep them afloat)

* Women (and men) use goggles and handlines.

* Women and men go in canoes to fish

* Women fish a lot - 'every day'


No information.

Vanua Lava (Sola);

* Stone weirs (custom) still in use.

* The double freshwater prawn trap is also used here (still)

Reef Islands:

The only atolls in Vanuatu. Said to have abundant fish. Also said that many of the fish there have ciguatera.


No information


Espiritu Santo

Freshwater prawns, southern Santo: catch prawns with hook on a line, or by hand. As fishing, put the prawns in a woven basket hanging from person's neck. If keep the catch cool and wet (with leaves) the prawns survive 9-10 hours after being caught enough time to walk out of the bush to pick-up point where have esky and ice ® market. Price to the fisher has risen ® now gets 450-650 vt/kg in Luganville. If no seasonal tabu stock always wiped out. Now some chiefs put a 2-3 year tabu on freshwater naura and this led to better harvest. The Land Use Program in Santo monitors prawn resources.

Buyers of freshwater prawns in Luganville: if from market product has always been speared; wrapped in laplap leaves; sells for 400-450vt/kg. Quality not good - must cook same day. One restaurant gets from the Maewo farmer (irregular - Maewo relative brings). Hotel Santo gets from market or direct from fishermen in southern Santo. Fishermen walk down, then put prawns in eskies at places where the road ends, and deliver. Hotel pays 650 vt/kg.

Three buyers of beche-de-mer in Santo.

Port Olry.

* Very big village. Men do most fishing; women spend most time in garden. Port Olry a large embayment with outer islands - almost a surf on the beach, and rolling waves further out on the reef. Seagrass, two dugongs (reported).

* Beche-de-mer (men only) and process; buyer comes

* Men only gather lobster, greensnail and trochus

* Natalia: two kinds - the ones that stand alone on the sand (are small now -?over harvested) and those in the rocks.

* Women and men gather octopus.

* Only one kind of mangrou - comes from about '`the Day of Pentecost" to into December. Also sardines and picot.

* Men have gillnets - many canoes each with at least one gillnet. 1/2" to 3 " (they said - the ones I looked at are 2"); use nets to encircle mangrou - daytime. Sell mangrou in village (5 fish/string = 100 vt) and sell in Santo. Buy ice (esky) from FTC, truck it back to Port Olry, then truck mangrou back. Travel to Santo is about 200 vt/person/truck. There are people in village who can make, and mend, nets (men and women). A new gillnet costs c. 18,000 vt.

* Drying fish: use the fresh fish in breadfruit leaves method.

* Turtles come ashore (probably green turtles) and the people harvest them and their eggs.

* No? tabus. Say there is CMT (are inland people originally).

* Women generally don't own fishing nets and aren't allowed to use their husband's. Women use handlines and also bamboo rods - both are rather new things.

* Women fish probably less than twice a week. Too busy in garden [and also the reef is offshore - not that easy. Would probably only go when there is a very low tide.]

* To make extra money, women sell fish (that their husbands caught), laplap, cooked food and vegetables. Don't do weaving [another indication that they are inlanders - no pandanus, native hibiscus]

* Some women have businesses: sew clothes, cook (cakes); some pick and dry cocoa. Price of transport to town is 5000 vt return for a vehicle ® group hires together.

* If want to start a business or need extra money. women don't borrou: save up; otherwise their menfolk give them some. Didn' t know if their husbands had loans.

* Women seemed ignorant of profit and loss. supply and demand. Their husbands determine price of items for sale.

* Training given: soap and water tanks (DWA), sewing. There is a VNCW rep. There, (attended the FTC women's course): not at meeting; was appointed from Vila office. Never gives training classes. Some women asked if the FD would give them a net - as have no access otherwise.

* Village appears to have several sources of income: beef, copra and cocoa, mangrou...

* Ciguatera fish: say the red and the black loche are poisonous.

* Tinned fish in local co-opt stores (there are two in the village) is 160-170 vt (big tins).

* A large Catholic mission. All are Catholics; Frenchspeaking.

