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a) Information Needs for Formulating and Developing Sustainable Forestry Policy and Programmes


Mr. Giovanni Preto

Senior Forestry Officer

Forestry Department, FAO, Rome

Ladies and Gentlemen, welcome, Hamjambo Mabibi Na Mabwana.

It is really a great honour and a great pleasure to inaugurate the first of a series of regional workshops organised in the framework of the EC-FAO Partnership Programme. The programme is devoted to: "Data Collection and Analysis for Sustainable Forest Management; linking national and international efforts". The participating countries to the programme are those who signed the Lomé Convention with the European Union, the so-called ACP countries. The letter A stands for Africa, the letter C for the Caribbean, and the P for the Pacific countries. The Project only deals with the A- and the C-countries, thus the African and the Caribbean countries. In order to work directly with all the African and Caribbean ACP countries we will organise in total 5 workshops. Four are in Africa, of which this is the very first one, and one will be held next year in the Caribbean region. The Project runs over a period of 3 years. It started earlier this year and will go till the end of the year 2000.

Ladies and Gentlemen, first of all, I would like to mention that the European Commission is providing funding to the FAO Forestry Department so that the Department can play better its role as data-collector and service provider to Governments,. With additional funding FAO can do its job in a better, deeper and more thorough way. Therefore, in the first place I would like to thank the European Commission of this financial support. Without this support a workshop like this could not take place. [By the way, the EC-Delegation in Kenya was of course invited today but apologises not to be able to attend. We will brief the EC after this workshop and we will provide all information generated by this workshop].

On behalf of the FAO Forestry Department and the Project's Team, I wish also to express our sincere gratitude and genuine appreciation for the efforts made by the Kenyan Government, and in particular, the Kenyan Forestry Department. I specially thank my colleague, Mr Ochieng, who was so kind to accept the role as Chairman of this workshop, despite his busy schedule.

I would also like to address special thanks to the United Nations Environmental Programme - UNEP - who is co-sponsoring this event and who looked after many logistical aspects of the organisation.

Last but certainly not least, I would like to mention that the Representative of FAO in Kenya, Mr Gustafson, and his staff, have been particularly efficient and effective to help organise this workshop. Without their daily support this workshop could not have taken place.

FAO and UNEP would like also to thank you, participants from the host country Kenya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Somalia and Sudan, for your effort to attend this workshop despite your tight working schedules. Some come from far away and have spent a great deal of time to get here. Your preparations for this workshop and your enthusiasm to support the EC-FAO Partnership Programme is very much appreciated.

As you know, ladies and gentlemen, this "workshop" - and the emphasis is really on the word "WORK" - aims at dealing with forest services - thus with you - , but also with other public and private forestry sector representatives, local and regional non-governmental organisations and forestry professionals. The goal of the project is to improve forestry data for development of sound policies and to provide good options for the wise use of African forests. A wise use is a use which is sustainable. You will hear the word many times in the next few days: SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT.

In summary, ladies and gentlemen, we are here together for full 4 working days to review and assess the status of the information on forestry in your countries. Your countries are not only member of the ACP-group, but also signatories of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD).

After these introductory notes I will provide now some background ideas to place the EC-FAO project and the workshop in the right context.

As you all know, human activities are central in the current dynamics of African woodlands. The extensive and intensive use of the soils and vegetation by agrarian communities has undoubtedly shaped, and continues to shape, much of the present African landscape. Forests are crucial elements in the development of your countries and important assets due to the globalisation of the world's economy, the improved international communications and the liberalisation of trade. Unfortunately, forest use is often coupled with the adoption of Unsustainable practices and the absence and uneven application of world-wide standards. The increasing threats to atmosphere and oceans argue for global approaches to understand the relationship between trade and economic policies and the environment, and for the establishment of global and regional accords and policies to respond to environmental challenges on a planetary scale.

How these processes are acting on forest and natural resources is not yet fully revealed and understood. Much of the available data are descriptive rather than quantitative. The data is collected in different ways, making comparison difficult. Some data covers short-term assessments, so that lagged feedback is not apparent. Other information focuses either at the micro-scale, with extreme emphasis on local details, or at a regional or even larger scale, where the data are so aggregated and generalised that the underlying processes are difficult to discern.

