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Collins, R.A. (1991) Analysis of economic motives for cooperative conversions to corporations. Center for Cooperatives University of California, Research report No.1, May 1991, Davis.

Cropp, B. & Trechter, D. & Cottingham, J. & Berends, P. (1998) Equity redemption practices: A study of Wisconsin cooperatives. University of Wisconsin Center for Cooperatives,

Giddens, A. (1979) Central Problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure and Contradiction in Social Analysis. MacMillan: London.

Giddens, A. (1984) The constitution of society. Polity Press: Cambridge.

Hardesty, S.D. (1992) Cooperative principles and regulations: Aiding or hampering cooperatives’ efforts at value-added marketing? Center for Cooperatives, University of California, Research report No.3, May 1992, Davis.

Hatch, M.J. (1993) The Dynamics of Organisational Culture. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 18, No. 4, 657-693.

Jämsén, P. (1995) Successful capital formation in Kenyan agricultural producers’ co-operatives. Turku School of Economics and Business Administration.

Jämsén, P. & Ikäheimo, S. & Malinen, P. (1999) Capital Formation and Kenyan Farmer Owned Co-operatives. Publications of the Turku School of Economics and Business Administration, Series A-X/1999, Turku. (forthcoming)

Rouse, J.G. & Von Pischke, J.D. (1997) Mobilizing Capital in Agricultural Service Cooperatives. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

Yin, Robert K. (1990) Case Study Research - Design and Methods. Applied Social Research Methods Series, Vol. 5. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, CA.

This document examines the issue of cooperative capital broadly and its importance to cooperative development in an increasingly competitive environment. It is set in Kenya, a country with a large cooperative presence and considerable cooperative history. Comparative studies of service cooperatives in Kenya’s agricultural sector are presented within a broad framework of organizational culture, market conditions, government regulations and relations, financial considerations and recent insights into corporate governance. The findings provide many useful ideas for improving public policy and agricultural cooperative business performance that may also be relevant to other developing countries.

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