1. Opening of the Consultation
2. Procedural matters
3. Overview of international issues and trends of aquaculture development
4. Justification for the establishment of a COFI Sub-Committee on Aquaculture
5. Terms of Reference and Rules of Procedures of the Sub-Committee on Aquaculture
6. Future programme of activities
7. Financial and budgetary requirements
8. Drafting of the report
9. Adoption of the draft Report
Fisheries and Aquaculture Branch
Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
GPO Box 858, Canberra ACT 2617
Tel.: (0061-2)6272 5777
Fax: (0061-2)6272 4215
P.O. Box 72076
Tel.: (001-613)591 6080
Senior Advisor, Industry Relations
Department of Fisheries and Oceans
9 College Hill Road
Rothesay, New Brunswick
Tel.: (001-506)848 4903
Department of International Cooperation
Ministry of Agriculture
Tel.: (0086-10)650 04390; 641 92444
Fax: (0086-10)641 92451; 641 92444
PO Box 09-01-4519
Yugraj Singh YADAVA
Fisheries Development Commissioner
Room No 242-C, Krishi Bhavan
New Delhi - 110001
Tel.: (0091-11)338 6379 (office); 625 4222 (home)
Fax: (0091-11)338 4030
Directeur de Projet FED/Aquaculture
Ministère de la Pêche et des Ressources
P.O. Box 1699, Antananarivo (101)
Cristina CHAVEZ SANCHEZ (Ms.)
Senior Research Scientist
Unit on Aquaculture and Environmental Management
CIAD, A.C. , Mazatlan
29, Mabinuori Dawodu Street
P.O. Box 71336
Victoria Island, Lagos
Tel.: (00234-1)470 8516
Department of Fisheries
Bangkhen, Bangkok 10900
Tel.: (0066-2)562 0578
Fax: (0066-2)562 0571
Deputy Director, Institute of Aquaculture
University of Stirling
Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland
Tel.: (0044-1786)467 889
Fax: (0044-1786)451 462
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Edwin W RHODES Jr
National Marine Fisheries Service
F/SF SSMC3 Rm: 13360
1315 East-West Hwy
Silver Spring Md 20910-3282
Tel.: (001-301)713 2334 X102
Fax: (001-301)713 0596
Le Thanh LUU
Research Institute for Aquaculture No.1
Dinh Bang , Tien Son, Bac Ninh
Tel.: (0084-4)827 1368
Fax: (0084-4)827 3070
Director, Department of Fisheries
Ministry of Agriculture
P.O. Box 350100, Chilanga
Tel.: (00260-1)278 173
Fax: (00260-1)278 418
FEDERATION OF EUROPEAN AQUACULTURE PRODUCERS
30 Rue Vivaldi
Tel.: (0032-4)338 2995
Fax: (0032-4)337 9846
NETWORK OF AQUACULTURE CENTERS IN ASIA-PACIFIC (NACA)
PO Box 1040, Kasetsart Post Office
Tel.: (0066-2)561 1728
Fax: (0066-2)561 1727
SOUTHEAST ASIAN FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT CENTER (SEAFDEC)
Chief, Aquaculture Department
Tigbauan 5021, Iloilo
Tel.: (0063-33)335 1009; 336 2965
Fax: (0063-33)335 1008
WORLD WIDE FUND FOR NATURE
Jason W. CLAY
2253 North Upton Street
Arlington, VA 22207
Tel.: (001-703)524 0471
Fax: (001-703)524 0092
FAO (Viale delle Terme di Caracalla,
00100 Rome, Italy)
Fishery Resources Officer
Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service
Fax: (0039-06)5705 3020
Senior Fishery Resources Officer
Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service
Fax: (0039-06)5705 3020
Fishery Resources Officer
Inland Water Resources and
Tel.: (0039-06)5705 5080
Fax: (0039-06)5705 3020
Chief, Inland Water Resources and
Tel.: (0039-06)5705 5007
Fax: (0039-06)5705 3020
Chief, International Institutions
and Liaison Service
Tel.: (0039-06)5705 2847
Fax: (0039-06)5705 6500
Fishery Resources Officer
Inland Water Resources and
Tel.: (0039-06)5705 6473
Fax: (0039-06)5705 3020
General Legal Affairs Service
Tel.: (0039-06)5705 3672
Fax: (0039-06)5705 3152
Annick Van Houtte (Ms.)