Therefore, Ladies and Gentlemen, there is an urgent need to link the finding of site-, time- and circumstance, and results of specific case studies to a broader, regional and even global view. These data are important for regional and global studies of land-use and land-cover change.

However, a more systematic approach is required that aims to understand which details of human circumstances, knowledge, perceptions, motives, actions and responses, so apparent at a local scale, emerge as pattern and influence processes at a larger scale. Moreover, because the circumstances are not static, the focus of research and data must shift from descriptions of patterns to the study of the underlying processes.

How does this situation affect us - foresters, and natural resource managers here present? Foresters and land managers have a difficult task. We are confronted with complex environmental issues, which go way beyond the traditional day-to-day management and use of forest resources. We are facing air, soil and water pollution which is affecting global climate warming and forests decline. We need to confront with the problems of recovering forest lands after slash and burn cropping. We are facing the pressure on biomass and woody plants for energy purpose. We are facing problems with the use of forests and forested land for grazing and agricultural land. We, foresters and land use planners, are responsible for conserving and enhancing the many goods and benefits provided by forests and trees. I agree, this list of responsibilities is long, even too long, and the tasks are difficult. We are all here together to share our concerns and approaches.

The urgency of these problems to be solved are set in a very limited time-frame, and forces almost us - foresters and land managers - to strengthen national and international co-operation. That co-operation is needed and urgent in the following 3 large areas:

· maintaining essential ecological processes and the life support system;

· preserving genetic diversity; and

· utilising species and ecosystems in a sustainable way.

· full use of available knowledge on forest resources;

· acquire new information, and disseminate it;

· provide technical and financial support for building national capability in:

· the present patterns of land use in different African ecological regions and in various vegetation and forest types;

· the external driving forces and internal modifiers of the changes in land-use and land-cover, especially those affecting forest and tree resources;

· the effects on land use and cover of current macro-economic policies, and of sectorial policies on forestry;

· the foreseen location and rates of future land use change and its role in altering the attributes of different land cover types and their spatial patterns (sizes, shapes, contiguity and connectivity), with respect to the main environmental issues (biodiversity, climate changes, etc.).

Ladies and Gentlemen, the ability to forecast the course of ecological change and to predict its consequences depends greatly of how various forest ecosystems function and how production potential is affected by human use and environmental disturbances. The nature of the interactions between climate, disturbance, structure, composition and function of different forest ecosystems needs to be assessed and monitored. For collecting and compiling reliable and up-to-date information on forestry and for analysing the forest sector there is the need of setting up a permanent co-operation among participating countries and establishing a network of correspondents,. This network would guarantee the continuos flow of information and data on forest resources. Keeping tract of land use and land-cover changes requires not only the application of new technologies, such as remote sensing, GIS, GPS, etc., but also combining in an effective way space and airborne remote sensing with field measurements and objective ground observations for assessing the reliability of the obtained information. This information will be complemented with other environmental and socio-economical data. This compilation is essential to understand the driving forces of land use and land cover changes.

The EC-FAO Partnership Programme will interact with other on-going activities and projects oriented toward sustainable use of African forests and environmental conservation.

Some Representatives of these projects and organisations are present here today. Problems related to sustainable use of forest resources and environment are manifold and highly complicated and need to be faced through interdisciplinary studies, based on a holistic view of African environment and on joint analysis of ecological aspects with socio-political economic ones. This can be achieved by establishing better communication and collaboration among scientists dealing with different disciplines and various institutions involved in natural and social sciences research and development at local and global scale. Furthermore, different public and private organisations and services, as well as Non-Governmental Institutional and Grass-Roots Organisations need to be directly involved in the collection and analysis of forest resources data and in the implementation of new findings and projects in a participatory manner.

The countries you represent in this workshop have agreed to subscribe the four important environmental instruments set up at the UNCED conference in Rio de Janeiro, namely:

· The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC);

· The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD);

· The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD); and

· The Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of all Types of Forests (Forest Principles).

These instruments recognise the interrelated nature of environmental issues and are based on scientific assessments, which emphasise linkages between disciplines and the importance of addressing environmental issues in an integrated manner. In fact, sustainable development by definition requires that issues be addressed holistically to ensure that one solution to one environmental concern does not introduce negative effects somewhere else.