Hog Harbour.

* Women harvest the green snail dive.

* Not much trochus.

* All are Presbyterian.

* Otherwise, fairly similar to Port Olry

Nakere village south Santo.

* People originally from Tangoa Island, moved to mainland because of population pressure and also land vacant after blackbirding and plantation; 40-50 houses.

* All are Presbyterian

* Men do droplining and netting.

* Used to be trochus but were harvested in late 1970s and not returned(!); few greensnail. Have beche-de-mer and did some processing, but is hard work so have discontinued. Prices offered by Chinese buyer varied from 500 vt/kg (dried) for sandfish - which they don't have - to c. 300 vt/kg for curryfish and greenfish.

* Mangrou - same as for Port Olry fishers (ice from FTC). If sell at Santo fish market get 200-250vt/kg, if at Chinese stores get 300vt/kg. Two kinds of mangrou - 'scaled', with yellow mark (?Selar) and 'unscaled' with thin tail (?Decapterus). Not sure of season.

* Women use handline, go in canoes to fish. No netting (as don't own, not enough time). Also fish in fresh water.

* No CMT (they say) but the whole community put a tabu in July 1996 for one year: will open for one day on family day (26th December) for a small catch, then re close. Tabu is for everything but people may fish from offshore islands (same community as Tangoa people).

* Have palolo worm in September. Whole community collects with mosquito nets and coconut brooms.

* Two species of turtles - used to harvest + eggs, but now follow Fisheries Department advice and don't.

* Octopus - 'seasonal' (lunar cycle).

* Lots of mud crabs (in the big rivers only).

* Ciguatera: in 'Anglaise' and a black Anglaise; sometimes in karong and red loche.

* Get freshwater eels and prawns in rivers. Spear/bonaro the prawns.

* Earn extra money from selling vegetables and copra cutting/drying.

* Training: have a VNCW rep at Tangoa - elected - gets training but never visits to give training. Instead get training from DWA: cooking and sewing.

* Dry fish in glass jars.?Say they put fish with salt and keep in glass jar - dries. Stays OK for 1-2 years. Previously used bamboo. Perhaps they boil the fish first and then do this?.

* Say they make dried beef- cut in strips and put with salt in layers (must have been shown). Don't do the fish the same way as that.

* Salt for drying is store-bought, but before they used rock salt.

Tanowol village.

* Inland people who came to the coast - land vacant after traders etc.

* Four religions: Holiness. Presbyterian. Pentecost and Jehovah's Witness.

* Woman handline and collect from rivers and reef. Could go netting but not bothered: can go in canoes.

* Rivers with black loche blong freswara' (not tilapia). plenty of mullet. namarai and naura. Lots of mullet in west. south-west and south Santo rivers.

* No tabus in place. but CMT exists

* Have sold beche-de-mer to Chinese buyer - once?

* Have mangrou.

* Fish preserving: do/are familiar with breadfruit leaf method. A lady there told us how west coast women dry fish (she's from west coast): slowly boil fish first in very little water, then layer with salt; put fish in earthen pot ('sospen blong gratin') and put special leaves on the top. Keeps for 2 years at least.

* Asked for support from Fisheries Department to have business training for one of their young women.

* First time someone's come to visit them from a government department: otherwise information sent from town for them to attend courses etc.

Surunda (south-east):

A fish fence - been broken because built it without permission. Builder from Pango on Efate (Samoan influence).

Malo & Aore

Did not visit. No information



Ambae people used to salt fish (custom).

Dry in the south-west (Walaha) and water sometimes runs out in dry season. Manaro Lake (crater lake) is freshwater but not utilised. No fish, prawns nor eels there. Eels and prawns said to be in the south-western streams. High population on west and north coasts.


* People use gillnets (including bush material ones) as ring nets; also cast nets.

* Women use bamboo fishing rods (and handlines). Women may go in canoes to reef edge but don't. Women also dive for trochus, greensnail and giant clam (i.e. are good divers).

* Income: beef and pigs; also a pi-Vanuatu owns a copra plantation and employs most of the villagers ® don't go fishing now.