Development Law Service
Tel.: (0039-06)5705 4287
Fax: (0039-06)5705 4408
REGIONAL OFFICE FOR AFRICA (RAF)
P.O. Box 1628 - Accra, Ghana - Fax: (00233-21)244 079
Tel.: (00233-21)244 051 (Ext. 3161)
REGIONAL OFFICE FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC (RAP)
39 Phra Atit Road, Bangkok 10200, Thailand -
Fax: (0066-2)280 0445
Senior Fishery Officer
Tel.: (0066-2)281 7844 (Ext. 176)
APO (Marine Science)
Tel.: (0066-2)281 7844 (Ext. 281)
(FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific)
Samick Apt. 405-1109
708 Sooseo-dong , Kangnam-Ku
REPUBLIC OF KOREA
Tel.: (0082-2)459 5386
Technical Director/Program Manager
Aquatic Feeds and Nutrition Program
Oceanic Institute, Makapu'u Point
41-202 Kalanian'ole HWY
Waimanalo, HI 96795 Hawaii
Tel. (001-808)259 3112
Fax: (001)808)259 5971
FI:COFI-AQ/2000/1 Provisional Agenda
FI:COFI-AQ/2000/3 Working Document - A Strategic Forum for Aquaculture
Development: Options for the Sub-Committee on Aquaculture of the Committee on Fisheries
FI:COFI-AQ/2000/Inf.1 Provisional List of Participants
FAO. 1997. Report of the Twenty-second Session of the Committee on Fisheries. Rome, Italy, 17-20 March 1997. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 562. Rome, FAO. 1997. 32p
FAO. 1999. Report of the Twenty-third Session of the Committee on Fisheries. Rome, Italy, 15-19 February 1999. FAO Fisheries Report. No. 595. Rome, FAO. 1999. 70p
CONFERENCE RESOLUTION 13/97 - A. Review of FAO Statutory Bodies
I. RULES OF PROCEDURES OF THE COMMITTEE ON FISHERIES
Rule I - Officers
1. At the first session in each biennium, the Committee shall elect a Chairman, a first Vice-Chairman and four other Vice-Chairmen from among the representatives of its Members, who shall remain in office until the election of a new Chairman and new Vice-Chairmen and who will act as a Steering Committee during sessions.
2. The Chairman, or in his absence the first Vice-Chairman, shall preside at meetings of the Committee and exercise such other functions as may be required to facilitate its work. In the event of the Chairman and the first Vice-Chairman not being able to preside at a meeting, the Committee shall appoint one of the other Vice-Chairmen or, failing these, a representative of its Members to take the chair.
3. The Director-General of the Organization shall appoint a secretary, who shall perform such duties as the work of the Committee may require and prepare the records of the proceedings of the Committee.
Rule II - Sessions
1. The Committee shall hold sessions as provided in Rule XXX.4 and 5 of the General Rules of the Organization.
2. Any number of separate meetings may be held during each session of the Committee.
3. The sessions of the Committee shall in the years immediately following a regular session of the Conference be held at the seat of the Organization; in other years they may be held in another place in pursuance of a decision taken by the Committee in consultation with the Director-General.
4. Notice of the date and place of each session shall normally be communicated at least two months in advance of the session to all Member Nations and Associate Members of the Organization, and to such nonmember States and international organizations as may have been invited to attend the session.
5. Each Member of the Committee may appoint alternates and advisers to its representative on the Committee.
6. Presence of representatives of a majority of the Members of the Committee shall constitute a quorum for any formal action by the Committee.
Rule III - Attendance
1. Participation of international organizations in an observer capacity in the work of the Committee shall be governed by the relevant provisions of the Constitution and the General Rules of the Organization, as well as by the General Rules of the Organization on relations with international organizations.
