This study is a contribution to the FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific's TSS-1 project entitled "the Review on Food Security Issues and Challenges in Asia and the Pacific Region". It was prepared under contract by Dr. Deb Menasveta, fisheries consultant to FAO/RAP, in compliance with the following terms of reference:
The paper was prepared following the outline as agreed upon by the RAP/TSS-1 Task Force.
The Southeast Asian sub-region is located roughly between lat. 10° South and 25° North and long. 94.5° East and 140° East. It covers the land mass of the mainland Asian continent that lies between the basins of the Irrawady and Mekong river systems. There are ten countries in this sub-region. The mainland peninsular countries are Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. The remaining three countries are Brunei Darussalam, a small country on the island of Kalimantan, and two archipelagic States; namely, Indonesia and the Philippines. According to the international ocean regime established under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand are considered zone-locked countries; Singapore is geographically disadvantaged; Laos is the only land-locked State in the sub-region; and Vietnam does not fall into any of the above categories as it has the open sea to the East (Kittichaisaree, 1993). The total land area of the Southeast Asian sub-region is approximately 4,482,000 km2 (Table 1).
The Southeast Asian sub-region also covers a large expanse of marine waters; viz., the South China Sea and its contiguous waters, which contribute to the food security of the sub-region by producing a large quantity of marine food. The South China Sea is a semi-enclosed sea. It contains a deep basin and two expansive continental shelf areas which are relatively shallow, estimated to be about 20 percent of the shallow shelf areas of the world. These shallow areas are the Mainland Shelf in the north and northeast of the South China Sea and the Sunda Shelf including the Gulf of Thailand in the south and southwest. The total area of the South China Sea is about 3.5 million km2, of which 1.5 million km2 are contained in the South China Sea basin and 2 million km2 in the shelf areas which are less than 500 meters in depth (Menasveta and Hongskul, 1988). Contiguous to the South China Sea are the Malacca Straits, the Java, Flores, Banda, Ceram, Molluca, Celebes and Sulu seas and the Philippine Sea. The total area of Southeast Asian waters is about 9 million km2, which represents about 3 percent of the world's ocean surface. Most of the contiguous waters are under the jurisdiction of the archipelagic States, Indonesia and the Philippines. The South China Sea does not have any high sea area.
The sub-region is influenced by the tropical monsoon regime and the climate is dominated by two monsoons annually, namely, the southwest monsoon (May to October) and the northeast monsoon (November to April). Hence the region has, in general, a high ambient temperature (35-38 °C.) in the dry season and a high rainfall (200-250 mm per month) in the rainy season. The rainfall occurs during the southwest monsoon period, and the dry period prevails during the northeast monsoon.
The climate greatly influences the richness and productivity of the living resources in Southeast Asia. The tropical monsoons bring about nutrient enrichment of the waters in the shallow shelf areas and induce discharges during the rainy season from large rivers such as the Irrawady, the Chao Phraya and the Mekong, and from many other rivers and streams in the region. This has led to high biodiversity and high production of fish and shellfishes in the region in floodplain areas, inland waters, and in the seas.
Table 1 indicates selected economic and social parameters of the Southeast Asian countries. There exists a great diversity of ethnic, cultural, political, religious and language backgrounds among the countries and peoples of Southeast Asia. Diversity also exists with respect to the size of the countries and their populations, GNP, the state of development of the fishing industry, rate of economic and social development, etc. Notwithstanding these differences, there are a number of similarities including the generally low level of income; high birth rate in many countries of the region; and steadily rising fish production due primarily to technology transfer and improvements of technologies employed.
In the fisheries sector, there are several common features. These include the same types of aquatic fauna and flora (Indo-Malay region) exploited by both inland and marine capture fisheries; the currently intense exploitation of the fishery resources in inland waters and coastal areas of the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of the countries in the region; the high per capita consumption of fish by the peoples; the nature and role of capture fisheries and aquaculture in the national economies; and the problems experienced in the management and development of fisheries by these countries (Marr, 1976). It should be mentioned, however, that fisheries interests of the countries in the region are influenced by the differences in political geography of the ten countries as indicated earlier, and in the levels of economic and social development. The conflict of national interests has presented challenges to national fisheries policy-making of the individual countries and to regional diplomacy (Kittichaisaree, op. cit.).
The definition of food security was endorsed by the International Conference on Nutrition (Rome, December 1992) as "a state of affairs where all people at all times have access to safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life". FAO has also defined the term food security at the household level as "physical and economic access to adequate food for all household members without undue risk of losing such access" (FAO, 1995d).
It is generally recognized that the root cause of food insecurity is poverty. The people who are susceptible to food insecurity are predominantly those living in rural areas, including fishing and fish farming communities. In Southeast Asia, the majority of fisherfolk and their communities, who are the primary producers of food fish, are still underprivileged and live a very poor life. The eradication of poverty and the maintenance of food security to ensure food for all are, therefore, given high priority by almost all of the governments of the region.
Fish and rice have constituted the staple diet of the Southeast Asian people since time immemorial, as fish is acceptable to all ethnic and religious groups. Fish, including seafood, provide from 25 to 65 percent of the total animal protein consumption; they have, thus, an important role in the food security of the Southeast Asian countries in providing a supply of nutritious food, which includes protein, essential amino acids, fish oils and essential micronutrients such as calcium, iodine and some vitamins. The average annual per-caput consumption of fish in the region, during 1991-93, was high, being 21.0 kg/person (Table 1), as compared with the world average of 13.0 kg/person (FAO 1996b).
Fish provide a wide range of food at a wide range of prices, depending on species and size. They occasionally serve as famine crops, being subject to heavy exploitation when other sources of animal protein are scarce (FAO, 1995d). In Southeast Asia, the rate of utilization of fish, especially freshwater fish, is high, as almost all kinds of fish are eaten and in practically any state of preservation (Doulman, 1993; FAO, ibid.). Fisheries has, thus, an important role to play in ensuring food security for the steadily expanding populations of Southeast Asia, especially the low-income rural communities and urban poor.
Fisheries also contributes to the economic and social betterment of the countries in question. More than four million people are engaged in the primary economic activity, viz., capture or culture fisheries, either on a full-time or a part-time basis, both in small-scale and commercial capture fisheries and in fish farming. The estimated number of persons employed in fisheries-related industries such as processing, distribution and trade amounts to some 20 million.
Besides its contribution to employment and income earnings, fisheries also provides benefits to the economic wealth of the regional countries. The trade of fisheries commodities has developed rapidly during the past two decades, and they have become one of the most important commodities in international trade. Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam have earned substantial foreign exchange through the export of their fish and fishery products. This will be detailed later in this report.
4. Fisheries Sector
Although the contribution of the fisheries sector in terms of GDP, as compared to other economic sectors, has gradually declined during the last two decades due to industrialization in a number of the countries, its significant contribution to food security and economic wealth is still recognized by the governments of the region. This can be seen from policy statements regarding the development of the fisheries sector in Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Several countries have, since the sixties, incorporated fisheries in their individual economic and social development plans (Menasveta, 1995).
The fisheries sector is unique when compared with other economic sectors, as it operates on limited resources. The steadily expanding population of the Southeast Asian countries has created an increasing demand for fish for animal protein, because of either custom or preference. Together with the rising demand for quality fish and fishery products from developed markets outside the sub-region, facilitated by trade liberalization, and the increase in efficiency of fishing boats and gear, the exploitation of fishery resources in the sub-region both in inland waters and coastal waters has increased greatly in intensity. On the other hand, the rapid development of capture fisheries and aquaculture in recent years, without wise and effective management, has led to a steady decline in the abundance of fishery resources in many fishing grounds in freshwater and marine coastal areas as well as in the degradation of fish habitat and coastal environment. The problems affecting the sector have also been aggravated by the rapid and uncontrolled development of other economic sectors, e.g. agriculture, irrigation, transportation, tourism, etc., some of which have had a negative impact on fishery resources and their habitat. The problems are more pronounced in inland and coastal waters. It is now generally recognized that such a pattern of fishery resources use and uncontrolled development will not lead to the sustainability of the resources and fisheries. If the situation continues to prevail without any remedies, it will have a severe impact on food security of the countries concerned in the future and, in particular, on the less fortunate groups therein. The individual governments in the region are now endeavouring to address relevant issues confronting the fisheries sector with a view to ensuring its sustainable contribution to food security and economic wealth.
To facilitate a better understanding of the fishery sector of the Southeast Asian sub-region, an analysis of the state of the fishing industry, fishery resources, and levels of exploitation thereof appears below.
Southeast Asian capture fisheries can be categorized as a multi-gear, multi-species fisheries. The fisheries in both inland and marine waters are operated by a large number of small-scale fishermen and their families, employing a vast variety of fishing gear, many of which are of traditional types. Only a small part of the total fishing work force are engaged in semi-commercial or commercial fisheries, employing bigger and more efficient fishing boats and gear such as trawlers, purse seiners and tuna longliners. It is, nevertheless, this latter group that has contributed to the rapid increase in fisheries production and economic wealth and, rather unfortunately, to the depletion of fish stocks in several fishing grounds of the sub-region.
There are no reliable statistics in any country of the region concerning the number of fishermen and the divisions of their employment, e.g., in aquaculture, inland or marine capture activities. The figures, only approximations, are obtained primarily from reports occasionally submitted to sessions of the Indo-Pacific Fishery Commission (IPFC), now referred to as the Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission (APFIC), and its subsidiary bodies and to the meetings of other regional organizations such as the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC), or fisheries conferences and workshops convened in the sub-region.