Ladies and gentlemen, I would like to draw your attention to the fact that the forest resources are subjects of each of the four environmental instruments. National forestry programs of which some of you are principal managers, have tremendous implications for the conservation of biological diversity, the mitigation of CO2 emissions, and for the forest conservation as a renewable natural resource and source of livelihood. Our workshop here in Nakuru aims at examining the scientific links between issues on climate change, biodiversity, desertification and forests. We will talk about the data-needs for making full use of these institutional arrangements to facilitate the synergy between the UN-conventions and provide an avenue for an integrated approach in implementing the instruments in future. Only through networking at the national, regional and international levels can knowledge be freely shared and full advantage can be taken, avoiding duplication. Indeed, assessments can only be effective if the scientific community is fully informed of scientific and technical work going on all over the world at national, regional and global levels, no matter how modest it is. Forests should be treated holistically as a vital economic resource, as a biologically diverse resource, and as a sink for carbon.

Ladies and Gentlemen, we know that the lack of financial and technical resources within your Forestry Departments and relevant ministries or organisations often impedes the achievement of reliable good quality data. Nevertheless, information sharing within and between countries can bring considerable low-cost benefits, including increased co-ordination and co-operation. During our workshop we will jointly discuss the ways and the means for building a national capacity for environmental information management in Africa and how to share data on forest status and trends to minimise financial constraints and improving reporting on forests.

That information and that increased institutional capacity will lead, or should lead, to a fully sustainable use of forest and environmental resources.

As an initial step toward information-coordination, our workshop will analyse how to share information on data holdings, data sources and information systems and propose common action for the joint development of adequate core data sets. We will also evaluate the opportunities for using common shared data sets, particularly core geographic data sets and forest products statistics, for tracing realistic country profiles and for setting up outlook studies of the forestry sector.

The linkage of the worlds' known environmental databases into a network through which appropriate information can be drawn for central synthesis and analysis is highly desirable. But at present there are many practical and operational obstacles that prevent the world's environmental monitoring information to flow smoothly into a single global world data centre. However, the issues that hinder the possibility of aggregating and comparing collected data are numerous:

· lack of agreement on standards for measurement;

· lack of accepted universal terminology for nomenclature, geographical units, habitat and forest or vegetation types; and

· different economic interests, approaches and objectives in assessing and analysing forest and natural resources.

The development of universal standards and protocols can facilitate the information flow, data compilation and comparison. That is one of the major tasks to be faced internationally by natural resources managers and researchers.

But as you all know, Ladies and Gentlemen, information sharing capabilities have been greatly enhanced in recent years through the development of Internet and the World Wide Web. Although these capabilities are not yet fully developed and accessible in Africa, they are increasing and spreading at a remarkable speed. The WWW as a means of information sharing and exchange opportunity can be helpful for downloading information on data holdings and project activities. With that tool on hand, data can be shared, and co-ordination is facilitated of all important steps in the broader, valuable goals of improving national environmental strategy and improved environmental planning.

Therefore, Ladies and gentlemen, one of the goals of our workshop it is to examine and discuss the issue of collecting and analysing forestry data in a common, comparable way, and to organise and design the data collection in such a way that the information obtained can truly assist decision-making leading to Sustainable Forest Management.

The principal role of forest data collection and analysis is to provide support for the decisions that are to be made about present and future forest and environmental policies and practices and to address not only existing problems, but also to forecast the likely consequences of the decisions that have been made. The collaboration between scientists, technicians, policy makers and environmental managers in industrialised and developing countries need to grow and communication of information should be enlarged in order to provide the society with the basic understanding of the complex issues of the present global situation.

We are all forced to adopt a proactive approach in decision making, because of the numerous regional and global problems facing us today, such as:

· an increased world population;

· the precarious food situation in many countries;

· the poor environmental condition in many countries,

· the armed and other political conflicts; and

· the growing technological and human welfare-gap between industrialised and non-industrialised countries.

These issues force us to think regional and global and creates the need for quality data leading to decisions to improve human welfare.

Ladies and Gentlemen, distinguish guests, the EC-FAO Joint Programme is focused not only on data collection and analysis, but also in providing technical and financial support to implement regional outlook studies. This component of the project will asses forest resources supply and demand situation and likely developments in production, consumption and trades in forest products. Moreover these studies, coupled with national capacity building both in sector analysis and the formulation of policy options in forestry sector, will help to set a reference base in some countries on what may be sustainable.