2. Attendance by nonmember States of the Organization at sessions of the Committee shall be governed by the principles relating to the granting of observer status to nations adopted by the Conference.
(a) Meetings of the Committee shall be held in public, unless the Committee decides to meet in private for discussion of any items on its agenda.
(b) Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (c) below, any Member Nation not represented on the Committee, any Associate Member or any non-member State invited to attend in an observer capacity a session of the Committee may submit memoranda and participate without vote in any discussion at a public or private meeting of the Committee.
(c) In exceptional circumstances, the Committee may decide to restrict attendance at private meetings to the representative or observer of each Member Nation of the Organization.
Rule IV - Agenda and documents
1. The Director-General, in consultation with the Chairman of the Committee, shall prepare a provisional agenda and shall normally circulate it at least two months in advance of the session to all Member Nations and Associate Members of the Organization and to all nonmember States and international organizations invited to attend the session.
2. All Member Nations of the Organization and Associate Members acting within the limits of their status may request the Director-General normally not less than 30 days before the proposed date of the session to insert an item in the provisional agenda. The Director-General shall thereupon circulate the proposed item to all Members of the Committee, together with any necessary papers.
3. The first item on the provisional agenda shall be the adoption of the agenda. The Committee in session may by general consent amend the agenda by the deletion, addition or modification of any item, provided that no matter referred to it by the Council or on the request of the Conference be omitted from the agenda.
4. Documents not already circulated shall be dispatched with the provisional agenda, or as soon as possible thereafter.
Rule V - Voting
1. Each Member of the Committee shall have one vote.
2. The decisions of the Committee shall be ascertained by the Chairman, who shall resort, upon the request of one or more Members, to a vote, in which case the pertinent provisions of Rule XII of the General Rules of the Organization shall apply mutatis mutandis.
Rule VI - Records and reports
1. At each session, the Committee shall approve a report to the Council embodying its views, recommendations and decisions, including when requested a statement of minority views. Any recommendations adopted by the Committee which affect the programme or finances of the Organization shall be reported to the Council with the comments of the appropriate subsidiary committees of the Council.
2. Reports of sessions shall be circulated to all Member Nations and Associate Members of the Organization and to nonmember States invited to attend the session, as well as to interested international organizations entitled to be represented at the session.
3. The comments of the Committee on the report of any of its subsidiary bodies and, if one or more Members of the Committee so request, the views of those Members shall be incorporated into the Committee's report. If any Member so requests, this part of the Committee's report shall be circulated as soon as possible by the Director-General to the States or international organizations which normally receive the reports of the subsidiary body in question. The Committee may also request the Director-General, in transmitting the report and records of its proceedings to Members, to call particular attention to its views and comments on the report of any of its subsidiary bodies.
4. The Committee shall determine the procedures in regard to press releases concerning its activities.
Rule VII - Subsidiary bodies
1. In accordance with the provisions of Rule XXX.10 of the General Rules of the Organization, the Committee may, when necessary, establish subcommittees, subsidiary working parties or study groups, subject to the necessary funds being available in the relevant chapter of the approved budget of the Organization, and may include in the membership of such subcommittees, subsidiary working parties or study groups Member Nations that are not Members of the Committee and Associate Members. The membership of such subcommittees, subsidiary working parties and study groups established by the Committee may include States which, while not Member Nations or Associate Members of the Organization, are members of the United Nations, any of its specialized agencies or the International Atomic Energy Agency.
2. Before taking any decision involving expenditure in connection with the establishment of subsidiary bodies, the Committee shall have before it a report from the Director-General on the administrative and financial implications thereof.
3. The Committee shall determine the terms of reference of its subsidiary bodies, who shall report to the Committee. The reports of the subsidiary bodies shall be made available for information to all members of the subsidiary bodies concerned, all Member Nations and Associate Members of the Organization, nonmember States invited to the sessions of the subsidiary bodies, and to interested international organizations entitled to attend such sessions.