Whilst there have been these reports on the state of the fishing industry of the Southeast Asian sub-region in the past, the most recent comprehensive analysis for South and Southeast Asia of the industry is given by Hotta (1996), from which the data on Southeast Asia were excerpted for this report.
In Southeast Asia, the total fisheries work force consists of full-time and part-time fishermen, estimated to be about 5.4 million in 1993/94, of which 3.2 million (60 percent) were engaged in marine capture fisheries, 900,000 persons (17 percent) in inland capture fisheries, and 1.2 million (23 percent) in aquaculture. Indonesia has the highest number of fishermen, estimated to be about 2.9 million, of whom more than 50 percent are engaged in marine capture fisheries, 35 percent in aquaculture and the remaining in inland capture fisheries. Part-time fishermen are used in both inland and marine capture fisheries (during the high season) in Indonesia. In Thailand, due to the decreasing number of local fishermen in the fishing sector in recent years, foreign labourers have been employed as boat crew on the Thai fishing fleet in offshore marine capture fisheries. In Cambodia and Laos, fishermen are engaged primarily in the inland capture fisheries and aquaculture.
Assuming that each employment in the primary economic activities generates not less than four more employment opportunities in secondary and related economic activities (e.g., fish marketing, processing, boat building, construction, maintenance and repair of gear and equipment, input supplies), it can be said that fisheries supports the livelihood of more than 20 million people in Southeast Asia (Hotta, ibid.).
It should be noted, however, that the annual rate of increase in the number of fishermen during the past decade (1985-1994) was rather modest, being only 2.4 percent as compared to the 9.5 percent estimated for the period 1975-85. There were several factors which influenced this reduction. One seems to be the increasing availability of alternative employment opportunities in the newly industrialized countries, such as Malaysia and Thailand. The other reasons include the increasing use of labour-saving devices in the fishing industry; entry restrictions through licensing systems; and the increasing difficulty of earning a satisfactory income in capture fisheries due to the decline in the abundance of marine and inland fishery resources in many fishing grounds.
In analyzing the fleet structure of the fisheries in South and Southeast Asia, Hotta (ibid.) grouped the region's fishing boats into three broad categories; viz., those less than 25 mt, those less than 100 mt and those more than 100 mt. In Southeast Asia, the total number of fishing boats was roughly estimated at 280,000 in 1992, of which 70 percent were small open traditional fishing boats classified as "without tonnage" used in inland and coastal waters by small-scale fishermen. The number may have been underestimated as there are a number of fishing boats unaccounted for in the registration or records of several countries. Thailand is now trying to legalize previously non-registered fishing vessels amounting to more than 8,000 small trawlers and push netters (less than 5 meters in length).
Approximately 40 percent of medium-sized or large-sized vessels are trawlers which catch mainly demersal fishery resources including shrimps (Penaeus and Metapenaeus spp). Thailand has the largest trawler fleet in the sub-region, followed by Malaysia. Gill-netters, targeting small and medium-sized pelagic fish, e.g., scads (Decapterus spp.) and Spanish mackerels (Scomberomorus spp.), and accounting for about 30 percent of the total fishing fleet, are used in all countries. Approximately 20 percent of the fleet are purse seiners of various sizes which capture mainly small-sized pelagic fish such as Indo-Pacific short mackerel (Rastrelliger brachysoma); Thailand has the largest purse seiner fleet. Longliners are mainly operated by Indonesia to catch large pelagic fish such as tuna.
The analysis mentioned showed a declining trend in the number of fishing vessels of less than 25 mt in some major fish producing countries in the region, but an upward trend in the number of vessels between 100 and 1,000 mt. For instance, the number of fishing boats of less than 25 mt in Malaysia dropped from 30,000 in 1984 to 24,000 in 1992, a decline of about 20 percent. A decreasing trend of this category during the same period was also observed for the Philippines, Singapore and Vietnam. However, Indonesia and Thailand expanded the size of their fleets to fish in offshore waters and the high seas. The Philippines and Indonesia had the highest number of fishing boats of more than 100 mt, accounting for about 80 percent of the fleet of this category; these vessels are used mainly for capturing large pelagic fish such as tuna in offshore waters and the high seas. With a plan to develop its tuna fisheries in the Indian Ocean, Thailand may acquire larger-sized fishing vessels, particularly large purse seiners, in the near future.
Regarding the age of the vessels, it was reported that about 95 percent of the fishing boats of over 100 mt in the Philippines were more than 10 years old, whilst 70 percent of the Indonesian vessels were more than 20 years old (Hotta, op. cit.).
With substantial investment both from domestic and foreign sources in the fisheries sector, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand now possess modern ice plants and fish processing facilities including canneries to ensure the quality of their fish and fishery products for export. However, the quality of the products for domestic consumption in these countries still leaves much to be desired. Other countries in the region such as Brunei, Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam still need to improve their infrastructure, distribution, and processing industries to cope with future expansion.
Prior to the sixties, the contribution of fisheries of the ten Southeast Asian countries to the world's fish production was rather insignificant, with an average annual production of less than two million mt. This was due mainly to the lack of modern harvesting technologies, lack of demand and market outlets, and perhaps to unreliable and inadequate statistics (Menasveta, 1995).
After 1960, the fisheries situation changed dramatically. There was rapid development in the marine fisheries sub-sector as a result of technical assistance through bilateral or multilateral arrangements and increased investment in fisheries by the private sector. With an increasing demand for fish from both domestic and foreign markets, fish production of the sub-region continued its rising trend from the seventies to the early nineties (Figure 1).
Table 2 shows the total fish production trend of Southeast Asia during 1984-94. The period registered an average annual increase in fish production of about 5 percent. The annual contribution of the sub-region to the world's total fish production rose from 10.1 percent in 1984 to 11.8 percent in 1994. The major fish producing countries of the region are Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand, with a combined production in 1994 of 10 million mt or 75 percent of the total fish production of the sub-region.
During the sixties, when trawling was first introduced in the Thai waters, marine fisheries of the sub-region developed at a faster pace, and production has continued to rise. The total marine fisheries production increased from 1.7 million mt in 1960 to 5.9 million mt in 1980.
During 1984-94, the total catch of marine capture fisheries steadily increased from 6.7 million mt in 1984 to about 8 million mt in 1989, and to nearly 10 million mt in 1994, representing an average annual increase of about five percent. The contribution to the world's marine capture landings rose from 9.4 percent in 1984 to 12 percent in 1994 (Table 3). Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines were the major producers of marine catches in 1994, with a combined production of 75 percent of the total marine landings. Approximately 70 percent of the catches came from the South China Sea and its contiguous waters (FAO Statistical Area 71). Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand also fish in the Eastern Indian Ocean including the Andaman Sea (FAO Statistical Area 57), and those landings contributed to the remainder of the total marine landings of the sub-region. As Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand have distant water fishing fleets, part of the marine catch probably comes from the high seas. The rising trend in marine fish production of these countries therefore conceals the declining productivity or depletion of fish stocks of local fishing grounds.
Table 4 shows the estimated marine catches in 1994 of the Southeast Asian countries, sorted out by country and by group of species. Demersal food fish are those caught mainly by trawl net fishing; small and medium-sized pelagic fish by purse seining and gill netting; tuna and tuna-like fishes by gill netting, purse seining and longlining; marine crabs, shrimps and prawns and cephalopods mainly by trawling. The reported marine catches of Myanmar and Vietnam were aggregated and could not be broken down. It should be noted that some of the reported fish, crustacean and mollusc catches may include those from aquaculture; e.g. a substantial amount of prawn (Penaeus monodon) in the catch may be those produced by brackishwater aquaculture, perhaps about 40 percent.
The breakdown of the marine catch of 1994 indicates that about 20 percent of the total landings were small and medium-sized pelagic species (e.g. mackerels and scads), followed by demersal fishes (16 percent) and tuna and tuna-like fishes (9 percent). Shrimps and prawns (Metapenaeus and Penaeus spp.) and cephalopods constituted about 11 percent.
A large amount of catch unfortunately consisted of miscellaneous species and juveniles of commercially important species caught mainly by trawl net fishing. The bycatches or unsorted fish, referred to collectively as trash fish, of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand alone amounted to some two million mt or 20 percent of the total marine catches. Of the total trash fish caught, 65 percent were produced by Thailand. Trash fish are converted to fish-meal in Malaysia and Thailand, which is in heavy demand to support aquaculture and livestock production. The remaining portion of the total marine catches consisted of unsorted small decapods and other organisms such as marine turtles, sea cucumbers, jelly fish, etc.
The state of exploitation of marine fishery resources in Southeast Asia has been reviewed regularly, at its past sessions, by the Committee on Marine Fisheries (COMAF) of the Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission (APFIC)1. Some fisheries conferences, seminars or workshops convened in the region in recent years, such as the ASEAN Conference on Fisheries Management and Development for the ASEAN Region for the Year 2000 (Bangkok, Thailand, 26-29 July 1994) also reviewed the state of fishery resources in the sub-region. It is generally recognized that, because of increasing fishing pressure in most of the inshore and coastal water fishing grounds, the fishery resources, especially of demersal fish, have been fully or over-exploited and more effort will be unlikely to increase the total catches in the future. The marine areas with intense fishing pressure include the northern mainland shelf of the South China Sea, the Gulf of Tonkin, the Gulf of Thailand, the coastal waters off Thailand in the Andaman Sea, the Malacca Straits and the Java Sea.
