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Group Formation and Process of Participatory Learning and Action



1. Welcome: Abdul Khalaq Al Asaad, Dr. Mirreh, Dr. Baas and Dr. Chatty

2. Introduction of all participants

By alphabetical order, by experience in the project
By number of children, largest distance ever traveled

3. Background and Objectives of the workshop

Presentation by Stephan (prepared text)

Mime exercise (cooperation and hand-over)

a. content of workshop

Methodological and conceptual review
Process of Group Formation and Consolidation

b. Context of workshop

Forming user groups for sustainable natural resource use and income generating activities in the project

Handing over of participatory process to national staff.

Bean bowl (sustainability and cooperation)

4. Review of concepts, techniques and tools

From Tools to Process

Principles of PRA (use flip chart and OHP)
From RRA to PRA to PLA (process)
Empowerment, Institutionalization, and Sustainability

Chair game (cooperation and group work) community participation and increasing hand-over;
need for communication; group work


Group pictures (4) exercise.

1. What is a group?

(use flip chart)

2. Advantages and disadvantages of groups?

(use flip chart and OHP)


Open with ‘Fruit Salad’ count off- five desert plants for organization of working groups today

1. Review flip chart of Advantages and Disadvantages of groups
(guiding question Are Groups better at achievements than individuals)

2. Present Synthesis of Advantages and Disadvantages (prepared flip chart)

3. Small discussion groups:

What types of groups are there (eg. cooperatives, income-generating groups)?

What does a group approach mean in the context of the project?

Group Presentation

4. Comments and description and evaluation of the project to date (Dr. Mirreh)

In respect to:

Group formation

Positive achievements

Challenges and difficulties

Gradual hand-over to national staff over next three years.

Break - 20 minutes

Game Making squares 5 groups of 5 to work together to complete squares

5. Process of successful group formation

a. how to get groups formed?
Return to chart of ‘What is a group” analyze as actually the conditions of good working groups rather than descriptions of groups
b. preconditions of successful participatory groups (prewritten flip chart)

common interest
clear objectives
sharing information and concerns
all members participate in regular meetings to discussion and take decisions
potential for ‘pay-off’/success
organizing for action
accepting each other

group work to put in descending order of importance the preconditions of successful groups.


What do we need to know about group dynamics/functions in order to guide process of group formation?

1. identification of roles

animal game
2. different roles require different tasks
flip chart
three types of behaviour
self-oriented behaviour
task oriented behaviour
maintenance oriented behaviour
3. responsibilities of group members
selecting a leader (flip chart types of leadership)

creating a contract (group objectives and responsibilities)
agree decision making procedures
regular meetings

bus game (decision making)


1. Start with preconditions for successful participatory groups

2. Discuss the Bus Game

a. individual versus group result; concept of ‘subsidiarity’ giving tasking to those most able; delegating to the lowest possible denomination; knowing who are the experts.

b how the group worked together issue of dominance issue of compromise without questioning the group ‘contract’

would clear roles have helped in the outcome

leader/team leader
time keeper

D. Perceptions and Communications in Groups

1. Perception and multiple knowledges

Visual card exercise/from two angles

2. Communications

Among group members
Communications game

With outsiders from the group
Exercise: Whispered message (one person from each team)

1. What are different levels of conflict

(preset flip chart)

2. Causes of conflict

(preset flip chart)

3. Strategies to deal with conflict

(preset flip chart)
printed handout

Case Study of Conflict - each group to discuss and find solution
One or more group to perform their solution

4. Processes used in conflict resolution hierarchy of procedures to manage local conflict (preset flip chart)

F. Analysis of Group work of last two days

1. analysis of roles:

which animal role did they most identify with in their group work?

Who took decisions?
What went well?
How did they cope?

Group members to present to audience

2. Role of the project staff in group formation

3. Final evaluation of workshop

What did they like most?
What was most practical?
What would they like to have more in-depth?

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