Rule VIII - Suspension of Rules
1. The Committee may decide to suspend any of the foregoing Rules of Procedure, provided that 24 hours' notice of the proposal for the suspension has been given and that the action contemplated is consistent with the Constitution and the General Rules of the Organization Such notice may be waived if no Member objects.
Rule IX - Amendment of Rules
1. The Committee may, by a two-thirds majority of the votes cast, amend its Rules of Procedure, provided that such amendment is consistent with the Constitution and the General Rules of the Organization. No proposal for the amendment of these Rules shall be included in the agenda of any session of the Committee unless notice thereof has been dispatched by the Director-General to Members of the Committee at least 30 days before the opening of the session.
II. GRANTING OF OBSERVER STATUS (IN RESPECT OF NATIONS)
Granting of observer status
1. At its Eighth Session the Conference requested the Council to consider and suggest amendments to the Constitution and General Rules of the Organization for the purpose of eliminating any possible ambiguity with respect to the question of observer status, with special reference to the definition of such status, the establishment of criteria for the granting of the status and the consideration of all juridical and practical aspects of the problem.
Observer status in respect of nations
2. The Ninth Session of the Conference accepted the Council's view that the objective would be fulfilled by defining (a) the categories of nations that may be invited to send observers to meetings of the Organization, (b) the authority that may grant the status of observer to such nations, and (c) the status to be accorded to observers; and that, since there were very few provisions in the Constitution and General Rules of the Organization relating to observer status in respect of nations, it was preferable to formulate a statement of principles on the subject.
3. Therefore, after introducing certain amendments to the text which the Council had proposed (see Report of the Twenty-sixth Session of the Council), the Conference adopted the following Resolution:
Resolution No. 43/57 - Observer status in respect of nations
Considering that Article III of the Constitution and the relevant General Rules of the Organization regarding observer status are not sufficiently clear;
Adopts the statement of principles relating to the granting of observer status to nations set forth in Appendix C to this report ;
Requests all bodies set up under the aegis of the Organization in accordance with Articles VI and XIV of the Constitution to bring their statutes and rules of procedure into harmony with the aforementioned principles at the earliest possible date.
1. The Conference considered that the principles set out in Section A, paragraph 2 of the statement of principles referred to above should be included in the General Rules of the Organization and consequently requested the Council to submit to the next session of the Conference a draft amendment to Rule XXVI.9 (new Rule XXV.9)
APPENDIX PART A - STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES RELATING TO THE GRANTING OF OBSERVER STATUS TO NATIONS
Member Nations and Associate Members
1. Sessions of the Conference, Council, commissions and committees. Member Nations and Associate Members of the Organization may not attend any session of the Conference in an observer capacity. This principle shall also apply to members of the Council and of the commissions and committees established under Article VI or Article XIV of the Constitution with respect to attendance at the sessions of such bodies.
2. Executive, private or closed meetings of the Council. Rule XXV.9(c) of the General Rules of the Organization provides that any Member Nation not represented on the Council and any Associate Member may submit memoranda and participate without vote in any discussion of the Council. In interpreting this Rule it will be understood that, as a general practice, Member Nations of the Organization that are not members of the Council, or Associate Members, should be admitted to private meetings, unless the Council decides otherwise in cases of necessity.
3. Regional or technical meetings (including those of regional commissions set up under Article VI of the Constitution). Any Member Nation or Associate Member may, on request, participate in the capacity of observer in any regional or technical meeting of the FAO governing or subsidiary bodies, or any regional or technical meeting of which the Director-General on the authority of the Council assumes the initiative or has the primary organizing responsibility, even though the Member Nation or Associate Member does not geographically belong to the particular region, always provided that the Member Nation or Associate Member has a definite interest in the subject matter to be discussed. Notice of the intention to attend any such meeting should be given to the Director-General at least 15 days before the meeting, it being understood that notice may be waived by the meeting itself .