Despite limited information and statistical data, sustainable yields of the fish stocks in parts of the South China Sea and its contiguous waters were roughly estimated in the past, employing certain theoretical models (Gulland, 1971; Aoyama,1973; Menasveta et al., 1973; South China Sea Fisheries Development and Coordinating Programme, 1976a, b; 1977a, b; 1978; 1980; Chikuni, 1987). In the eighties, the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM) and scientists of several countries in the sub-region in collaboration with FAO, equipped with more reliable catch and effort data, contributed valuable knowledge about the current state of the fish stocks in some fishing grounds e.g., the Gulf of Thailand, the waters around the Philippines and Indonesian waters.
In order to have a general picture of the current levels of exploitation of the various groups of fishery resources as compared to their estimated potential yields, the potential yield estimates of Chikuni, (ibid.) are presented in Table 5. The 1994 marine catch data from Table 4 are used for comparison, assuming that 70 percent of the total catch reported was obtained from the South China Sea and its contiguous waters and that 60 percent of the total prawn catch was from capture fisheries. Table 5 indicates that the amount of catch in the South China Sea and its contiguous waters is approaching its sustainable limit. Demersal fish and prawn and tuna resources may have been fully or over-exploited. The table also indicates that there is room for further expansion of fisheries on small pelagic fish, cephalopod and mollusc resources.
Chikuni was of the opinion that a moderate expansion of the skipjack and yellowfin tuna fisheries could be made, as the stocks exploited in the South China Sea were part of the entire stocks widely distributed in the Pacific Ocean beyond the eastern border of the region, and that they were moderately fished during that period.
Inland capture fisheries has contributed significantly toward the maintenance of food security, especially for the rural communities living in the interior of the Southeast Asian countries, which possess more than 500,000 km2 of natural swamps, marshes, natural lakes, reservoirs, rivers and streams (FAO, 1993a). Table 6 indicates the trends in the catches of inland capture fisheries. It should be noted that the statistics used are the FAO inland fisheries production statistics minus the production from inland aquaculture. The table shows that the inland capture fisheries of the region apparently stabilized at about one million mt over the period 1984-94. The sub-regional contribution to the world inland capture fisheries production declined steadily from 19 percent in 1984 to 15 percent in 1989, and to 14 percent in 1994.
The major inland capture fisheries countries are Indonesia and the Philippines, with a combined production of slightly more than half of the sub-region's total. In Thailand and Vietnam, the annual inland capture fisheries production during the period under study was on the average 114,000 mt and 134,000 mt, respectively. In Cambodia, inland capture fisheries produced about 63 percent of the country's total fisheries catch in 1994, mainly in Tonle Sap and the floodplains. However, production is on the decline due to environmental degradation and increasing fishing pressure which is a result of the increasing demand from the country's expanding population. Environmental degradation has, likewise, affected the production of the inland capture fisheries of Malaysia, whose declining trend was also observed. There was a moderate increase in the inland fisheries production of Myanmar, mainly from seasonally inundated areas during this period.
Aquaculture has been practised in Southeast Asia for generations, employing traditional systems which are site specific, i.e., the systems are integrated with surrounding activities (Menasveta, 1995). Prior to the sixties, aquaculture was limited to a few species, mainly freshwater fish and molluscs, and the production from this sub-sector of fisheries was insignificant. Since the beginning of the seventies, however, with increasing attention given to aquaculture by most of the governments as an important source for augmenting the protein food supply for the expanding populations as well as for income and export earnings, the development has been rapid. Another impetus is the increasing demand from economically developed countries for higher-valued fish products such as shrimps and prawns, sea bass and groupers. This has accelerated the development of aquaculture, especially brackishwater culture, and the increase in both quantity and value of cultured shrimp in the sub-region has been spectacular.
Table 7 shows the trend in the production of aquaculture in Southeast Asia during 1984-94. The sub-regional production in 1994 was about 119 percent over that of 1984, but the contribution to the world aquaculture production slightly declined during the same period due to the rapid expansion of aquaculture worldwide. On the other hand, the annual growth rate of aquaculture production of the sub-region was about 12 percent per annum. Three countries that produced more than half a million mt in 1994 were Indonesia (777,000 mt), the Philippines (784,000 mt) and Thailand (519,000 mt). The production of these three countries accounted for about 83 percent of the total aquaculture production of the sub-region. Myanmar produced approximately 80,000 mt in 1994, but the growth rate of aquaculture production during 1989-94 was much higher when compared with that of 1984-89 in that country.
Whilst Thailand's aquaculture production in 1994 was less than that of Indonesia and the Philippines, in terms of value, it accounted for US$ 1,866 million or 20 percent of the sub-regional total. The rate of expansion in value (i.e., from US$ 108 million in 1984 to US$ 1,866 million in 1994) was higher than that in quantity (i.e., from 112,000 mt in 1984 to 519,000 mt in 1994). This was due mainly to the rapid growth of giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) culture in the country, with the 1994 production estimated at 261,964 mt as compared to 110,200 mt produced by Indonesia, 90,426 mt by the Philippines and 27,000 mt by Vietnam (FAO, 1996c).
The breakdown of the aquaculture production in 1994 (Table 8) indicates that finfish accounted for 1.2 million mt (48 percent of the total production), crustaceans about 600,000 mt (24 percent), followed by aquatic plants at about 500,000 mt (21 percent) and molluscs at 176,000 mt (7 percent). Of the total production of 1.2 million mt, about 69 percent came from freshwater, 29 percent from brackishwater, and 2 percent from marine water. The freshwater fish under cultivation included tilapia (Oreochromis spp.), Indian carps (Roho, Catla spp. and Mrigal carps), Chinese carps, barbs (Puntius spp.), catfishes (Clarias spp.) and snakehead (Channa spp.). The brackishwater species included milkfish (Chanos chanos), barramundi or seabass (Lates calcarifer) and crustaceans (mainly giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon). Freshwater fish, cultured under the traditional pond-based farming system, are important for food security as they are cheap and affordable for rural people.
Malaysia and Thailand produced a substantial quantity of molluscs, mainly cockles (Anadara granosa), amounting to about 152,000 mt, or 86 percent of the total mollusc production of the sub-region.
Only three countries produced aquatic plants in appreciable quantity in 1994: the Philippines produced about 400,000 mt of green seaweeds (Eucheuma spp., mainly E. cottoni), whilst Indonesia and Vietnam produced red seaweed (Rhodophyceae) amounting to 115,000 mt and 6,000 mt respectively. The seaweeds are harvested mainly as a source of carrageenans and agar for the food industry.
As mentioned earlier, fisheries has contributed significantly toward the food security of the Southeast Asian countries. The utilization of aquatic organisms for food has greatly improved since the end of the second world war. During the past two decades, especially, there has been a great improvement in facilities, including cold storages and ice plants, as well as infrastructure for fish handling, product development, and distribution and marketing, notably in the major fish-producing countries. Imported harvest and post-harvest technologies have helped improve fish catch handling on board, product quality, and introduced new processed products, thus enhancing the value of the catches.
Whilst traditional processed products such as fish sauce and cured fish are still produced in large quantity, mainly for local consumers in rural areas, modern fish processing factories have been established in Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand for processing high-valued and high-quality fish and crustaceans, including tuna and shrimps as frozen, filleted or canned products, with an increasing amount of them destined for export. Concurrently, many new fish products have been developed and are available in local supermarkets in urban centres, including fish balls, fish cakes, imitation crab sticks, breaded squid rings, breaded fish or shrimps, etc.
Another noticeable development is the production of fish-meal in Malaysia and Thailand from trash fish or bycatches, for use as livestock and poultry feed and for aquaculture. By-catches or trash fish amounting to about 1.2 million mt annually from trawl fisheries in the Gulf of Thailand can produce about 250,000 mt of fish-meal.
In their endeavour to develop fisheries, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam have indicated their need for further improvement of facilities and infrastructure for fish processing and distribution.
Post-harvest technology development has, therefore, played an important role in maximizing the use and minimizing the wastage of the limited fishery resources of the region, thus contributing toward the sustenance of food security. Despite considerable achievement, bycatches discarded at sea and post-harvest losses mainly in marine capture fisheries, especially during peak seasons, still remain in the order of 15-30 percent2. The Southeast Asian countries have therefore paid particular attention to the strengthening of post-harvest technology development, including prevention of post-harvest losses and waste management; development of human resources on fish post-harvest technology; development of added-value products from low-value and small pelagic catches; and establishment of regional standards for fish inspection and quality control and procedures for monitoring compliance of the same (Menasveta, 1996).
The majority of the Southeast Asian people, particularly those living in rural areas, prefer whole fresh fish. It is estimated that almost half of the food fish produced in the sub-region is eaten fresh (Hotta, op. cit.). Because of custom and habit, Cambodians and Myanmarans have a preference for freshwater fish over marine fish. A high fish utilization rate reportedly prevails among the Southeast Asian rural populations (FAO, 1995a; Doulman, 1993). These people also consume, on a regular basis, various traditional processed products whose shelf life is generally short and whose quality could be improved further. On sale in local markets are fish sauce (Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam) and cured fish; viz., sun-dried, salted and dried, steamed/boiled and fermented.
The pattern of consumption was analyzed by Hashim (1995) based on the data of per-caput supply of fish and percentage of fish/animal protein intake during 1970-90. He noted that several Southeast Asian countries, especially the newly industrialized ones, had a per-caput supply of fish and fishery products well above the world amount and that the percentage of fish to animal protein intake for all the countries, except Laos, was higher than the world level in 1990. In Singapore and Thailand, the consumption of shellfish, crustaceans and cephalopods was gaining popularity as these countries became more affluent. In Malaysia, the consumption of shellfish had decreased by a considerable proportion as these high-valued species were exported to Singapore. Small and medium-sized pelagic fish were still consumed widely in Brunei, the Philippines and Indonesia.
