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Feed from animal waste: feeding manual
This manual is a continuation of an earlier book, Feed from Animal Wastes: State of Knowledge(FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 18 published by FAO in 1980. Its primary objective is to provide practical guidance in animal waste feeding to livestock by setting out a variety of formulas. It is intended primarily for animal growers, particularly in developing countries, who seek advice in the practical application of unconventional feed resources, in which animal wastes play an important role.

The first chapter presents established standards of nutritional requirements for various species and classes of animal: lactating animals (dairy cows and milkingbuffaloes), dry pregnant cows, beef cattle, replacement cattle (heifers and other young growing cattle), lactating and gestating ewes and fattening lambs, pigs and poultry. Based on these standards, rations containing different levels of various animal wastes are formulated throughout the manual. Standards established for large and small ruminants are designed for a medium plane of nutrition, but some rations allow for a high plane.

In formulating rations, only a limited number of feed ingredients other than animal wastes are used; the result is a series of typical simple formulas which can be adjusted to other conditions. Non-legume hay or green forage is used as a source of forage and/or roughage. Molasses is incorporated in most rations, except that in fruit-waste-based rations, the necessity for taste improvement and a supply of soluble carbohydrate does not arise. Cereal grain, protein feed, and wheat bran are the other main sources of conventional nutrients. In addition, limestone, dicalcium, tricalcium or monosodium phosphate and sal! ' are used to cover mineral requirements in formulated rations. In case any of the "typical'' ingredients comprising formulated rations is not available, a number of nutritionally similar ingredients is listed, with approximate conversion factors, to ena~le farmers to select appropriate substitutes available on their farms.

The chapter on processing animal wastes at the farm level introduces only simple systems which can be applied to a wide farming community: ensiling, stacking, chemical treatment with formalin, and non-mechanical dehydration. Special attention is focused on the ensiling of animal wastes: description of the ensiling process, nutritional and feeding value of animal-waste-based silages, examples of ensiling of poultry litter with green forages, ensiling of layer and cattle manure with crop residues, silages comprising root crops and their by-productsfruit wastes, dry animal-waste-based silage and complex silages.

A separate chapter sets out typical rations for dairy cows (or milking buffaloes) with broiler and replarement-bird litter and with broiler and layer manure. These poultry-waste-based rations, desirned for dairy animals, are presented only with selected principal counterpart ingredients, such as non-legume hay and green forage, root crops and their by-products, Almond hulls, apple pomace, banana fruit waste, banana peelings, banana plant (leaves + pseudostem), citrus and date fruit wastes, date kernel meal and pineapple cannery wastes. Similar examples of poultry-waste-based rations are formulated for beef cattle. Less comprehensive coverage is ' provided for poultry-waste-based formulas for dry pregnant cows, replacement heifers, lactating and gestating ewes and fat lambs.

Examples of typical livestock rations containing dry and wet cattle manure are given for dairy and dry cows, beef, replacement cattle, and various classes of sheep, pig and poultry. Fewer details are given for formulas for pig-faecal-waste-based rations for large and small ruminants, and use of pig waste for monogastric animals is discouraged. The manual contains 17 tables, 134 formulas with poultry wastes, 26 formulas with cattle waste and 11 formulas with pig waste. These formulas are adjusted to 990 subrations, to take account of differences in livestock weights and dry matter intakes.