The EC-FAO Partnership Programme intends to strengthen the collaboration across national and ideological boundaries and improve national capabilities in understanding and facing the many environmental and forest issues that urge many African communities. The workshop is an excellent, efficient means of transferring knowledge, creating new channels of mutual understanding and of proposing appropriate, effective processes of wise use of forest and natural resources in African countries. Therefore we are confident that our joint efforts during this workshop will greatly help this process and provide useful and valuable results.

Ladies and gentlemen, I hope that this was not too long, and that you can clearly see your role and important responsibilities during the workshop. I wish you an interesting, fruitful and productive workshop, and, I am sure, we will not face any problem, Aakuna Matata.

Thank you for your attention.

b) The Forestry Situation in Africa


Mr. Peter Lowe

Forestry Officer

Regional Office for Africa, Accra



Mr.Chairman, it is an honour and a pleasure for me to participate on behalf of FAO's Regional Office for Africa in this inaugural workshop on data collection and analysis under the FAO-EC Partnership Programme. At the outset, I should like to convey the cordial greetings of FAO's Senior Forestry Officer in Africa, Mr. Pape Kone, who wishes us a week of hard but fruitful work. Also, I wish to convey the appreciation of FAO to our sister agency, UNEP, for their collaboration and assistance in the arrangements for this workshop, as well in other joint activities with FAO.

Why Forest Statistics are needed

The needs for information about forestry in Africa, as in other regions, are expected to increase in the future for Africa's own use and for the international community. Broadly speaking, forestry information is used in three main areas:

· national policy development and planning;

· investment appraisal and decision making;

· international policy development and negotiation.

Without hard facts and analysis, foresters cannot expect to convince political leaders that their forestry concerns should receive more consideration vis á vis other sectoral priorities. Thus, it is not enough to assert that forests should be conserved. Whereas, from our perspective, an average annual deforestation rate of 0.7% for Africa may be deplorable, this may seem to others a small price worth paying for expanded agricultural production or cooking of food. Not only do foresters need access to incontestable facts, they need also to ensure that there is full awareness of the likely consequences of policy options.

When it comes to competing for development funding, foresters need to be able to present economic arguments based on quantifiable costs and benefits. Therefore, in addition to facts, there is a need to assess analytically the impacts on beneficiaries. Thus, rather than be content to assert that, during the "hungry season", many rural people depend on the forest to supplement their diets, there is a need to quantify how many families and to what extent.

Following the Rio Summit in 1992, there has been an ongoing discussion by the international community concerning sustainable forest management. The Africa participation in identification of internationally agreed criteria and indicators was facilitated through an FAO/UNEP Workshop on Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Management in Dry-Zone Africa held in Nairobi in November 1997, in follow-up to the Expert Meeting held on the same subject in November 1995.

However, Africa's voice has not been heard as clearly as it should, particularly in regard to the conservation and utilisation of its own sovereign forest resources. The major impediment has been the lack of a commonly adopted negotiating position. For this to be achieved, policy makers need harmonised data aggregated on a sub-regional and regional basis, which FAO is mandated to assist.

What Forestry Statistics are needed?

Statistics and outlook studies are both central to the mandate of FAO which includes compiling, analysing and disseminating information on all aspects of agriculture and rural development, including forestry, at regional and global levels.

Most of the information about forestry in the Africa region currently compiled by FAO falls broadly into two areas:

· Forest Resources:

· Forest Products:

Yet, in view of the broad scope of criteria and indicators of SFM, these data series do not fully satisfy the needs. In addition to the forestry statistics, FAO also compiles a wide range of extra-sectoral information relating to land-use, policy, institutional, social, economic and environmental factors and developments that have a strong bearing on the forestry sector.

Undoubtedly, the key development issue for Africa as a whole is Food Security. Food security is defined by FAO as access by all people at all times to the food needed for a healthy and active life. Achieving food security means ensuring that sufficient food is available, that supplies are relatively stable and that those in need of food can obtain it. Although over the years governments, with support from FAO and other development agencies, have addressed food security and its related elements in many ways, today more than 800 million people in developing countries - about 20 percent of their total population - do not have sufficient food to fulfil their basic nutritional needs, despite worldwide increases in food supplies. In Africa, things are twice as bad, with more than 40% of people unable to enjoy food security and, unlike other regions, the absolute number of Africans affected is projected to worsen by the year 2010.

