WORKING DEFINITIONS FOR COMMON UNDERSTANDING OF TERMS DURING WORKSHOP
We should all be concerned about the future because we shall have to spend the rest of our lives there
The management and conservation of natural resources, and the orientation of technological and institutional changes in such a manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for present and future generations;
· Participation in the development context is ultimately the sharing of decision making power.Annex IVc:
· It materializes in that people or groups of people access skills to analyze their living conditions, to plan for themselves and that they are enabled to act.
· It is a social process that takes places within certain groups or collaboration networks and beyond them.
· Does not stand-alone; it is not an end in itself.
· PRA is primarily a set of tools and techniques to enable rural and urban people to share, enhance and analyze their knowledge and to plan and to act.Annex IVd:
· However it can also turn into an approach when applied at the same place by the same people as an iterative process during the whole project circle, meaning from project identification, situation analysis, planning, implementation and M&E. It can then lead to a process in which the community initiates plans and realizes its interests alone.
· But often PRA remains a one off exercise and then one should be hesitant to call it an approach or even really participatory.
· is about people gaining the ability to undertake activities, to set their own agendas and change events.Annex IVe:
· is a concept that goes beyond the issue of participation.
· It is more than simply widening access to decision making. It implies enabling people to understand the reality of their situation, to reflect on the factors shaping that situation and most critically, take steps to affect changes to improve it
· is about institutionalizing participation
· is about mainstreaming and long-term commitment. When something is institutionalized it is part of an on-going process. It is not a special or one-time-only event.Annex IVf:
· Institutionalization of participatory development means that participation is merged with, or transforms, the vision, mandate, priorities and procedures of the institutions responsible for the development.(source V. Wilde, 1999)
Principles of participation
· sharing/co-operationAnnex IVg:
· honesty/and mutual trust
· feeling of ownership and responsibility in joint activities
· equity in decision making power
· to act rather than to re-act
· process oriented
· reciprocity (not a one way flow)
· mobilizing and building on own strengths
· listening and responding
· re-thinking of traditional roles between development workers and community members
· seeking diversity and difference
· focus on mutual and interactive learning
Principles of participatory learning
· flexible but systematic use of PRA tools and techniquesAnnex IVh:
· seeks good unbiased information (optimal ignorance and appropriate unprecision)
· importance of participatory attitudes and behaviour
PURPOSE OF PARTICIPATION
CONTENT FOCUSED: PARTICIPATION AS MEANS
PROCESS FOCUSED: PARTICIPATION AS END
PROCESS AND CONTENT FOCUSED: EMPOWERMENT
Five Strategies to foster participation
· Amplify the bestAnnex IVj:
· Accept diversity and act accordingly
· Accept change
· Accept to make mistakes; admit them and share them in order to change them into lessons
· Refer to the field; most answers can be found there.
Preconditions for Successful Participatory Groups
Potential for pay-off/successAnnex IVk:
Accepting each other
Sharing information and concerns
All members participate in regular meetings to discuss and take decisions
Organizing for action
The Animals Group (Roles in a group)
Which characters are useful in a group which are disturbing?The Donkey
Which characters are required?
· is a very true reliable friend, who follows the groups rules and helps to carry out responsibilities.The Lion
· (s)he can also be very stubborn and not willing to change his/her point of view.
· is a strong and energetic leader, expecting the others to bring their best into a groups activity just as (s)he doesThe Rabbit
· But (s)he also get into fights whenever others disagree with his/her plans or interfere with her or his desires
· is the one that always runs two steps ahead if the others, making them work a bit faster. With his/her the group never sleeps.The Ostrich
· But (s)he can also be the one who runs away as soon as (s)he senses tention, conflict or an unpleasant job. This may mean quickly switching to another topic
· buries his/her head in the sand and refuses to face reality or admit there is any problem at allThe Monkey
· is a funny friend, always ready for a joke to make the whole group laugh;The Elephant
· But (s)he can also fool around, chat a lot and therefore prevent others from concentrating on any serious business
· is the one who speaks with his/her loud and convincing voice as a representative of the whole group. The others can hide behind his/her large back.The Giraffe
· But this behaviour can hinder the group members in becoming self-reliant after a while.