* Mangrou: not here, but present in the northwest and south.

* Trochus, greensnail and octopus - caught with sharp stick or knife. Local buyer for trochus and greensnail - people bring them to him occasionally and when he gets a lot he sends them off. Trochus and greensnail not very abundant.

* Lobsters - few; only men dive (speargun) or collect on reef.

* Few turtles.

* Lots of beche-de-mer but don't collect No buyer.

* Rock salt can be collected after rough seas.

* No-one has boats moored there (east coast) but there is facility for mooring boats in harbour in north (Lolowai).

* Used to be a fish market.

* Are two outboard engine owners on east coast.

* Representatives of VNCW and DWA used to come - not now.


* Use handlines (women). One Mere Lava lady has a canoe - fishes every day.

* Mullet, one species of mangrou; shark (hook and line)

* Two men have 2-3" gillnets

* People here can make and repair nets

* WBU officer came. Would like more information on business management, income and expense calculating

* Anglican = only religion

* Get ciguatera fish: loche, large karong, Anglaise. Redmouth never poisonous.

* Had FAD in the harbour but was lost.

* Would like training on fish drying, processing, quality; also business


* Inland village on north-east. A few active women leaders, one being the area women's representative (?for VNCW)

* Eat fish for protein, but no harvesting from streams.

* Have access to the sea and sometimes go there and gather shells, handline. CMT and a tabu in place on one section of reef.

* Also buy tinned fish, and before freezer broke down (Lolowai) purchased fish - buyer would come to village and sell.

* A cooperative market near the village where goods are exchanged and sold each Tuesday: vegetables from Lovunivili and fish from Lolowai.

* Landcrabs: five kinds in Ambae = possible income generator.

* Frogs (smoked): very many non-native frogs around the crater lakes: could be smoked and sold (Ambae people don't eat frogs)

* Coconut crabs in south and south-west of island: could have as a reserve 'breeding stock' for Torba Province.

* Training: interested in business awareness. Two people from WBU? came in 1996.

* Would like to eat more fish, but hard to get from the coast (no freezer; little time for fishing; men don't seem to go). Interested to get fish by exchange or as regular trade item.

* Fish quality an issue (from vendors: low quality ice, time out of water)


* Village on north-west coast, no beach - cliffs, but reef platforms. Deepwater nearshore.

* No mangrou. Money from copra, beef.

* Trochus, greensnail and naura harvested only by men.

* Few beche-de-mer - not harvested.

* Women rarely (once/month) go fishing (income from other sources such as copra selling: also too busy with gardening and babies). Not very interested. Are familiar With the breadfruit leaf preserving method; showed some interest in smoked fish method.

* Women glean use bamboo rods can fish from canoes.

* Rocksalt collected occasionally.

* Use narvel. a leaf and a rope for fish poison.

* Lots of canoes (men)

* Have had training courses (from?): sewing and sewing machine repair. soap. screen printing. rural water tanks. One woman school teacher runs a small retail store.

* Two religions there: Anglican and Christian Orthodox Centre.


* A fish farm for freshwater prawns in north Maewo - owner has series of ponds; diverts stream; sells naura in Vila and Santo irregularly.

* Many rivers and freshwater containing eels, freshwater prawns and fish.

* Many residents originally from Mere Lava (nearest of the Banks islands)


* High population in north and central of island

* Custom breadfruit leaf fish drying (bamboo). Also dried/smoked fish filets above fire. Had a custom way of salting and drying fish. Used rock salt.

* A man has a truck and drives inland to sell fish

* Have mangrou - caught with torchlight at night (men and women). Also have picot.

* Men and women gather trochus. Get a trader once a year. Pays about 250 vt/kg for trochus

* Men only dive. Women and men handline. Men only net. Women use canoes over the reef.

* Have beche-de-mer, but don't sell/harvest

* Women sell vegetables to get money

* Women don't fish very often - get more money from sending kava and water taro to Vila and other islands.

* Use poisons to fish - leaf: rub in holes in reef Use sea cucumber poison for fish.