Efforts to achieve food security in Africa will have an impact on forests, and will draw increasing attention to the supportive role that forests play in attaining food security. Increased production of food in developing countries is likely to be achieved through both intensifying food production on existing agricultural lands, and increasing the area of land available for agriculture. The conversion to agriculture is unstoppable. Whether this might be a positive contribution to Sustainable Development will hinge on the criteria by which forest lands are selected, their suitability for cultivation and the net economic and social profit over time associated with the new land use.

By adopting Food Security as a thematic approach for data collection, foresters can mount a powerful case for sustainable forest management. Consider, for a moment, the roles of forests, and of forests and trees outside forests, in providing the following benefits:

· Forest Protective Functions

· Maintenance of Soil Fertility and Structure:

· Forest Foods: A wide range of trees and forest products regularly provide a direct food source for people, or fodder for their livestock. While forests and trees are not the major suppliers of foods in most farming systems, they often provide important supplements and may be critical in places where there are strong seasonal cycles of food availability and scarcity and where risk of crop failure is high. In addition, they often provide 'fallback" foods in times of emergency or during the "hungry season". Tree and forest plant products and bushmeat generally make the greatest contribution to the diets of the rural poor who have limited physical and economic access to other foods. Grazing in open woodland pastures are vital for livestock.

· Fuelwood for Cooking: In most African countries, fuelwood accounts for upwards of 75% of domestic energy requirements, mainly for cooking. This demand constitutes an obvious and major cause of deforestation in many countries, particularly when urbanisation is high. The homestead firewood demands of rural dwellers may not exhaust local wood supply, but the commercial exploitation for urban consumption can reach indiscriminately to the economic limits imposed by transportation costs. Nevertheless, the sustainable management of forest for the provision of fuelwood constitutes an inescapable challenge associated with the need for food security.

· Commercialisation of Forest Products: Forest products are major sources of income for many rural poor in developing countries.

· Forests contribute to household food security by providing employment and products for sale. As with cattle, tree crops can serve as the household bank. They can be cashed in to pay for special occasions, such as school fees or clinic bills, and also provide families with an insurance against poor annual food harvests. There are, of course, many non-destructive uses of forests, woodlands and trees, such as hunting for bushmeat, honey gathering and gum extraction. Forest industries and exports of forest products generate income and foreign exchange, thus financing the import of essential foodstuffs. Logging of natural forest therefore contributes to food security in many countries.

African Challenges

Many of the forest goods and services listed above are more important regionally, to Africa, than they are globally. Certainly, the underlying driving force of agriculture and the quest for food security are inescapable.

With regard to forest products statistics, it is recognised that in Africa much production, consumption and exchange occurs through informal channels so that the forest products data FAO receives and publishes are valid mostly for the monetised part of the region's economies. This inevitably means under-reporting the full extent to which demands are being exerted upon forests by demand for forest products.

Statistics on non-wood forest products (NWFP) production and trade are very weak. For key products, such as gum arabic, customs statistics can be accessed through the international trade database (COMTRADE) of the UN Statistical Office, but production information is incomplete and is not systematically collected. Due to the wide array of NWFPs and problems of definitions, reporting cycles and units of measurement used for NWFPs in different countries, compilation of international statistics is quite challenging. A general weakness is that FAO does not publish NWFP statistics due to their being relatively insignificant at global level; current thinking is to promote regional statistical publications in which products of regional importance can feature.

The fact that this series of FAO-EC Workshops of forestry data have been organised on a sub-regional basis is based on a recognition of the diversity of Africa. The various sub-regions are characterised by widely differing ecosystems, forest types and richness. Not only do they differ in natural endowments. Even within sub-regions, the countries may have inherited different administrative systems which overlay a rich diversity of customary practice in regard to land and forest use.

Although the collection of forestry data may be shared with non-governmental entities, it is a primary responsibility of government administration. Generally, statistics may be generated at a local level but the manner of their collation and national reporting is heavily reliant on the degree of decentralisation in government structure, and the flow of revenues associated with primary statistics. But, even disregarding this hierarchical aspect, foresters are may be hampered by the unnatural divisions imposed by the line ministries involved. Thus, wildlife - to which the forest habitat is an integral part of the ecosystem - may commonly be the responsibility of another ministry. Similarly, production and trade statistics may be collected by ministries completely removed from the sector.