· is very ambitious in reaching the groups and his/her personal aims; (s)he wants the group be more effective and reach higher;The Tortoise
· But (s)he can also look down on the others, and on the programme in general, feeling I am above all this childish nonsense, I know it much better.
· Withdraws from the group, refusing to give his or her opinions; (s)he is very quite, waiting anxiously to be called out of her houseThe Cat
· is always looking for sympathy. I cant do this, it is too difficult for me Or (s)he sticks to her/his own lonesome ways, never getting too close to anybody else.The Snake
· hides in the grass and strikes unexpectedlyThe Mouse
· is too timid to speak up on any subject but is probably very capable of doing quite work on his/her own.The Frog
· croaks on and on about the same subject in a monotonous voice or disturbs the group with his/her commentsThe Hippo
· sleeps all the time, and never moves his/her head except for the purpose of yawing or criticising.The Fish
· can only exist in a mass of people, where he/she can follow the others and is not forced to think or act as an individual.Annex IVl:
Different Types of Behaviour
Dominates the discussionTask-Oriented
Does not listen to others
Initiating a task by offering new suggestions, topics for discussionMaintenance-Oriented
Asking for information
Giving information and sharing
Explaining by example
Clarifying by asking questions
Summarizing main points
Suggesting a process for decision making
Encouraging others by being friendlyAnnex IVm:
Gate-keeping by giving quiet people a chance to join in
Harmonizing by helping those in conflict
Relieving tension by putting problems in wider perspective.
Order, directions and obedienceLaissez-faire Style
Controls, sets objectives and watches realization
Members have to follow and obey
Cooperation and creativity hindered
No possibility for members of group to develop
Minimized leadershipDemocratic Style
Group can just act as it wants
Information or help rarely given
No development of the group or of its members
Gives group sufficient help and information to solve conflicts and conduct activities on their ownAnnex IVn:
Group learns to accept each others different abilities
Group will cooperate independent of leaders presence
Leader will act as actively or as passively as possible.
Levels of conflict
Conflicts at the household level. This includes conflicts between members of same household, such as siblings, husband and wife, a senior and younger member of a household.
Conflicts at the intra-community level; This category encompasses conflicts between members of the same community. Examples of such conflicts include gender-based conflicts since women rarely have the opportunity or support to voice their interests. This category also includes conflicts between members of the community who are marginalised by the more powerful individuals or groups in the community.
Conflicts at the intercommunity level. This level includes conflicts between two communities or members of two communities. Such conflicts can occur as a result of unclear land boundaries demarcating which community has access to what resources. Intercommunity conflicts can arise because of external policies that change the relationship between the community and the natural resource. Such conflicts are often more pronounced because traditional mechanisms that previously managed conflicts are weak and do not form the same basic point of reference anymore.
Conflicts at the local level. This level includes conflicts between communities and local level governments or other local institutions.
Conflicts at the national level. These can result from policies that affect natural resource use. At the national level, conflicts often involve gazetted forests, conservation areas and priorities placed on national interests - using the natural resource for commercial purposes, rather than local interests. Although the community is part of the nation, often the national interests structure the patterns of resource use with limited consideration of local practices. In such situations, the benefits that result from commercial use of the resource are often not made available to the communities that are most affected by the change.
Conflicts at the international level. This category often includes conflicts that result from migration, trade bans and boycotts, and other expressed international interest in a certain resource base. They occur over resources that are shared at the boundaries of nations.
Conflict is normal
· Conflict can be an important force for positive change· Annex IVp:
· Conflict can usually be managed to allow people to express their views fully and peacefully
· Underlying conflicts should not be avoided
Causes of Conflict
Conflicts over access. This includes conflicts that result as a consequence of a change in access or inequitable access. Examples of such conflicts include:
· establishment of a newly protected area that prevents traditional use of a resource;Conflicts due to change in resource quality and availability. The cause of these conflicts can be either a change in the amount of the resource available to the different parties or the quality of the same amount of resource. For example:
· a shift in the traditional pool of users;
· one tribe is allowed to harvest certain tree species while another is not; and
· the government can harvest wood, but the locals cannot.