In his analysis, Hashim (ibid.), believed that the following factors would influence the future demand and consumption pattern of fish and fishery products in the Southeast Asian countries:
Table 9 indicates that the consumption of fish of the ten Southeast Asian countries during 1991-93 amounted to 9 million mt as against the total production of 11.6 million mt, of which 1.5 million mt were used for non-food purposes; 1.4 million mt were imported into the region; and 2.4 million mt exported. With the population of the sub-region during the period estimated at 458 million and the production of food fish at about 9 million mt, the average per-caput consumption was calculated as 19.8 kg/year. Table 9 also indicates that Singapore had the highest fish consumption rate (37.4 kg/yr), followed by the Philippines (36 kg/yr) and Malaysia (29.4 kg/yr). Laos had the lowest consumption rate in the sub-region (6.7 kg/yr). The import per-caput figures indicate the importance of imported fish for the food security of Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei.
The anticipated demand for food fish by the year 2010 was calculated on the basis of the projected population growth, assuming a constant per-caput consumption of food fish of 19.8 kg/year. If the annual population growth of the sub-region continues to rise at the rate of 1.6 percent/year as indicated by Hotta (op. cit.), the population of Southeast Asia in 2010 would be approximately 640 million. The projected demand for food fish would therefore be in the order of 12.7 million mt, or an additional 3.6 million mt of food fish over that of 1991-93.
Nevertheless, there has apparently been a rising trend in the consumption of fish in Southeast Asia since 1970. Hashim (op. cit.) reported that the per-caput consumption of the Southeast Asian population rose from 16.2 kg/yr in 1970 to 18.3 kg/yr in 1990, and to 19.8 kg/yr in 1991-93 (compared with the world per-caput consumption rate of 10.9 kg/yr in 1970, 13.3 kg/yr in 1990 and 13.0 kg/yr in 1993 respectively). If this rising per-caput consumption trend (which Has him estimated to be at 0.61 percent per year) continues to prevail until 2010, the projected demand for food fish would be higher, on the order of 14 million mt, or 5 million mt over that of 1991-93.
Therefore the additional demand for food fish for the expanding population of the Southeast Asian sub-region by the year 2010 would be between 3.6 and 5 million mt.
The projected requirement of food fish of Southeast Asia by the year 2010 of between 3.6 and 5 million mt would mean a substantial increase in the total fish production over the 13.5 million mt produced in 1994, if an increase in the volume of fish for export is also taken into account. Thus, the total fish production by 2010 would have to be over 17 or 18 million mt to satisfy the anticipated demand. If the development in capture fisheries and aquaculture in the sub-region cannot sustain the expected demand, some countries in the region may have to resort to importing fish, including low-valued small pelagic species for local consumption.
The expected demand will definitely put more stress on the already depleted fish stocks in several coastal fishing grounds of the sub-region. It is felt that the contribution from marine capture fisheries will not be substantial. Whilst governments would like to expand their fisheries further offshore, the economic feasibility of such development should be assessed and a cautious approach should be adopted as recommended by the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (FAO, 1995c).
At present, the waters in which fishery resources have not yet been fully utilized include the South China Sea basin, which is under disputed claims, and the central Sunda Shelf. Many parts of the contiguous waters to the South China Sea, such as the Celebes, Flores and Arafura Seas can still sustain expansion of marine capture fisheries, but these waters are under the jurisdiction of the coastal States of Indonesia and the Philippines.
Perhaps the most difficult task facing the governments of the sub-region is to have the political will to ensure the sustainable development of marine fisheries in the waters under their jurisdiction. This will entail, on a priority basis, the implementation of various actions within an effective fisheries management framework, including monitoring, control, and surveillance. At the sub-regional or regional level, fisheries management frameworks, particularly for the management of transboundary fish stocks, should also be developed through active collaboration of the concerned countries3. It should be noted that, during the past decade, there have already been several instruments and/or initiatives developed by the world community aimed at assisting the countries in their endeavour to achieve sustainable development in fisheries (Menasveta and Phasuk, 1996).
Without the above-mentioned programmes of action, the severely depleted fish stocks may lead to the further reduction of the total catches and/or the eventual collapse of the fisheries; increasing conflict between small-scale and commercial fishermen competing for the exploitation of depleted stocks; a low rate of return to the fishermen; and the eventual adverse effects to the economies of the countries concerned. These negative effects would lead to food insecurity.
In any case, it is felt that the contribution from marine capture fisheries to fish production by the year 2010 will not be much more than the present 10 million mt. With effective fisheries management enforced, fish habitats rehabilitated and additional catches obtained from new fishing grounds of the sub-region, it might be possible to raise the total marine capture fisheries production to approximately 11 million mt by 2010, or a 20 percent increase over the present production.
As regards the contribution from inland capture fisheries to food security, it is felt that, in the long term, the production, in particular from the peninsular countries of the Asian continent, may not increase substantially from the present level (Interim Committee for Coordination of the Lower Mekong Basin, 1992). There are a number of factors limiting the expansion of inland fisheries, including population expansion with resultant increasing demand; decline in the abundance of the resources due to increasing fishing pressure; degradation of water quality and fish habitat arising from water pollution and deforestation; increasing conflicts in land and water use; and the ineffective management of resources and fisheries based on insufficient and unreliable data (Menasveta and Phasuk, op. cit.).
FAO (1995a) analyzed the trend of production in recent years of inland capture fisheries of the sub-region and came to the following conclusions:
"It can generally be assumed that the degree of exploitation of inland waters of this sub-region is close to, or greater than, the sustainable maximum. There is little prospect of finding new techniques or new stocks that may be exploited to provide significant increases in overall catch. Enhancement of the present stock levels, and thus potential offtake, can only come about by reversing current trends in pollution and over-exploitation, offsetting the effects of engineering works by stocking or otherwise mitigating the adverse effects on the fish populations..... Aquaculture is better able to expand in line with population growth and consumer demand."
Future attention to inland fisheries of the region should be directed toward effective fisheries management as in the case of marine capture fisheries and environmental management, with a view to at least maintaining the present level of production and preventing further environmental degradation and damage to the fish habitat. Management should also include the sustainable development of culture-based fisheries which have been successfully demonstrated in China.
If wise management of inland capture fisheries and environment is effectively enforced and culture-based fisheries in natural lakes, reservoirs, rivers and streams are carried out, the production of this sub-sector could be increased by 20 to 30 percent over the present production of one million mt annually, i.e., 1.2 or 1.3 million mt by the year 2010.
Aquaculture is playing an increasingly important role in the strengthening of food security. The potential for aquaculture expansion in the next two decades exists, noting that at least 6 million ha. are still available for aquaculture expansion in the sub-region (FAO, 1993a). It is recommended, however, that a balanced approach for aquaculture development be adopted, as until recently, emphasis in aquaculture has been on the culture of prawns and other high-valued species to obtain increased foreign exchange through export.
The balanced approach should include the development of rural aquaculture and the intensification of fish culture to enhance culture-based fisheries development in natural lakes and reservoirs. Rural aquaculture should be integrated in the overall rural development of the countries in the sub-region, using indigenous species low in the food chain, such as snakeskin gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis), Java barb (Puntius javanicus), and Thai silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) etc. as cultivable species. Effective management of aquaculture activities, both extensive and intensive, supported by appropriate legislation and enforcement, should be carried out to effect ecologically friendly aquaculture practices as recommended by the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.
With a balanced approach and good aquaculture management and considering the availability of technical knowledge and interest of the private sector, government and financing institutions, the growth rate of aquaculture production in the sub-region, forecast to be about 9.6 percent per year by Csavas (1994), is feasible. Hence, the projected additional contribution of aquaculture could be about 6.4 million mt by the year 2010.
Based on the rough estimates outlined above, the contribution to food security, in terms of production, from capture fisheries and aquaculture by the year 2010 could be approximately 18.7 million mt, which should be sufficient to satisfy the expected demand for 2010, provided various management measures are properly carried out.
As indicated earlier, more than 20 million people depend on fisheries and its allied industries. Assuming that the minimum wage of a worker is US$ 5 per day, and that this person works 20 days per month for 8 months, as some are part-time workers, the income generated by the fisheries sector would be at least US$ 16,000 million per year, a significant figure in the economies of the countries in Southeast Asia.
Besides its contributions to food security and employment opportunities for millions of people in the sub-region, the fisheries sector has, in recent years, augmented the national economic wealth of several countries in Southeast Asia, through export earnings. Fish trade has developed rapidly during the past decade and fishery commodities have become prominent in international trade, especially in intra-regional trade.
Table 10 indicates the values of the imports and exports of fish and fishery products of the ten Southeast Asian countries in 1994 as compared to those of 1984. The total import into the region was estimated at more than US$ 1,976 million in 1994 as compared to 472 million in 1984, or a fourfold increase during the period. The regional import accounted for about 3.8 percent of the world's total import value in 1994 as compared to 2.8 percent in 1984. The leading import countries in 1994 were Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia. Thailand and Malaysia import raw materials such as frozen tuna for reprocessing and export, and Singapore imports fish for both domestic consumption and reprocessing. Singapore, Brunei Darussalam and Laos are the only net importers in the sub-region. The principal import commodities into the sub-region are fish-meal and frozen tuna. Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia import fish-meal in response to increased local demand from the livestock and shrimp culture industries. The main suppliers are Chile, Denmark, Peru and New Zealand. Thailand and the Philippines import frozen tuna from Taiwan Province of China, the Republic of Korea, Japan, Micronesia, USA, France, Spain and Maldives for reprocessing as canned tuna for export (Hotta, op. cit.).