* Few octopus all year. Women harvest shells to eat.

* Have roadside markets

* Tabus sometimes in place for one year - all fish

* In South Pentecost, there is poulet fishing by women and men - wooden boat



Women fish on reef flats. Use bamboo poles (traditional) and fishing lines (new).


* Have two kinds of oysters - mangrove and 'stone'. Collect during the week and keep in pools near village. Numbers gone down a lot - tabu didn't work

* Women go fishing about twice a week. Use handline (bait = nakito).

* Harvest giant clams and sell in market

* Women may go in canoes over reef but not in boats: use handlines

* Women dive for octopus (always plenty) trochus and giant clams - especially at low tide

* Women and men collect lobsters at night with lamp - wall; on reef

* Large tin of fish costs 180 vt.

* Sell vegetables if want to make extra money.


* Use narvel poison: also a leaf and a root.

* Harvest mangrove oysters on order - collect during week and keep in pool near village

* Natalai there (two kinds) but smaller and fewer.

* Trochus too far out/down - women don't collect.

* Greensnail - more common. Women dive

* Men and women collect beche-de-mer.

* Women use handlines; may go in canoes to fish

* Go fishing if there is no other work to do.

* If want to make more money, sell fresh fruit, vegetables and weaving. Say no Malekula women have bank loans

* Custom way of keeping mangrou - put in bucket with salt, keep for 2-3 days, then cook it. Also do breadfruit leaf preserving of fish.

* Have had training - of sewing, cooking, business management, personal esteem

* Say too many nets in village (yet est. less than 10 nets to the large village)

* One lady runs a store; another runs the ferry/transport boat between island and mainland (church-run cooperative)

* the only fishing business is run by men

* interested in fish handling - quality

* women collect shells at low tide

Sanwar village. Wala mainland

* Men and women collect beche-de-mer - buyer comes

* Men dive for beche-de-mer, men and women collect on reef

* Use poison to fish.

* Have had training from DWA: soap making, water tank construction

* Trochus and greensnail on reef; not many

* Men collect lobsters with speargun and diving; women collect on reef by walking

* Tabu been in place three years in two places

* Interested in learning how to dry fish

Serser village. Wala Island

* Have had training courses: soap making, cooking, knitting, crocheting.

* Have heard of smoking fish - would like to learn more, also on drying and salting (mangrou)

* If need more money, usually sell shells and weaving

* Both men and women process beche-de-mer - don't collect now as there used to be a buyer but he doesn't come anymore

* Women fish from canoes and may go beyond the reef.

Dravail village. Lamap

* Women don't have boats or canoes (nor do men)

* Have at least four kinds of crabs, including 'Caledonie crabs'. Crabs are collected at all seasons and there are always some in berry. Get paid 200-300 vt/kg. Order comes through Vanair - irregular.

* For extra money. women sell copra

* Have three kinds of mangrou. Also picot. Collect with seine net. handline; women use bamboo poles also. Only men use cast nets (?price).

* Use poison root to go fishingThree kinds of beche-de-mer. Collected by men and women and sold to a Maskelynes dealer - 200-400 vt/kg (varies with kind)

* Get irregular orders for mangrove oysters. Collect the day the plane comes.

* Are familiar with breadfruit leaf fish preserving

* Tabu on half the reef - all fish. Tinned fish is 180 vt/big tin

* Very interested in salting and drying of mangrou

* Have had training in water tank construction, sweing, cooking, soap making, smokeless stove manufacture; also marine resource management(!)

* Have abundant stonefish inshore areas

* Picot - Lamap to Arkamb; spawn in the mangroves. Caught w. bonaro, spear, nets


Fotinweiu. Atchin mainland

* Five religions: SDA, Presbyterian, Anglican, Assemblies of God, Catholic

* Get plenty of mangrou and mullet. Use seine net on beach

* Women fish a lot from canoes. Some women go poulet fishing when water calm

* Sometimes men go to gardens while women go fishing (women are skillful fishers)

* Women use bamboo rods and handlines

* Community collects greensnail and trochus (dive). Reef accessible, so trochus numbers have declined.