· increased population results in greater demand for a limited resource;Conflicts regarding authority over resource. Such conflicts stem from a shift in decision-making authority over a resource (this does not require a change of access or of the resource, only perceived authority). For example:
· natural disasters reduce availability and often quality of a resource;
· the opening of a new market for a product can put it in higher demand; and
· an irrigation system is put into a and area, increasing the quality of the land for agriculture.
· a government agency claims authority over forest lands;Conflicts that are value based. - These can result from differences in use and non-use economic values associated with the resource, as well as differences in cultural, ethical or religious values. Examples include:
· a new local leader comes to power;
· an NGO programme implies authority; and
· decentralization/democratization (giving the voiceless a voice).
· conservation versus production;Conflicts associated with information processing and availability. This category of cause encompasses lack of participation of all the stakeholders, limited information availability and uncertainty (this can make people process information in a certain way). Examples include:
· religious forest versus forest for eco-tourism; and
· communities and foresters have a different attitude regarding the forest.
· a group that uses a resource selectively processes information it hasConflicts resulting because of legal/policy reasons.
· and refuses to acknowledge the use of the same resource by another group;
· parties in the conflict do not have all the information or are
· provided manipulated or wrong information regarding the interests and intentions of another group;
These conflicts can result from different interests in different institutions, include:
· conflicts between policies associated with subsidizing agriculture and forest conservation;
· conflicts between policies enforced by local institutions and national policies.Annex IVq:
Strategies to deal with conflict within groups
1. Avoiding the conflict
Groups that avoid conflicts remain on the surface of their relationships: they dont allow opposition or submit themselves to any arising opposition. Their conflicts are denied, kept hidden or suppressed.
2. Elimination of the conflict party/parties
Members that oppose or disrupt the groups aims and objectives are driven out of the group. This can happen through punishment, bad talk or just ignoring their wishes. This means for the opponents that they have to go. Their thoughts are: We give up We are insulted or We are going to make a group of our own.
3. Suppression of the minority
The group suppresses those with other opinions by any means they have. The minority is expected to listen and obey to what the majority wants and thinks is best for the group (e.g. for them). For some time, this strategy will work, because the minority is afraid, but sooner or later tensions and hostility will become so strong, that the group will break apart. Voting is actually a smoother form of suppression as well, because there will always be a winning majority and a losing minority.
The majority rules and decides, but the minority does not feel oppressed by that and agrees to what is proposed.
The different parties do not give up their different opinions, but they agree on a common point to reach a step both think it is good for them. The conflict is still there, it is just sleeping for a while, until the step or the short-term goal is reached. If that is done and the conflict is still there, it will arise again.
When the parties involved in a conflict have about the same amount of power and cannot oppress each other, they will look for a compromise: each group gives in as much as it thinks it can stand to in order to reach a better solution in the end. Conflicts are very often solved like this. The parties think better to give in a little bit to reach some sort of solution that none at all. But they are not fully happy about the final solution, as it is often less than they expected.
7. Integration of the different wishes into a new one
This form of solving a conflict is the best, but also the rarest. The different opinions are discussed, weighed against each other and measured against the common aim. The whole group is involved in the conflict solving process and each member takes care that his/her wishes are recognized as much as possible. This solution can differ from the wishes of the conflicting parties, but the new-found common solution could be an even better one than the ones that existed before: something new was created by involving everyone.
Hierarchy of procedures which outsiders can start or support to manage local conflict
· Fact finding: investigation by neutral third party, who gathers information;
· Facilitation: a insider facilitates a meeting, by helping develop an agenda, keeping participants on track, and ensuring all parties have an equal voice;
· Collaborative planning: the parties agree to work together in anticipation of a conflict and plan ways to avoid it;
· Negotiation: a voluntary process in which the parties meet face to face to agree an acceptable solution;
· Mediation: a neutral third part assists the negotiation process as a trusted, impartial person without the power to make decisions;
· Conciliation: a neutral third party attempts to communicate separately with disputants, to reduce tension and agree a way forward;
· Arbitration: the dispute is submitted to a third party acceptable to both sides; the third party makes a binding or advisory decision.