Table 10 also indicates that the total value of the export trade of these countries was more than US$ 7,700 million in 1994, a nearly fourfold increase over that of 1984, accounting for 16.6 percent of the world's export of fish and fish products in value terms. Since 1993 Thailand has been the world's leading fish and fishery products export country, with annual exports worth US$ 4 million million in 1994. Indonesia with US$ 1.6 million million and Singapore with US$ 560 million are the next most important sub-regional exporters. These three countries accounted for 81 percent of the sub-regional aggregate export value. Even though the export value of Vietnam was less than the others, the rapid growth of its fish export is noticeable.
The principal export commodities from the sub-region are frozen shrimp and cephalopods and canned tuna. Exports from Thailand consist of shrimp and cephalopods, which constitute more than half of the total export value. Cambodia mostly exports freshwater fish, mainly to its neighboring countries, viz., Thailand and Vietnam.
At past regional and international fora including APEC Sessions and the 1994 ASEAN Fisheries Conference, delegations of the Southeast Asian countries have expressed concern over the tariff and non-tariff barriers imposed by some economic groupings and developed countries on fish and fishery products exported from the sub-region, in order to protect their domestic industries and to safeguard their consumers' health. These include the strict quality standards for imported fish and fishery products. In response to the increased requirements of the importing countries, the processing industry in several countries of the sub-region has implemented programmes concerned with the inspection of fishery products based on the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) principle. In order to alleviate some of the above-mentioned problems, the countries concerned must adopt concerted action in global fora such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) under the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT), with a view to supporting more liberal trade of fish and fishery products at the global level.
Despite the problems mentioned, trade of fish and fishery products seems to have a bright future and is expected to expand, as many countries in the sub-region have endeavoured to boost exports through product development and market diversification. Intra-regional trade is expected to grow further, as many countries in the sub-region are experiencing economic booms, and there is an increasing liberalization in the region in trade through lower tariffs and removal of quotas. The reduction of import duties in some countries such as the Republic of Korea may open up additional markets for exporting countries in the region.
Nevertheless, with the growing populations and increasing demand for fish, an expanding fish trade would mean less fish for domestic consumption, thus implicating food security, especially in the low-income food-deficit countries of the sub-region and in some of the zone-locked countries. The governments concerned should formulate suitable strategies to ensure food security; these may include the importation of low-value small pelagic fish to feed the poor, using part of the income from fish exports to cover importation expenses.
Both public and private sectors have an important role to play in a country's endeavour to sustain the contribution of fisheries to its food security and economy. Without concerted action, the long-term goal of achieving fisheries sustainability is unlikely, however. This section highlights the role of governments, the fishing industry, intercountry collaboration, non-governmental organizations and fisheries cooperatives in the sustainability of fisheries.
The essential role of the Southeast Asian governments, in light of dwindling fishery resources and expanding populations, is to implement effective policies and strategies aimed at the rational use of the fishery resources and the prevention of environmental degradation. Such policies and strategies should be supported by appropriate research, effective legislation and enforcement.
Almost all of the Southeast Asian Governments recognize the importance of fisheries in their countries' food supply and economies. The analysis of the objectives for fisheries development within the national economic and social development plans of the Southeast Asian countries, carried out by FAO in 1985, revealed that the common objectives were: (i) to ensure adequate food supply for the expanding populations; and (ii) to augment foreign exchange earnings through increased export of fish and fishery products (SEAFDEC, 1986). Other objectives in the development plans vary from one country to another. These include increased employment opportunities, accelerated rural development, and distribution of economic wealth; all of these reflect concern for social implications.
To achieve the above long-term development objectives, the governments have adopted policies and strategies for fisheries development and management which seem to follow a similar pattern; viz., in the early sixties, priority was assigned to the development of deep sea and offshore capture fisheries, with the common belief that fishery resources in the South China Sea and its adjacent waters were plentiful. With the marked decline in marine fishery resources, especially demersal resources, in the late sixties and the early seventies after increased exploitation and rising conflicts between commercial (mainly trawlers) and traditional/small-scale fishermen, the governments in the seventies gave increased attention to alleviating those conflicts and to the development of small-scale fisheries. Also, since the early seventies, the common policy has been to develop aquaculture; the development of brackishwater aquaculture was especially pursued to alleviate fishing pressure induced by inshore and coastal waters capture fisheries. In the eighties, emphasis was given to accelerated aquaculture development, especially intensive shrimp culture to boost revenues from export products. At the same time, more attention was given to the reduction of post-harvest losses; to quality assurance of exported fish and fishery products; and, in a lesser degree, to the management of capture fisheries.
Fisheries management has been recognized as an essential tool for rational development of fisheries. For example, the Government of Indonesia has taken into account the need for effective fisheries management in its development policy and strategies since the launching in 1968 of the country's first-five year development plan (Wahyono, 1993). Since 1977, the conservation of fishery resources and fish habitat rehabilitation have been included in Thailand's national economic and social development plan (Phasuk, 1993). The Philippine Government, based on the recommendations of the National Conference on Fisheries Policy and Planning in 1987, formulated and implemented the Fisheries Sector Programme (1990-1994) with emphasis on the devolution of management authority from the central Government to local governments at the municipal level (Reyes et al., 1993). The Malaysian Government adopted in 1981 a comprehensive fisheries licensing policy and fishing zones in order to solve problems arising from conflicts between traditional fishermen and semi-commercial or commercial trawlers in coastal waters (Hashim, 1993).
Nevertheless, the majority of the governments in the region have come to realize in recent years that the fisheries management measures that they have adopted have not been effectively implemented. The pervasive cause of ineffective fisheries management is the free and open access to fishery resources in the sub-region. Other common problems experienced by all countries include the lack of effective enforcement of the adopted management measures due to shortage of personnel and budget; and lack of understanding of the management measures and cooperation by fishermen and the industry, as they did not participate in the planning and implementation of such measures. As indicated at recent regional fisheries fora, including the Twenty-fifth Session of the Asia-Pacific Fisheries Commission (Seoul, Korea, 21-24 October 1996), the governments of the sub-region are endeavouring to strengthen or reorient their fisheries management policies and strategies with a view to achieving fisheries sustainability.
Besides its role in producing food and generating income and wealth through fish trade, the private sector should also share the responsibility of ensuring the sustainable development of the fishery resources they exploit. It is envisaged that the private sector will play an increasingly important role in the sustainable development of fisheries in Southeast Asia, in particular, in the management of fisheries resources; habitat rehabilitation; and the prevention of environmental degradation. Close cooperation must be enhanced between the government and private sectors in these endeavours. An example of successful cooperation is that between the Norwegian authorities and fishermen in their mutual effort to restore the yield of the cod stocks harvested. In this case the fishermen have actively participated in the formulation and implementation of the management measures aimed at such restoration. Compliance with the agreement on the management scheme by the Norwegian fishermen has resulted in an increased catch of cod up to 700,000 mt annually in the past few years (The Economist, October 19-25, 1996).
For Southeast Asia, it may be recalled that the IPFC (Indo-Pacific Fishery Commission) Symposium on Socio-economic Issues in Coastal Fisheries Management held in 1993 strongly recommended that community-based management (with active participation of fishermen) should be considered as one of the future measures to manage the dwindling coastal fishery resources in the region. In this connection, the Government of the Philippines has endeavoured to devolve management authority to local government units with active participation of the private sector and NGOs in the management of inshore and coastal resources. Silvestre (1996), in his report on ICLARM's effort in response to the request of the Government of the Philippines to formulate research and planning activities in support of an integrated fisheries management scheme for San Miguel Bay, the Philippines, during 1992-94, highlighted key lessons and constraints learned from the San Miguel experience, one of which was the essential nature of stakeholder participation at key points of the research, planning and management effort.
Cooperation between countries at the bilateral, trilateral or multilateral level is also essential in the sustainable fisheries development of the sub-region. Intercountry cooperation helps harmonize policies and strategies required; accelerates the outcome of fishery research and economizes its costs; and promotes inter- and intra-regional fish trade.
In Southeast Asia, a number of economic groupings including the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), East Asia Economic Caucus (EAEC), East Asia Growth Area (EAGA) and the Indonesia/Malaysia/Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT) will have a long-term impact on shaping trade channels in the future. The continued trade liberalization and deregulation policies of many countries in the sub-region will stimulate trade in fish and fishery products of these countries in the international market.
Besides the above economic groupings there are more than 20 sub-regional and regional fishery bodies whose objectives are to assist the countries in the region in various aspects of fisheries management and development. Among these, 13 organizations, namely, FAO, APFIC, ASEAN, SEAFDEC, UNDP, ADB, BOBP, INFOFISH, ICLARM, IOFC, IOTC, MRC and NACA have a broad scope of fisheries management and development and are actively promoting collaboration among the countries concerned (Menasveta, 1993). As not all of these countries are members of the same organizations, it was suggested that a permanent mechanism such as an inter-secretariat committee be established to coordinate the activities of these bodies in order to economize their operating costs and reduce the duplication of efforts (Menasveta and Phasuk, op. cit.).