* Whole community did a big beche-de-mer harvest about 10 years ago - sold. Stocks not recovered.

* Familiar with fish preserving technique (special leaf + laplap, seaweed?, do in ground oven)

* Use poisons to catch fish (e.g. narvel)

* Still use custom fish tras

* Say have large population and lot of gear but still plenty of fish

Southwest Bay:

* Still use a sweepnet for mangrou

* 'Plenty' of mangrove crabs


* In south-east, women fish with handlines, even though coast rocky

* Women don't fish from canoes

* Women collect shellfish; only men collect naura.

* Know how to preserve fish in breadfruit leaves.

* No mangrou.

* Have palolo worms in September.


* Women only recently started fishing for finfish -with handlines and from canoes. Before only collected shellfish. Men collect naura.

* Preserve in breadfruit leaves.

* Had mangrou. but used dynamite. This new activity for subsistence.

* Community asked to set aside area for trochus



* Tilapia in freshwaters there - lots;?stunted.

* Drying fish performed in south Epi island - fish from a freshwater lake near ?Nalema village

* Women dive for trochus


* Rough coastlines in many places - women don't go in canoes. Women fish on reef flats.?Bamboo rods.

* Smoking of herron-type birds is carried out at three small islands near Epi (Laika Island?). The birds are sold in pairs, in leaves.

* Men use handline only; men catch naura by hand; only men use nets

* Narvel and 'natua' are native poisons - used by women


* Beche-de-mer fishing - community

* Three-year tabu in place

* Poison used by women

* Men use handlines only; men only catch naura (hand)


* Women dive for trochus and turban shells.

* Men only target finfish


* Islands in north Efate (Emau, Nguna, Pele, Moso, Lelepa): women use simple rods, handline, gleaning. Are very good at octopus catching. Some places there is overfishing of reef fish (e.g. Moso)

* Picot spawn in northern Efate in Oct-Dec.

* Women use poisons (e.g. narvel)

Siviri village

* Men use gillnets, cast nets, seine nets for picot, mangrou, sardines. Few nets in village.

* Men fish more than they used to. Sell in Vila.

* Tabu in place for trochus (three years)

* Women and men dive for trochus and greensnail (men)

* Beche-de-mer buyer comes. Shoeed them how to process No more left now so doesn't come.

* Eat fish or shellfish every day

* Use nagato for bait - handlining (wonton)

* Lots of nawita

* Still have plenty of giant clams

* Men collect naura - sell dead to Vila [must spear them]. Sometimes get orders.

* If want to make more money. sell vegetables

* Had first training from WBU (business management and money management): women liked it. DWA and VNCW don't come (have rep.).

* One woman has a business (pigs and mat-weaving)

* Transport to town is 3,000 vt one way if no goods to carry, 4,000 vt if have goods.

Saama village

* Women fish 1-2 times a month (too busy)

* Men have castnets and gillnets. Fish to sell ® less in the village

* Women may go in canoes but don't (time)

* Men only catch lobsters - speargun, also net

* Women collect nawita, shells, natal)

* Girls use handlines in reef holes - women don't have time

* Preserve fish in breadfruit leaves

* No mangrou - turn off at Siviri

* Religions are Presbyterian and Assemblies of God

* Use poison (narvel)

Forari village (Wallace and Futuna people)

* Men collect trochus by hand and diving; men dive for geensnail

* Women may use handlines, not rods

* Women may not go in canoes to fish

* Tabu in place for one year on reef - everything

* No-one sells fish. Village sells a lot of vegetables, mats, shells

* Haven't had any training; no loans, no business ventures

* Have mangrou

* Men catch naura by hand - used to use trap

* Lot of nawita, kai shells, natali

Eton village

* No tabus in place, but seas often rough so fishing less.

* Men and women collect beche-de-mer. Buyer comes from Vila

* Collect naura by hand - sell live to Vila. Get 500 vt/kg

* Women dive (shallow) and walk on reef. Use lamp at night.