4. Committees consisting of a limited number of Member Nations and Associate Members. Committees consisting of a limited number of Member Nations and Associate Members established by the Conference or its commissions or by the Council, under Article VI of the Constitution, or Rules XIV, XV or XXV.10 of the General Rules of the Organization, shall not be open to attendance by observers of Member Nations or Associate Members that are not members of such committees unless otherwise determined by the Conference, the said commissions or the Council. 5. Dependent territories of and trust territories administered by Member Nations. The Director-General may draw the attention of a metropolitan power or administering authority to the desirability of its participation in a regional or technical meeting of interest to a particular dependent or trust territory.
APPENDIX PART B - NON-MEMBER STATES
1. States which, while not Member Nations or Associate Members of the Organization, are members of the United Nations, any of its specialized agencies or the International Atomic Energy Agency may, on request, and subject to the provisions of paragraph B.4, be invited by the Conference or the Council to be represented by an observer at a session of the Conference or Council.
2. Such nonmember States may, on request and with the approval of the Council, attend regional or technical meetings of the Organization. In cases of urgency, however, where there is insufficient time to consult the Council, the Director-General may on request invite such nonmember States to send an observer to such meetings.
3. States which are not Members or Associate Members of the Organization or members of the United Nations, any of its specialized agencies or the International Atomic Energy Agency shall not be permitted to send observers to any meeting of the Organization.
4. Former Member Nations of the Organization that have withdrawn leaving arrears of contributions shall not be permitted to send an observer to any meeting of the Organization until such time as they have paid up all such arrears or the Conference has approved an arrangement for the settlement thereof, or unless the Council, in special circumstances, decides otherwise with respect to such attendance.
5. Should an application for membership have been received by the Organization, the requesting authority may, subject to the provisions of the preceding paragraph 4, be invited by the Council to participate in an observer capacity in technical meetings, in which such authority is regarded as having a technical interest, pending a decision of the Conference on the application.
6. Rules XXIV.1(d)(v) and XXXII.2 ) of the General Rules of the Organization shall be interpreted in the light of the principles laid down in paragraphs B.3 and B.4..7. The occasion may arise when a nonmember of the Organization which is, however, a member of the United Nations, any of its specialized agencies or the International Atomic Energy Agency needs to be consulted, because of emergency conditions, on some technical action, in which case the restrictive nature of paragraphs B.4 and B.5 above should not debar the Director-General from inviting an observer from such nonmember to attend a technical meeting for the discussion on a particular subject, if he deems such an invitation to be in the best interests of the Organization and its work, on the understanding that the Director-General shall consult the Members of the Council, if necessary by correspondence.
APPENDIX PART C - STATUS OF OBSERVERS
1. Observers from nations admitted to meetings of the Organization may be permitted:
(a) to make only formal statements in Conference and Council plenaries and in Commissions of the Whole, subject to the approval of the General Committee of the Conference, or of the Council;
(b) to participate in the discussions of the commissions and committees of the Conference and Council and in the discussions of technical meetings, subject to the approval of the Chairman of the particular meeting and without the right to vote;
(c) to receive the documents other than those of a restricted nature for and the report of the particular meeting;
(d) to submit written statements on particular items of the agenda;
(e) to attend a private meeting of the Council or of a commission or committee established by the Conference or Council, subject to the following rule: When it is decided that the Council or a commission or committee established by the Conference or Council shall hold a private meeting, the Conference, Council, commission or committee, subject to the provisions of the Constitution and the General Rules of the Organization and to the principles laid down in the present Resolution, shall, at the same time, determine the scope of such a decision with respect to observers of Member Nations and Associate Members that are not members of the commission or committee and to observers of nonmember nations that have been invited to be represented at the session of the commission or committee.
III. GRANTING OF OBSERVER STATUS (IN RESPECT OF INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENTAL AND NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS)
Granting of observer status
1. At its eighth session the Conference requested the Council to consider and suggest amendments to the Constitution and General Rules of the Organization for the purpose of eliminating any possible ambiguity with respect to the question of observer status, with special reference to the definition of such status, the establishment of criteria for the granting of the status and the consideration of all juridical and practical aspects of the problem.