No sub-region of Africa has been immune to the disruptions arising from internal strife, natural calamity or collapse of political order. Most countries are relatively poor in world terms and many are struggling with the obligations incurred under Structural Adjustment to reduce administrative capacity. Although most countries in the region have achieved a degree of institutional maturity in their forestry services, the loss of experienced and talented professional and technical staff represents an unaffordable loss in human talent and institutional memory. Yet, the International Community is engaged in a continual process of increasing complexity involving heavy additional burdens on national governments in terms of data requirements.

Future Prospects

Although the realities described above will continue to impede the availability and quality of forestry statistics - particularly at field level - the prospects for regional and sub-regional co-operation have improved beyond recognition with the potential of internet access.

A major improvement in the dissemination of international forestry and related statistics has been the development and updating of forestry statistics databases on the World Agricultural Information Centre (WAICENT) available on the FAO INTERNET site. WAICENT carries information on forest resources as well as forest products; forest products data on WAICENT is now updated four times a year as new or revised data are received from countries.

For the entire range of data from resources to products, the long-term solution to statistical quality lies in capacity building in all countries for data collection techniques but also for equipment and skills in identifying and appraising information needs and in analysing and interpreting it. This workshop will play its part in that process. FAO's Regional Office for Africa has prepared draft "Methodological guidelines for improving Forestry statistics in Africa" which are currently being reviewed; your comments on these during the week would be welcomed.

FAO has identified the need for as Forestry Outlook Study for Africa (FOSA), similar to that for the Asia and Pacific Region which has just been completed. The study would build upon ongoing studies and activities - particularly, the series of data collection and analysis workshops in which we are participating. FOSA would go further, however, to provide an overall prognosis on a regional and sub-regional basis to assess the prospects for sustainable development in the forestry sector to a horizon year of 2020.

Strong working partnerships are being forged with other international, regional and sub-regional organisations. Already the EU is supporting the key component relating to data collection and analysis. The African Development Bank has expressed its concrete desire to be associated with FOSA, and FAO has recently strengthened its regional presence in Accra and Harare with the out-posting of four Regional Officers.

The proposed outlook study has been welcomed and endorsed and afforded high priority by African Governments at the 11th Session of the African Forestry and Wildlife Commission (AFWC) in Dakar, April 1998.

c) Documentation Provided

Forest Resources

· Forest Resources Background Information,

· Country Briefs,

· Note on data collection for the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000,

· NWFPs statistics paper,

· Maps of Protected Areas of each countries, prepared by WCMC,

· Vegetation map prepared by EROS data Centre,

· Terms and Definition of FRA2000

· Guidelines for Assessment in Tropical and Sub-Tropical Countries, FRA2000 ?

· Working Paper on Trees Outside the Forest.

Forest Products

· Objective and functions of economic and statistical information for the forestry sector,

· Organising Forestry Statistics, Collection Processing Dissemination,

· Using Information Technology for Forest Products Data Processing and Exchange,

· Forest Products: Production, Consumption, and Trade (1996, Africa)

· Measurements of Forest Products,

· Collecting Production Statistics,

· Collecting Trade statistics,

· Statistics on Woodfuel, an introduction,

· A Forestry Statistical Office,

· Synopsis on Country brief on Forestry Statistics,

· FAO Yearbook of Forest Product country data, for revision 1961-1996,

· State of the Art of the information on Woodfuel in East-Africa countries.

FAO Electronic media:

· FAOSTAT/PC Forest Products (2 floppies + installation manuals),


· Yearbook of Forest Products 1992-1996, publication in Acrobat format (1 floppy),

· Pulp and Paper Capacity Survey 1997-2002, publication in Acrobat format (1 floppy),

· FAO Yearbook of Forest Product country data, for revision 1961-1996 (1 floppy),

· FAO Yearbook of Forest Product questionnaire(a prototype in Excel).

FAO Publications:

· Yearbook of Forest Products 1992-1996,

· Pulp and Paper Capacity Survey 1997-2002,

· Pulp and Paper Mill List,

· Statistics Today for tomorrow, 1945-1994, 2010,

· State of World's Forests, 1997,

· Proceedings, FAO Working Group on Forestry Statistics, Rome, 1996,

· Report of the Internat. Expert Consultation on NWFP, Yogyakarta, 1995.

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