* Women fish little - not enough time

* Lot of nets in village

* No canoes (rough sea)

* No trochus; some greensnail

* Women not in business except for market (Vile)

* Three religions: SDA, Presbyterian, Christchurch

* Large tin of fish costs 180 vt

* Transport to town is 3,000 vt one way

* Training: soap making, sewing; one from WBU two months ago (business management)

Takara village

* Three-yea tabu on some areas

* Women dive and reef glean (octopus, shells)

* Women sell laplap fish and laplap octopus in Vila

* Freshwater naura there: sell for 500 vt/kg to hotels

* Women collect shells for sale to tourists

* No training in the village - had messages from town

* Women fish 1-2 times a week. No time

Epao villag

* Women fish 1-2 times a week (time)

* Collect shellfish, nawita. Sometimes eat tinned fish (80 vt/large tin)

* Women make extra money by selling copra and vegetables

* Women and men collect trochus and beche-de-mer (buyer). Sell trochus for 200-250 vt/kg

* Women sell reef fish: 270-300 vt each

* Catch octopus with wire

* Mangrou: sell for 300 vt/kg.

* Ice costs 100 vt/kg (crushed) and 750 vt/block- Chinese store

* Transport to Vila costs 3,000 vt one way, but 300 vt/person if a lot of people (charter)

* No training been to village?

?Epule village

* Women fish 1-2 times a week (time)

* Collect octopus, shells. Sometimes men collect octopus (in nets)

* Mangrou present - men catch with nets

* If want to get more money, sell vegetables in market

* Women use handlines; can go in canoes (but don't - time)

* Men and women collect beche-de-mer

*?Tabu in place



Mission Bay and Herald Bay.

* Flying fish - men catch from boats

* Not much mangrou

* Preserve fish with breadfruit leaves

* No trochus and greensnail, but have plenty of rock salt

* Beche-de-mer: say are abundant. Don't eat and don't gather - no-one come to ask for it/show them

* Women and men catch lobsters in pots with chiton bait. Lobsters mainly from August to early wet - traps of pandanus. Sell live to Tanna or Vila, 600 vt/kg

* Women may fish (bamboo poles) from shore and rocks but not allowed in canoes to fish

* CMT on the north and west (where sea calmer; anchorages): none on rougher east coast.

* Coconut crabs - not harvested

* Women gather when sea calm (dry season). Plenty of octopus all year.

* Catch octopus with stick and knife. Use beche-de-mer poison to catch octopus also.

* Have freezer via VNCW but no generator. Are keen to start sending flying fish to Tanna market.

* Seaweeds in abundance


* Women and men fish with bamboo rods

* CMT exists

* Trochus present but not very abundant; no greensnail

* Reef fish sold at institutions; lot caught on west coast in late dry season.

* Land crabs - keep alive for up to a month

* High human population density


* Women work long hours in garden. Don't have time to go fishing: go 1-2 times a month.

* Mangrou present. Not interested in processing it.

* Women are interested in beche-de-mer. Haven't collected it so far(?)


* Women use fishing nets.

* Low population. CMT exists

* Said to be rich resources there. Women can fish with lines and poles but only men go in boats.

* Trochus (plenty) and greensnail (not plenty); beche-de-mer (plenty)

* Reasonable income to some areas through logging companies, but other areas said to be poor


* CMT; moderately high human population density

* Females may fish from shore and rocks with bamboo and lines but not allowed in boats.

* Rock salt; no trochus

* Caledonie crabs and land crabs


* No CMT "because of the church".

* Pollution of coastal waters in north and north-west coast from forest clearing and burning of grasslands. Reefs covered with red silt.

* In south, reefs OK but villagers say they have to go out further now to get their harvest

* Trochus (plenty) and greensnail present. A 3-year moratorium is being imposed by the CMT owners next month for trochus only.

* Send reef fish and lobsters to Vila.

* Reef to the south-west of Aneityum said to always have ciguatoxic fish.

* Community in south (at Anelghowhat) uses gillnets and native poisons.

Previous PageTop Of PageTable Of Contents