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4. Gender-Disaggregated Data Needs to Address Policy

The availability of reliable sex-disaggregated data is an important prerequisite for the formulation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes aimed at enhancing the role of women in agriculture, natural resource management and rural development. In that women play a pivotal role in livelihood and food security, sex-disaggregated data are needed to evaluate these securities. The FAO Plan of Action for Women in Development 1996-2001 (FAO, 1995) points to the need for statistical data on the role of women in agriculture and rural development. The establishment of a global database on women in agriculture and rural development was proposed in 1988 (FAO, 1988).

In the Pacific, like the developing world in general, sex-disaggregated data on human resources in agriculture and rural development are not readily available (FAO, 1993). There is thus a need to specify data needs and appropriate sources. Table 2 identifies data needs and sources for the Pacific Island countries included in this study. These data needs are those required to monitor and evaluate the policies, strategies and plans detailed above, particularly in relation to gender roles in agriculture and rural development and to food security. These data are grouped into seven broad areas, namely economic activity, access to the means of production, time use and productivity, decision making, income and expenditure, food security, and education and training. Within each broad area, a range of data requirements are defined (column 2) and these are grouped into subject areas (column 1). The level (column 3) at which the data are required may be national or community (or both). The source, or the proposed source in the case of data items that are not generally available, is also provided (column 4) as is an indication of the status of the item in terms of general data availability (column 5). The table is not exhaustive in the range of data items required, but serves to provide a list of appropriate and feasible data for the specified purpose.

For example, policies to improve the delivery of extension services, especially to women, are informed by data providing the frequency of contact with extension workers and the type of service received by women and men involved in agriculture, whether large or small-scale. Such data could be7 obtained from records of extension activities made at the time of service delivery and incorporated into a farming systems database. However this is not currently done in most countries.

In addition to the statistical data included in Table 2, other types of data are required to understand the changing roles of women in agriculture, rural development and food security. For example, detailed gender sensitive case studies of the farming systems currently practised are required to provide an adequate understanding of those systems for policy formulation and evaluation. A detailed study of gender roles would complement the data obtained from time-use studies. A detailed examination of such qualitative data needs is beyond the scope of this report.

Table 2 Data Requirements Relating to Gender Dimensions in Agriculture, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development in the Pacific

Subject

Data Item

Level

Source/Proposed Source

Status

Economic Activity in Agriculture, Fisheries, Forestry and Rural Enterprises

Overall employment

· persons economically active in agriculture (industry) by sex by employment status

N C

PC or LFS or HIES

A

 

· persons economically active in agriculture (occupation) by sex by employment status

N C

PC or LFS or HIES

A

 

· persons economically active in agriculture (occupation) by sex by educational level

N C

PC or LFS

A

Market-oriented employment

· persons economically active in market-oriented agriculture (occupation) by sex by employment status

N C

PC or LFS: codes 611-613 of ISCO-88 at 4-digit level

A/t

 

· persons economically active in market-oriented fisheries (occupation) by sex by employment status

N C

PC/LFS: codes 6151 and 6152 of ISCO-88

A/t

 

· persons economically active in market-oriented forestry (occupation) by sex by employment status

N C

PC/LFS: codes 6141 and 6142 of ISCO-88

A/t

Subsistence activity

· persons economically active in subsistence agriculture and fishing (occupation) by sex by employment status

N C

PC/LFS: code 62 of ISCO-88

A/t

Farm holders and labour

· holders by sex by household members working on holding by sex by age

N

AC

A/t

 

· holders by sex by household members working on holding by sex by hours worked

N

AC

A/t

 

· holders by sex by household members working on holding by sex by method of payment (cash/kind)

N

AC

A/t

 

· holders by sex by household members working on holding by sex by whether main or secondary activity

N

AC

A/t

 

· holders by sex by hired labour on holding by sex by permanent/occasional status

N

AC

A/t

Rural entrepreneurs

· rural entrepreneurs by sex by type of enterprise

N

ES or HIES

A/t

Rural households

· rural households with own activity in agriculture, fishing, forestry or handicrafts by main source of income (e.g. crop or activity)