RESOLUTION No. 44/57 - Observer status in respect of international organizations
(a) that in future intergovernmental organizations that do not have an agreement with FAO and nongovernmental organizations in liaison status with FAO may be invited to send observers to Conference and Council sessions if, in the judgement of the Director-General, there are concrete reasons for inviting them which would forward the work of the Organization;
(b) that the status of observers sent to FAO meetings by intergovernmental organizations that have relations with FAO shall not be less than that accorded to the observers of nongovernmental organizations in consultative status with the Organization; and Notes that subject to the foregoing interpretation the provisions of the Constitution and General Rules of the Organization which apply to international organizations and the FAO policy statement concerning relations with international nongovernmental organizations adopted at its Seventh Session provide adequate criteria for the granting of observer status to international organizations and adequately define the status of their observers.
In selecting and prioritizing the major issues and key areas of international concern, the expert consultation emphasized the critical importance of addressing issues of food security and poverty alleviation at local, national, regional and global levels. The role of aquaculture for enhancing food security and economic development in FAO Member nations to alleviating poverty was therefore considered a primary priority. The expert consultation identified six key areas to be addressed by the Sub-Committee. The six priority areas are:
1. Food Security and Poverty Alleviation
2. Consumer issues (food safety, quality and certification)
3. Human resource development (training and education), research and extension
4. Environmental aspects of aquaculture development
5. Institutional capacity building and policy development
6. Statistics, data and information management
Aquaculture Development Beyond 2000:
Conference on Aquaculture Development in the Third Millennium
20-25 February 2000
The first major international Conference on Aquaculture organized by FAO was held in Kyoto, Japan in 1976. The Conference adopted the "Kyoto Declaration on Aquaculture." In February 2000, some 540 participants from 66 countries and more than 200 governmental and non-governmental organisations participated in the "Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium" in Bangkok, Thailand. This conference was organised by the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) and the FAO and hosted by the Government of Thailand. Additional support was provided by the European Union (EU), the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the Danish Centre for Environment and Development (DANCED), the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Australia (AFFA), the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, and the World Bank-Netherlands Partnership Program.
Throughout 1999, NACA and the FAO facilitated the preparation of reviews on aquaculture developments in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, North America, the countries of the former USSR, the Near East, and the Pacific Island nations and held expert meetings to consider major trends in aquaculture development. Fourteen Thematic Reviews on selected aspects of aquaculture were promoted and eight overviews on key issues were prepared for presentation and discussion at the Conference. All participants to the Conference received extended summaries of all material prepared. Twenty plenary presentations and discussions, and 12 workshop sessions facilitated by expert panels enabled participants to discuss and prioritise major issues and strategic actions for follow-up.
Major themes discussed included policy-making and planning for sustainable aquaculture development (covering food security and poverty alleviation, rural development, stakeholder involvement, incentives, and legal and institutional frameworks); technological and R&D priorities (including systems/species, genetics, health management, nutrition/feeding, and culture-based fisheries); human resource development; international trade; product quality, safety and marketing; regional/inter-regional co-operation; financing; and institutional support.
Against this background, the Conference participants discussed priorities and strategies for the development of aquaculture for the next two decades, in the light of the future economic, social and environmental issues and advances in aquaculture technologies. Based on these deliberations, the participants adopted the Bangkok Declaration and Strategy for Aquaculture Development Beyond 2000. The Conference encouraged States, the private sector and other concerned stakeholders to incorporate in their strategies for aquaculture development the key strategy elements identified during this Conference.
The proceedings of the Conference, including global and regional reviews on trends in aquaculture development, thematic reviews, keynote addresses and other invited presentations will be published by NACA and FAO.
NACA and FAO acknowledge all individuals and agencies who assisted in the conference process.
Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA)
Suraswadi Building, Department of Fisheries,
Kasetsart University Campus, Ladyao, Jatujak
Fax: + 66 2 561-1727
E-mail: email@example.com - firstname.lastname@example.org
Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service
Fishery Resources Division
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
Fax: + 39 06 570 - 53020
E-mail: email@example.com - firstname.lastname@example.org
The Bangkok Declaration
1. The first international Conference on Aquaculture organised by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) was held in Kyoto, Japan in 1976. The Conference adopted the "Kyoto Declaration on Aquaculture".
