Studying Food Supply and Distribution Systems to Cities in Developing Countries and Countries in Transition - Methodological and Operational Guide (Revised Version)

Table of Contents

Maurizio Aragrande and Olivio Argenti
© FAO - Copyright
"Food into Cities" Collection, DT/36-01E

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome, 2001

Pages: 148 - Year of publication: 2001

Numerous photographs, tables and figures.

Any mistake in assigning authorship of photographs is regretted. Please notify:

Escalating urban poverty levels in many developing countries and countries in transition have exacerbated the alarming status of food availability and accessibility. Poor urban consumers often reside in the most remote, deprived areas which tend to be neglected by local authorities. Their food security requires specific attention. The challenge is to improve food supply and distribution systems efficiency and dynamism. This should be achieved through effective, concerted and sustainable interventions.

This guide is aimed at administrators, technicians and researchers concerned with the urban food security. It proposes an interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of complex food supply and distribution systems for the identification of their present and expected constraints to select sustainable solutions. It reviews the preparation of a case study and ends with a framework for formulating urban food supply and distribution policies, strategies and programmes.

This guide discusses some methodological approaches to be followed in the case study, contains general terms of reference to be adapted to local conditions and helps identify the necessary human, logistic and financial resources as well as prepare an activity programme.

Table of Contents

The Authors



Sources of Statistics

Complementary Reading



Chapter 1. Food Supply and Distribution Systems to Cities

1.1 What are food supply and distribution systems to cities?
1.2 Understanding food supply and distribution systems to cities

1.2.1 Key elements of food supply and distribution systems to cities "Food supply to cities" subsystem "Urban food distribution" subsystem

1.2.2 External and internal factors External factors Internal factors

1.2.3 The delimiting criteria

1.3 Efficiency and dynamism of food supply and distribution systems

Chapter 2. The Case Study

2.1 Introduction
2.2 The terms of reference
2.3 The phases of the case study

2.3.1 Phase 1: the pre-case study
2.3.2 Phase 2: the case study proper

2.4 Stages of the case study

2.4.1 Collection of information and data
2.4.2 Analysis of information and data
2.4.3 Analysis of problems, constraints, critical points and remedial measures

2.5 External review

2.5.1 Phase 1: submission of results
2.5.2 Phase 1 and 2: discussion of specific topics
2.5.3 Phase 2: submission of results

Chapter 3. Policies, Strategies and Programmes

3.1 Urban FSD policies

3.1.1 Key areas of policy concern
3.1.2 Policy goals
3.1.3 Complementarity between policies
3.1.4 Policy objectives
3.1.5 Conflicts between policies
3.1.6 Proposals for policies and strategies

3.2 FSD strategies
3.3 FSD programmes

3.3.1 Preparing the programme
3.3.2 Definition and verification of objectives and strategies
3.3.3 Organization of sets of results
3.3.4 Financial implications

3.4 Coordinating and monitoring policy implementation

Annex 1. The Interdisciplinary Approach

A1.1 The interdisciplinary approach
A1.2 Scientific approaches

A1.2.1 The historical approach
A1.2.2 The demographic approach
A1.2.3 The economic approach
A1.2.4 The sociological approach
A1.2.5 The geographical approach
A1.2.6 The urban planning approach
A1.2.7 The logistical aspect
A1.2.8 The legal approach
A1.2.9 The nutritional approach

A1.3 The problem/approach grid

A1.3.1 The grid for urban food demand analysis
A1.3.2 The problem/approach grid for analysing marketing channels

A1.4 Examples of case studies: research systems and subsystems

A1.4.1 The Dakar case study
A1.4.2 The Cotonou case study
A1.4.3 The Accra pre-case study

Annex 2. The General Terms of Reference

A2.1 Chapter 1 of the case study: The urban, socio-economic and institutional context

A2.1.1 The urban context
A2.1.2 The socio-economic, institutional and legislative context

A2.2 Chapter 2 of the case study: Urban food demand, food insecurity and FSDSs

A2.2.1 Urban food demand and food insecurity
A2.2.2 Food supply to cities subsystem
A2.2.3 Urban food distribution subsystem
A2.2.4 Policies, programmes and institutions

A2.3 Chapter 3 of the case study: The city and FSDSs in the future

A2.3.1 The city in ten years time
A2.3.2 The scenarios

A2.4 Chapter 4 of the case study: Conclusions and recommendations

A2.4.1 Conclusions
A2.4.2 Recommendations

A2.5 Data verification
A2.6 Graphic support and pictures

Annex 3. Resources and Teamwork

A3.1 Resources

A3.1.1 Human resources
A3.1.2 Logistical resources and equipment
A3.1.3 Financial resources

A3.2 Teamwork

A3.2.1 General briefings
A3.2.2 Interdisciplinary briefings
A3.2.3 Planning sessions
A3.2.4 Study sessions
A3.2.5 Interinstitutional study groups
A3.2.6 Internal review meetings
A3.2.7 The work programme

Annex 4. Annexes to Chapter 1

Annex 5. Annexes to Chapter 2

A5.1 City and Local Authorities can play five major roles in alleviating the food insecurity of low-income urban households
A5.2 Institutional aspects
A5.3 Urban markets: responsibility for providing infrastructure, facilities and services
A5.4 Methods for collecting data
A5.5 Presentation of problems, constraints and critical points, expected results and remedial measures
A5.6 Problem analysis: an approach
A5.7 Check list for identifying and formulating a market infrastructure development project
A5.8 Making decisions about market infrastructure interventions
A5.9 The external review
A5.10 Workshop agenda and report format (phase 1 and 2)

Annex 6. Annexes to Chapter 3

A6.1 Relation between policy goals and objectives: an example
A6.2 Dakar FSDS strategy: an approach
A6.3 Types of interventions at regional metropolitan, urban and local level
A6.4 An "urban" programme and an "urban distribution" subprogramme arranged by action plans
A6.5 Example of an action plan around a wholesale market
A6.6 Form 1: FSDS development programme for (name of city)
A6.7 Geographic programmes (form 2) and subprogrammes (form 3)
A6.8 Form 4: action plan: "(technical subject)"
A6.9 Form 5: A development programme arranged by action plans and sets of results: an example
A6.10 Form 6: set of results by interventions
A6.11 Examples of objectives of programmes, action plans, results and interventions
A6.12 Organizing an action plan by sets of results: an example of action plan A: "Urban Market Improvement"
A6.13 Compiling a set of results: an example
A6.14 From constraint analysis to policy implementation and monitoring
A6.15 Urban food supply and distribution policy: management structure

Annex 7. Bibliography and Web sites

A7.1 Bibliography
A7.2 Web sites for Information and Additional Reading Material