N

HIES

A

Access to Means of Production

Land

· holders by sex by marital status by size of holding by tenure

N

AC

A/t

 

· holders by sex by legal status by size of holding by tenure

N

AC

A/t

 

· horticulturalists by sex by size of land controlled

N C

FSDB

NA

Credit

· holders/ horticulturalists by sex by amount of credit during specified period

N C

FSDB

NA

 

· rural loans by purpose by sex of borrower

N C

AR

A/t

Agricultural inputs

· holders by sex by use of high yield seeds, fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides

N C

AC: appropriate list of inputs

A/t

 

· horticulturalists by sex by use of high yield seeds, fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides

N C

FSDB

NA

Agricultural technology

· holders by sex by use of introduced technology

N C

AC: appropriate list of tools and machinery

A/t

 

· horticulturalists by sex by use of introduced technology

N C

FSDB

NA

Extension services

· holders/horticulturalists by sex by frequency of contact with extension workers

N C

FSDB

NA

 

· extension workers by sex by type of service

N C

FSDB

A

 

· holders/horticulturalists receiving extension services by sex by type of service

N C

FSDB

NA

Transport

· holders/horticulturalists by sex by adequacy of transport for marketing

N C

FSDB

NA

Time-use and Productivity

Gender-division of labour

· rural adult population by sex by time spent on specified domestic and productive activities

N C

TUS

NA

 

· rural child/youth population by sex by time spent on specified domestic and productive activities

N C

TUS

NA

Productivity

· productivity of labour by sex by type of activity

N C

FSDB

NA

Decision making

Individual

· persons with cash income by sex by degree of control over income

N

HIES or SS

NA

 

· horticulturalists by sex by degree of control over decisions relating to cultivation of plot

N C

FSDB

NA

Household

· households with cash income by members' degree of control over household income by sex of head/members

N C

HIES or SS

NA

 

· households by members' degree of control over household decisions by sex of head/members

N C

HIES or FSDB or SS

NA

Community

· membership and office-bearers of agricultural/rural organizations by sex

N C

AR or FSDB

A

 

· involvement in community projects by sex

N C

AR or FSDB

A/t

National

· Members of Parliament by sex

N

AR

A

 

· employees in relevant government positions by sex

N

AR

A/t

Food Security

Nutritional status

· anthropometric and other relevant measurements by sex

N

NNS

A

 

· prevalence of diabetes by sex by age

N

A

 

· prevalence of hypertension by sex by age

N

AR or HS

A

 

· prevalence of anaemia by sex by age

N

AR or HS

A/t

 

· prevalence of anaemia in pregnant and lactating women

N

AR or NNS or HS

A

 

· prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition

N

AR or NNS or HS

A

Food

· average food consumption per capita by type of food

N

HIES

A

consumption

· calorie and protein intake per capita by sex by age

N

DS

NA

 

· prevalence of breast-feeding in infants

N

NNS or HS

A

Economic

· monthly prices of major food items

N C

CPI

A

factors

· monthly supply of major food items

N C

HIES/FSDB

A

Income and Expenditure

Household income

· rural household heads by sex by household income by household size

N

HIES

A/t

 

· distribution of rural household income by contribution of household members by sex by adult/child

N

HIES

A/t

 

· distribution of rural household income by source of income

N

HIES

A

Household expenditure

· distribution of rural household expenditure by sex of head of household by major expenditure items

N

HIES

A/t

Wage rates

· average wage rates of agricultural labour by sex

N C

FSDB

NA

Education and Training

Literacy

· rural population by sex by age by literacy

N C

PC

A

Primary education

· rural primary enrolments by sex

N C

AR

A

Secondary

· rural secondary enrolments by sex

N C

AR

A

education

· secondary enrolments in agriculture option by sex

N C

AR

A/t

Tertiary education

· tertiary enrolments in subjects relevant to rural development by sex by subject

N

AR

A/t

 

· overseas scholarships in subjects relevant to development by sex by subject

N

AR

A/t

 