To facilitate the effective contribution of a regional organization towards the long-term objective of self-reliance of its members in the management and rational development of their fisheries, the Members concerned should make better use of that body by actively participating in its work. For example, APFIC, which is the oldest fishery development organization in the Asia-Pacific region and whose membership covers almost all of the Southeast Asian nations, should be strengthened with adequate funding support and priority programmes of action decided on and supported by its Members. The latter may include the establishment of an APFIC information network to support a rational management regime for the region; a regional study on the Asia-Pacific fishery sector outlook to gain a better understanding of the trends of fishery production in the region towards the next century; planning for the management of transboundary fish stocks; the organization of workshops on fishery policy and planning; and capacity building and human resource development.
Bilateral and multilateral donors and financing institutions will continue to play a prominent role in the sustainable development of fisheries, notwithstanding rapid economic growth experienced by a number of countries in the sub-region. Countries such as Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam will continue to seek substantial input from these bodies or institutions to accelerate the rehabilitation of their fisheries industries and to put into effect their fisheries and environmental management schemes.
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), both international and local, can play a useful role in sustaining the contribution of fisheries to food security. In Cambodia, a number of international and local NGOs have been involved in activities related to food security. Many have programmes in community development, health, education and training in aquaculture and fisheries, whilst some are endeavouring to find suitable indicators for monitoring food security and to assess the impact of their efforts on the food security of different groups of the Cambodian population (Tickner, 1996).
The Philippine Government, since the late eighties, has been attempting to devolve fisheries management to local governments. The devolution under the Government Code of 1991 did not foresee the need to build up the capability of manpower of the local government units to implement the resource management programmes. For example, in preparation for the management of the fishery resources in Carigara Bay, one of the big fishing grounds in the country, two local NGOs were contracted to undertake necessary actions including the implementation of the strategy, community organization, education, a public awareness campaign, and the formation of the Carigara Bay Management Council. The involvement of the NGOs in management has proven to be effective. Being area-based, they have a better perception of the community's dreams and aspirations (Munoz, 1996).
In Indonesia, Dahuri (1996) reported that local NGOs (Lembaga Swadaya Masrakat, LSM) had played an increasingly prominent role in resources conservation and environmental protection by actively participating in public debate on environmental management and in community development. They have promoted public awareness for environmental protection and encouraged active participation of the public in conservation and environmental issues. It was pointed out, however, that the capabilities of NGOs varied and that many had limited access to up-to-date information and lacked well-trained staff. Despite these shortcomings, they can work together with government institutions at the local level in the implementation of coastal community support programmes and projects.
Fisheries cooperatives and fishermen's associations can also play an important role in the sustainable development of fisheries. A case in point is that of fisheries cooperatives in Japan with their effective role in the rational development and management of coastal fisheries resources (Ando, 1995). In Southeast Asia, notwithstanding the recommendations of the IPFC since its Eleventh Session (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, October 1964), the development of fisheries cooperatives in the region still leaves much to be desired.
To help the private sector to form effective cooperatives, the technical and financial input of the government sector, especially in the beginning phase is essential. Good extension work and follow-up activities are required from the government sector to help such cooperatives flourish. If the governments in the region give importance to the community-based management strategy for the restoration of the coastal resources and environmental protection, it is time to help the fishermen groups have their own fisheries cooperatives or other organizations which can manage the fishery resources available to them for the benefit of future generations.
Since the adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in 1982 (United Nations, 1983), several global fisheries-related instruments and initiatives have been adopted by the world community with the broad objective of facilitating the implementation of UNCLOS to ensure the sustainable contribution of fisheries to global food security and economies. Notable among them are Agenda 21 adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992 (United Nations, 1992); the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries by the Twenty-eighth Session of the FAO Conference in 1995 (FAO, 1995c); the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 Relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks by the UN Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in August 1995 (United Nations, 1995); and most recently, the Kyoto Declaration on the Sustainable Contribution of Fisheries to Food Security by the International Conference on the Sustainable Contribution of Fisheries to Food Security, organized by the Government of Japan in collaboration with FAO in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1995 (FAO, 1995d).
All of these instruments and initiatives, whether legally binding or just principles and guidelines, are inter-related. They provide a conceptual framework to assist governments in their individual or collaborative efforts to develop and implement policies and strategies for the rational management and conservation of fishery resources as well as for environmental protection to ensure their sustainability for the benefit of mankind.
Policy issues concerning fisheries sustainability are familiar to fisheries administrators and policy makers in Southeast Asia. The issues were raised and discussed at past sessions of regional and sub-regional fishery bodies such as the Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission (APFIC, formerly Indo-Pacific Fishery Commission, IPFC) and its subsidiary bodies; the Indian Ocean Fishery Commission (IOFC) and its subsidiary bodies; Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC); ASEAN, especially its fisheries conference in 1994; and at various fisheries symposia, meetings and seminars organized in the region.
With limited technical manpower and funding support as experienced by several countries in the region, it is felt that priority should be assigned to certain policy issues. It should be pointed out also that the resolution of many of them could be enhanced through regional or sub-regional fishery bodies to economize the costs and to accelerate the outcome of their results, especially on the issues related to the management of shared or transboundary stocks. It is proposed that the following policy issues receive priority attention:
Almost all of the countries in the sub-region have expressed concern about the depletion of their coastal fishery resources due to intense fishing activities and the lack of effective management and enforcement schemes to rectify this problem. Unfortunately, the governments concerned still recognize the common property nature of and free access to the fishery resources in their exclusive economic zones by their fishermen. Furthermore, many still promote increased exploiting capabilities as a means to better the livelihood of small-scale fishermen, and there is no real attempt to adjust the level of fishing efforts commensurate with the capacity of the resources. Hence, the most important strategy with respect to this issue is the need for governments to have a strong political will and a commitment to conserve the depleted fishery resources through improved and more effective fishery management systems. Fisheries management policy will have to be shifted from maximizing physical yield to optimizing the net socio-economic benefits over the long term as well as to increasing emphasis on the prevention and control of environmental degradation (Miles, 1994).
A more effective fisheries management system or framework will require close examination, adjustment or revision of the existing system, taking into account, as appropriate, the frameworks and guidelines embodied in major global instruments or initiatives. This would mean the strengthening of the existing laws and regulations, including the establishment of an effective monitoring, control and surveillance system. A reinforced fisheries management system should also see to it that the amount of fishing effort is in good proportion to the capacity of the resources. It should include ways and means of reducing the excess number of fishing vessels, and of providing alternative employment opportunities outside the fisheries sector for surplus fishermen and training as required. Coastal fisheries management should be a part of an integrated coastal area management system, as there are many players involved in the development of coastal lands and waters.
Besides the conventional fisheries management measures which are currently in use, the authorities concerned should consider in their management systems the feasibility of employing licensing systems similar to those implemented in Australia and New Zealand, as well as traditional management systems as practised elsewhere in and outside the region. They should also consider the applicability of community-based or integrated coastal management as recommended by the 1993 IPFC Symposium on Socio-economic Issues in Coastal Fisheries Management, which is being pursued in the Philippines.
A good fisheries management framework should be flexible so that it can be adjusted from time to time and it should be supported by good scientific evidence. This will entail input from research, especially management-oriented resources research to back up management decisions. The research will in turn require real-time and reliable data and information from a good fisheries database. Hence, strengthening collection, collation, analysis, dissemination and exchange of fisheries information and statistics are prerequisite to an effective fisheries management framework.
APFIC can play an important role in helping its member countries to attain self reliance in the sustainable development and management of fishery resources in their individual exclusive economic zones.
More than 40 commercially important fish stocks are believed to move freely through EEZs of two or more countries in Southeast Asia and are subject to exploitation by more than one country (FAO, 1986). There is a dearth of knowledge on the biology, distribution and levels of exploitation of these transboundary fish stocks (Chullasorn and Martosubroto, 1986). For these fish stocks, management action taken by one country on a part of their life cycle without cooperation of the other parties involved in the exploitation will be futile, resulting in the wastage of funds and eventual depletion of the resources.
Strategies to sustain the contribution of these resources should include both medium- and long-term approaches. For the medium-term, the countries concerned should have a suitable agreement for the collaborative management of the stocks they exploit, including the establishment of a monitoring, control, and surveillance system, and they should adhere to the management measures as agreed upon. Impartial organizations such as FAO could assist the member countries in preparing such a collaborative agreement based on available scientific knowledge and relevant data on the stocks in question. For a long-term approach, it is recommended that the governments in the region consider establishing a suitable mechanism for coordinating cooperative research programmes, harmonizing fisheries management policies and making recommendations to fishery bodies at the national level. A technical seminar could be convened by APFIC to assess the pros and cons of this proposal.
Effective schemes for managing transboundary fish stocks will also require scientific input from research and a good database of fisheries information and statistics, as in the case of the management of fisheries in EEZs. Regional bodies such as APFIC should be useful vehicles for promoting and implementing cooperative research on and coordinating the management of shared or transboundary fish stocks.
The development of offshore fisheries seems to be a general policy of ASEAN countries4. It was recommended that Cambodia extend marine capture fisheries into the offshore waters of its EEZ, as the resources in inshore and coastal waters have been overfished (Doulman, 1993). Indonesia and the Philippines have the advantage of partially exploited fishing grounds in their archipelagic waters. Some countries in the sub-region, however, are not in such an advantageous position, for example, deep sea fisheries development for Thailand means the exploitation of tuna and other pelagic resources in the Indian Ocean. In both cases, fishing in new areas and in offshore or deep seas will involve investment for bigger boats and suitable gear and increased operating costs. Economic feasibility should therefore be assessed in any new venture. Information and data concerning the sizes of the resources, if available, are an asset for planning such an investment. Cooperative surveys of the resources to be exploited will help in the investment decision and lower the costs of planning and operation.
Sustaining or possibly increasing the contribution from inland capture fisheries
In the face of declining inland fishery resources, their sustainable contribution should be realized through effective fisheries management as in the case of marine capture fisheries, i.e., the adjustment of fishing effort commensurate with the capacity of the resources and the strict prohibition of illegal fishing practices. As environmental degradation induced by the negative impact of agriculture, deforestation and pollution from municipal and industrial sources is another major cause of the decline of inland fishery resources, environmental management should be carried out in an integrated catchment basin management, which involves various users, e.g., those of the agriculture, forestry and industrial development sectors. Alternative management systems, including territorial use rights should also be considered.
Another important strategy is to enhance culture-based fisheries through stocking fish in natural waters and reservoirs. Ways and means should be sought to economize the hatchery costs and ensure the survival of the stocked fry through proper management of those waters. Such stocking practices should have no detrimental effects on the ecosystem as a whole.
An effective inland fisheries management system will require supporting research on the resources, the fisheries and the ecosystems, and adequate extension work. Governments will have to provide infrastructure such as hatcheries to produce fry for stocking, etc., and take initiatives in environmental protection.
Again, regional fishery bodies such as APFIC through the Aquaculture and Inland Fisheries Committee (AIFIC) and its the Working Party can assist the countries in the region in research, policies and planning required for the sustainable development of inland fisheries.
Aquaculture contributes significantly towards economic and nutritional benefits as indicated in the earlier section. Unfortunately, rapid development of aquaculture in the sub-region during the past decade, especially intensive shrimp culture without proper management, has caused in many areas the destruction of mangroves and other fish habitats; euthrophication and discharge of wastes; and modifications of currents. These have resulted in environmental damage and consequently unsustainable aquaculture development. The clearing of mangrove forests may also have a negative impact on the ecosystems nearby, viz., sea grass beds and coral reefs (Sudara, 1996).
Policy issues and strategies for resolving these problems have been discussed at several fora, including the FAO/NACA Regional Study and Workshop on the Environment and Management of Aquaculture Development (Bangkok, Thailand, 21-26 February 1994); the IPFC Working Party on Aquaculture (Bangkok, 19-25 October 1994); the SEAFDEC/FAO/CIDA Expert Meetings on the Use of Chemicals in Aquaculture in Asia (Iloilo, Philippines, 20-22 May 1996); and most recently the APFIC Symposium on Environmental Aspects of Responsible Fisheries (Seoul, Republic of Korea, 15-18 October 1996).
The policy issues and strategies aimed at sustainable aquaculture development in the sub-region have thus been well discussed and documented. However, the necessity of having a good aquaculture management framework to effect ecologically friendly practices should be highlighted here. Such a framework should be supported by adequate legislation aimed at the reduction of environmental impact of aquaculture practices and vice versa, as heretofore there has apparently been a lack of such an instrument in almost all of the countries in the region.
Another strategy which should be underlined is the development of low-input aquaculture in rural areas. This was launched in Thailand many years ago and was called "fish for the people programme". Although this simple fish farming may not be economically viable on a commercial scale, it can provide a ready source of high-quality protein for the rural poor and also an opportunity to augment income for the farmer and his family. Moreover, these low-input culture systems do not cause any environmental problems as reportedly occurred in intensive aquaculture systems.
Under the subject of rural aquaculture development, special reference should be made to integrated farming systems for the self-reliance of small-scale farmers as envisaged by His Majesty the King of Thailand and being planned by the Thai Government for implementation in the country. His Majesty was of the opinion that in the future small-scale farmers should apportion their land on a 30-30-30-10 basis with a view to being self-sustaining, viz., 30 percent of the land area to be allocated for a water tank; 30 percent for rice farming; 30 percent for vegetables, fruit trees, livestock and poultry; and 10 percent for a homestead. His Majesty emphasized the importance of water security in rural areas and decentralized water management as the key to food security. The water reservoir would not only be used for water security during drought periods but also for rearing fish with overhead duckery, thus reinforcing food security. He also emphasized the importance of research and development support for decentralized agricultural systems. This endeavour to achieve sustainable development for integrated small-scale farming may be applicable to other areas of the Southeast Asian sub-region.
Also to attain sustainability in aquaculture development, better knowledge of the cultivable species is needed. This includes, inter alia, an effective means of controlling and preventing fish diseases and epidemics; fish nutrition and feeds which contain protein from inexpensive and sustainable local sources; and farm management with a view to preventing or creating the least possible damage to the environment.
With reference to feeds used in aquaculture, the Consultation on Farm-made Aquafeeds organized by FAO in collaboration with the ASEAN-EEC Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme (Bangkok, Thailand, 14-18 December 1992) stressed the need for a better understanding of the complexity of nutrition and feeding of finfish and crustaceans in semi-intensive pond farming systems. The bulk of Asian finfish and crustacean aquaculture production (about 80 percent) is realized with this type of aquaculture practice and depends on the use of farm-made feeds. Some intensive systems such as the cage culture of marine fish and some carnivorous freshwater finfish such as snakehead and catfish species also use farm-made feeds. Farm-made feeds have some environmental advantages as they use locally available agricultural products and wastes of agro-processing industries that have limited use within the community. Hence, farm-made feeds will be of value to small-scale fish farmers if appropriate technology is transferred to them (New et al., 1995).
Both intensive and extensive aquaculture will require substantial research input, extension services and close cooperation between the government and private sectors involved. Appropriate technology transfers and capacity building should receive high priority. Research should be focused on how to domesticate cultured species in order to facilitate future genetic manipulation to enhance better growth and resistance to diseases of the cultured organisms as well as to lower the costs of production.
As the exploitation of the Southeast Asian fishery resources approaches full utilization and several countries become net fish importers, the programme of reducing wastage must receive high priority and be considered as part of an effective fisheries management framework. General strategies for resolving the wastage issue are already outlined in the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. The Ninth and Tenth Sessions of the APFIC Joint Working Party of Fish Technology and Marketing held respectively in Cochin, India, in March 1994 and Colombo, Sri Lanka, in June 1996 proposed programmes to help achieve full utilization including the increased use of low-value species for direct human consumption. It was agreed that research and development efforts should be directed to making better use of low-value catches and bycatches in products for low-income consumers. Research support is also needed to establish new quality assurance arrangements based on the principles of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) as required by major fish importing countries.
It is hoped that the Technical Consultation on the Reduction of Wastage in Fisheries, convened by the Government of Japan, in collaboration with FAO, during 28 October to 1 November 1996, came up with appropriate action plans to increase fishing-gear selectivity; reduce the mortality of juveniles of commercially important species; and improve the utilization of landed by catches.
Complex environmental issues confronting the fisheries sector, namely, the impact of climate change; impact of fishing and aquaculture; and impact of other human activities and possible resolution thereof were discussed at the APFIC Symposium on Environmental Aspects of Responsible Fisheries (Seoul, Republic of Korea, 15-24 October 1996). Its Proceedings will soon be published by the APFIC Secretariat.
It is apparent that instruments and initiatives for environmental protection are already in existence. They can facilitate the governments' considerations in developing and implementing holistic environmental protection policies and strategies. These include the 1985 Montreal Guidelines for the Marine Environmental Protection Framework of UNEP (Norrena and Wells, 1990); the 1995 Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities; the 1995 FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries; and the Global Ocean Observing System or GOOS (Naeve, 1996). The essential input for the effective implementation of the above action plans is for the governments to ratify and implement the relevant international instruments and initiatives and to harmonize relevant national laws and regulations accordingly. Another strategy which should be underlined here is to integrate fisheries and aquaculture in coastal zone management schemes to be administered preferably by local authorities, comprising all users of coastal zone resources. In the area where fisheries is important, the fisheries sector should be assigned a leading role in this coordination effort.
As recommended by the above-mentioned Symposium, there is need to monitor the state of the resources, health of the habitats and the welfare of the fisheries communities on a regular basis in the course of implementing the prevention of pollution schemes.
One of the strategies is to consolidate actions, preferably through such economic groupings as ASEAN, aimed at minimizing trade barriers erected by certain importing countries or groups of countries. These include the implementation of collaborative programmes to ensure uniformity in product quality and to standardize quality assurance procedures, including monitoring and control; coordinate development of marketing strategies; and strengthen fish marketing information mechanisms in the region such as INFOFISH.
Another important strategy should be to intensify intra-regional fish trade and trade with countries with high per-caput consumption of fish in the vicinity of the sub-region in addition to developed markets.
There is definitely a need to improve research quality, technical capability of researchers and infrastructure, notwithstanding the remarkable progress of the past two decades. Priority in fisheries research should be assigned to management-oriented resources research; for example, the development of assessment methodologies suitable for the multi-gear, multi-species fisheries of Southeast Asia and the development of standardized methodologies and techniques for domesticating cultured species such as prawns (Penaeus spp.).
It should be noted that the Committee on Marine Fisheries of APFIC at its Ninth Session endorsed the establishment of a regional cooperative research programme based on 14 priority areas in coastal capture fisheries, offshore fisheries and coastal aquaculture similar to those initiated by the Bay of Bengal Programme. Regional and sub-regional fishery bodies can play an important role in coordinating the implementation of these cooperative research activities, if they are supported by their respective member countries. As there are a number of international and regional fishery bodies which coordinate and/or are engaged in fisheries research such as ICLARM, FAO/APFIC, NACA and SEAFDEC, there is a need to coordinate closely their research activities to ensure positive benefits to be derived for the countries in the region and to avoid possible duplication of efforts.