· attendance in regional/overseas training workshops relevant to rural development by sex

N

AR

A/t

Community training

· participants in relevant government training activities by sex by subject

N

AR

A/t

 

· trainers by sex by subject

N

AR

A/t

 

· trainers in relevant subjects by sex by whether attended gender sensitisation workshop

N

AR

A/t

Notes to Table 2

Level

N

National
C Community

Source

AC Agricultural Census
AR Administrative Records (of relevant institution)
CPI Consumer Price Indices
DS Dietary Survey
ES Employment Survey
FSDB Farming Systems Database
HIES Household Income and Expenditure Survey
HS Health Survey
LFS Labour Force Survey
NNS National Nutrition Survey
PC Population Census
SS Special Study
TUS Time-Use Survey

Status

A Data are collected as part of current data collection activities
A/t Data are collected but this level of detail is not usually tabulated
NA Data not usually available

Definitions

Holding: an economic unit of agricultural production (usually an area of land) under single management by the holder.

Holder: a person (or persons) exercising management control of the cultivation of a holding.

Legal status of holder: private (individual, household, two or more individuals from different households, two or more households, corporation, co-operative, other) or government.

Horticulturalist: a person engaged in the cultivation of a plot of land too small to be covered by an agricultural census.

4.1 Data Availability and Unavailability

The sources of the data items specified in Table 2 can be divided into three types: established censuses or surveys; administrative records; and farming systems databases. For the first and second of these, the producer and user are not usually the same. The producer is often the national statistics office or a statistical section of a government department, and the users are numerous. These sources follow internationally recognised definitions to allow for international comparison and as such are relatively inflexible. This includes the agricultural census. For the third type of data source, that is farming systems databases, the user and producer are often the same (namely the farming systems or extension section of the agriculture department) and data collection tends to be small-scale and flexible.

The specification of data needs is the responsibility of the user but in practice is often done by the producer. This is partly due to the need to follow international procedures which in itself may lead to good data availability. It is noted in Table 2, for example, that data from population censuses which follows international procedures with a long history of sex-disaggregation are widely available. However, sex-disaggregation is less well developed in other sources where international procedures are also followed, for example the agricultural census.

A second reason for users failing to adequately specify data needs is a lack of user expertise in this area. However, because of producer specification this leads less to outright unavailability than to a lack of relevant disaggregation. It is seen in Table 2 that relatively few of the specified data items are unavailable (NA), in other words they are not collected. It may also be the case that existing data collection instruments are unsuitable for obtaining the required data, even when specified by users. In such cases, for example for data on decision making, special surveys or studies are required.

A lack of relevant disaggregation is the main reason for the current unavailability of data specified in Table 2. Such data can only be made available if additional tabulations are produced. In fact, this option is often unavailable for existing data and hence only applies to future surveys. Lack of relevant disaggregation often refers to disaggregation by sex, but disaggregation by rural/urban area (or other geographical areas) may also lead to data unavailability. For example, when rural entrepreneurs are not distinguished from urban. One reason for a lack of disaggregation by sex or geographical area is that in some countries precedence is given to disaggregation by ethnicity or the indigenous/non-indigenous dichotomy.

Further unavailability occurs when standard ILO codes for occupation (ISCO-88) and industry (ISIC) are not used in sufficient detail. For example, 4 digit codes are required if employment in market-oriented agriculture is to be distinguished from employment in subsistence agriculture. If such detail cannot be warranted in large data collection exercises such as the population census because of field conditions, smaller scale studies are required to provide the detail required.

Indeed, in many cases data are more appropriately obtained through farming systems databases. Much of the data required at the local community level are best collected as part of extension and research activities at the community level. Such data are an important component of a farming systems database, as are other localised data sources such as special surveys designed to obtain additional data on topics of interest. Yet despite their advantages over other sources of being regularly updated and able to incorporate relevant detail, farming systems databases are not well developed in the Pacific. Thus much of the data specified in Table 2 as being best obtained from farming systems databases are not currently available.

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