To facilitate the transfer of appropriate technologies to the Southeast Asian region, there is a need to improve the capacity for and methodologies employed in extension services. Closer cooperation among administrators, scientific communities and the industry, including fishermen, should be fostered. The private sector should be requested to provide support for research which is relevant to their needs.
In Southeast Asia, there is a continuing need to strengthen the capacity of personnel in various aspects of fisheries management and development.
Regional cooperation can play an important role in accelerating the transfer of technology, in human resource development, and in capacity building. Regional bodies can promote the exchange of expertise between countries and organize on a regular basis training courses, seminars and working parties of experts on topics of regional relevance, including fishery policy and planning, resources assessments, collection, collation and analysis of information and data which are relevant to rational fisheries management and sustainable development.
Rice and fish have been the staple diet of the Southeast Asian people since time immemorial. Fish, therefore, has a significant role to play in regional food security. Governments of almost all of the Southeast Asian countries recognize the important contribution of fisheries to the countries' economies and social well-being. Fisheries development has become an integral part of the overall economic and social development plans of many of these countries.
Since the end of the second world war, there has been a rapid expansion of the Southeast Asian population. Together with the betterment of the economies of several countries in the region during the past decade, the demand for fish has continued to rise. The present study indicates that by the year 2010 when the population in the region has reached some 640 million, the demand for food fish, calculated at a constant per-caput consumption rate of 19.8 kg/yr, would be in the order of 12.7 million mt, or 3.6 million mt over the 1990-93 level. If the per-caput consumption continues to rise at the rate of 0.6 percent per year, the demand for food fish in 2010 would then be approximately 14 million mt, or 5 million mt over that of the 1990-93 level. Taking into account the amount of fish for export, the total production of fish would have to be more than 17 or 18 million mt to satisfy the demand in 2010.
The increasing demand for fish from the expanding population will create more stress on the already depleted coastal and inshore fishery resources in the region. The study concludes that a significant increase of production from marine capture fisheries seems unlikely. A marginal increase in the production over that of 1990-93 might be realized from offshore waters of the region and from the high seas. However, with better management of the marine capture fisheries, perhaps a 20 percent increase in marine fish production over the 1990-93 level might be achieved by 2010.
As regards the production of inland capture fisheries, the study concludes that an increase of about 20-30 percent by 2010 might be achieved if wise management of inland capture fisheries and environment, including the expansion of culture-based fisheries, is implemented. If the management of inland fisheries and the environment of the countries in the region does not receive proper attention, it is unlikely that the production from the inland capture fisheries sub-sector will increase substantially by the year 2010.
The study forecasts that aquaculture will play an important role in the strengthening of food security, as it has potential for expansion. It was estimated that by 2010 an additional six million mt of fish could be harvested through aquaculture expansion in the region.
With these optimistic estimates, the contribution to food security in terms of fish production by the year 2010 would be on the order of 18-19 million mt which should satisfy the demand as envisaged.
The most important strategy for achieving maximum sustainable production of marine capture fisheries is evidently the implementation of effective management of coastal and inshore fisheries, including the promotion of community-based or integrated coastal area management as recommended by the 1993 IPFC Symposium on Socio-economic Issues in Coastal Fisheries Management. As for offshore or high sea fisheries, there is a need for cooperation among the countries concerned to manage those stocks that are commonly exploited by them. The strategies should include the implementation of an effective monitoring, control and surveillance system, and the promotion of joint ventures for the rational exploitation of these offshore or high sea resources.
To ensure the sustainable contribution from inland fisheries resources, there is a need to have appropriate assessment of the potential of the resources in question and to implement effective fisheries management schemes as in the case of marine capture fisheries. Such schemes should give priority attention to the enhancement of culture-based fisheries for reservoir and water body stocking. Environmental management is another important component for sustainable development of inland fisheries. This should include effective monitoring of the environment and control and prevention of pollution and the degradation of the fish habitat.
To achieve sustainable development of aquaculture, the study underlines the necessity of having a good aquaculture management framework with a view to attaining ecologically friendly practices, noting several factors which impede current intensive and semi-intensive aquaculture systems. It recommends strongly that the development of low-input aquaculture to ensure food security in rural areas receive proper attention. In this connection, it recommends that governments should ensure the availability of fish seed for free distribution to rural fish farmers and endeavour to transfer appropriate technology, through an effective extension service system, to small-scale fish farmers, citing integrated farming systems for reinforcing food security as proposed by His Majesty the King of Thailand. In the development of rural aquaculture as in commercial or intensive aquaculture systems, feeds play an important role in its success. It recommends that small-scale fish farmers should be encouraged, through appropriate extension programmes, to prepare their own feeds suitable for the species they cultivate. The prevention and control of diseases and epidemics of cultivable species should continue to receive priority attention. These may be realized, inter alia, through effective farm management systems, monitoring, and control of pollution related to aquacultural activities.
In order to effectively implement the above-mentioned strategies, there is definitely a need for close cooperation between government and private sectors including non-governmental organizations. Governments must have a firm commitment to conserve fishery resources for the maximum sustained benefit for future generations, through the implementation of effective fisheries management frameworks. The governments of the countries that exploit transboundary or shared fish stocks must cooperate in the management of the stocks in question. The main responsibilities of the government sector include the formulation of laws and regulations necessary for the effective management of capture and culture fisheries; the provision of adequate extension work so that the private sector can obtain maximum benefit from the utilization of fishery resources and from aquaculture activities they pursue; the monitoring, control and surveillance of the fisheries to ensure that the fishermen concerned comply with the rules and regulations; and the conducting of research and investigation on various aspects of fisheries management and development.
The private sector also has a very important role to play to ensure sustainable fish production. It must cooperate with the government sector in the planning and implementation of various fisheries management schemes. The commercial sector should, if feasible, provide funds for research on the topics that they might eventually benefit from.
Non-governmental organizations can play a very useful role in the sustainable development of capture fisheries and aquaculture. Their valuable work has been demonstrated in many countries of the region, in the areas of extension, monitoring, education and promoting of public awareness.
With concerted action of the government sector, the private sector and NGOs, the tasks required in the management of fisheries, the conservation of fishery resources, and in accelerated aquaculture development should be easier, and the objective of having an adequate fish supply to ensure food security in the region in the year 2010 should become a reality.
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3 Asiaweek, 17 January 1997, p. 53.
4 From Hotta (1996). Data on fishermen include part-time fishermen engaged in marine capture fisheries, inland capture fisheries and aquaculture.
5 FAO (1996). Fishery Statistics Yearbook for 1994, Vol. 78, Table A-2, pp. 95-97.
6 FAO (1996). Fishery Statistics Yearbook for 1994, Vol. 79, Table I, pp. 342-343.
1 FAO Fishery Statistics Yearbook for 1993, Vol. 76 (1995), Table A-2, pp. 95-97.
2 FAO Fishery Statistics Yearbook for 1994, Vol. 78 (1996), Table A-2, pp. 95-97.
1 Data excerpted from Hotta, M., 1996, Regional review of the fisheries and aquaculture situation and outlook in South and Southeast Asia, FAO Fisheries Circular No. 904, FAO, Rome, Table 1, p.3
2 FAO Fishery Statistics Yearbook, Vols. 76 and 78 (1993 and 1994), p. 87.
3 Marine capture figure = catches in marine fishing areas - total marine aquaculture production.
Source: FAO FISHDAB
1 Data excerpted from Hotta, M. (1996).
1Data excerpted from Hotta, M. (1996).
Source: FAO FISHDAB
1Data taken from FAO FISHDAB.
1FAO (1988) FAO Yearbook on Fishery Statistics: Commodities, 1986, Vol. 63, Table A-6, pp. 28-29.
2FAO (1996) FAO Yearbook on Fishery Statistics: Commodities, 1994, Vol. 79, Table A-6, pp. 20-21.
1 Chikuni, S. 1987. Potential Yield of Marine Fishery Resources in Southeast Asia. In Proceedings of the IPFC Symposium on the Exploitation and Management of Marine Fisheries Resources in Southeast Asia, Darwin, Australia, 16-19 February 1987. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific,Bangkok, RAPA Report No. 187/10 pp. 16-27.
2 Data adapted from Table 4 of this report.
1 Formerly the Indo-Pacific Fishery Commission Committee for the Development and Management of Fisheries in the South China Sea (CDMSCS of IPFC).
2 See the Strategies and programmes of action for ASEAN fisheries cooperation. Report of the Conference on Fisheries Management and Development for the ASEAN Region for the Year 2000, Bangkok, Thailand, 26-29 July 1994. Department of Fisheries, Thailand.
3 The FAO/SEAFDEC Workshop on Shared Stocks in Southeast Asia, convened in 1986 by FAO in collaboration with SEAFDEC, identified at least 40 commercially important fish stocks which are commonly exploited by more than two countries and frequent inshore and coastal waters of more than one country. They may be called transboundary stocks which move freely between exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of neighboring countries. Chullasorn and Martosubroto (1986) gave information on the distribution and biological characteristics of these shared or transboundary fish stocks in Southeast Asia.
4 Department of Fisheries of Thailand, 1994. Strategies and programmes of action for ASEAN fisheries cooperation. A paper submitted to the 1994 ASEAN Fisheries Conference. Document ASEAN CONF/TECH/26.