2. In February 2000, some 540 participants from 66 countries participated in the "Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium" in Bangkok, Thailand. This Conference was organised by the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) and the FAO and hosted by the Government of Thailand.
3. Throughout 1999, NACA and the FAO facilitated the preparation of reviews on aquaculture developments in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, North America, the countries of the former USSR, the Near East, and the Pacific Island nations and held expert meetings to consider trends in aquaculture development. Thematic Reviews on various aspects of aquaculture were also conducted. Participants to the Bangkok Conference were informed of the findings and conclusions of these activities.
4. Against this background, the Conference participants discussed strategies for the development of aquaculture for the next two decades, in the light of the future economic, social and environmental issues and advances in aquaculture technologies.
5. Based on these deliberations, the participants to the Conference adopted the following Declaration.
We, the participants to the Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium, Bangkok 2000, recognize that:
during the past three decades aquaculture has become the fastest growing food-producing sector and is an increasingly important contributor to national economic development, the global food supply and food security;
aquaculture consists of a broad spectrum of users, systems, practices and species, operating through a continuum ranging from backyard household ponds to large-scale industrial systems;
the per caput supply of food fish from capture fisheries is likely to decline with population increase;
a great proportion of aquaculture production comes from developing countries, where aquaculture will continue to contribute to peoples' livelihoods, food security, poverty alleviation, income generation, employment and trade;
there has been a significant increase in commercial and industrial aquaculture, both in developed and developing countries, that has contributed to food supply, export income and trade;
globally, aquaculture is at varying stages of development and will require different strategies for growth;
the potential of aquaculture to contribute to food production has not yet been realized across all continents;
aquaculture complements other food production systems, and integrated aquaculture can add value to the current use of on-farm resources;
aquaculture can be an entry point for improving livelihoods, planning natural resource use and contributing to environmental enhancement;
responsible aquaculture practitioners are legitimate users of resources;
education and research will continue to make a significant contribution to the growth of aquaculture;
some poorly planned and managed aquaculture operations have resulted in negative impacts on ecosystems and communities;
aquaculture has also been negatively impacted by other unplanned activities;
the continued growth of aquaculture will occur through investment by the private and public sectors;
effective national institutional arrangements and capacity, policy, planning and regulatory frameworks in aquaculture and other relevant sectors are essential to support aquaculture development;
improving co-operation amongst stakeholders at national, regional and inter-regional levels is pivotal for further development of aquaculture;
the potential of aquaculture to contribute to human development and social empowerment cannot be fully realized without consistent, responsible policies and goals that encourage sustainable development;
and declare that:
the aquaculture sector should continue to be developed towards its full potential, making a net contribution to global food availability, household food security, economic growth, trade and improved living standards;
the practice of aquaculture should be pursued as an integral component of development, contributing towards sustainable livelihoods for poor sectors of the community, promoting human development and enhancing social well-being;
aquaculture policies and regulations should promote practical and economically viable farming and management practices that are environmentally responsible and socially acceptable;
national aquaculture development processes should be transparent and should take place within the framework of relevant national policies, regional and international agreements, treaties and conventions;
in pursuing development, States, the private sector, and other legitimate stakeholders should co-operate to promote the responsible growth of aquaculture;
strengthened regional and inter-regional co-operation should increase the efficiency and effectiveness of aquaculture development efforts; and
all parties formulating improved policies and implementing practices for aquaculture development should consider and where appropriate, build on the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.
6. The following contains the major strategy elements based on the Conference session recommendations. The detailed recommendations from the sessions are given in the Conference Report.
STRATEGY FOR AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT BEYOND 2000
7. States are encouraged to incorporate in their strategies for aquaculture development the key elements identified during this Conference.
8. The key elements are:
Investing in people through education and training
9. Further investments in education and training are essential to build the knowledge, skills and attitude of all people involved in the sector. Human capacity development can be made more cost-effective and responsive to needs through:
Investing in research and development
10. There is a need to increase investment in aquaculture research, whilst making efficient use of research resources and building the capacity of research institutions to be more responsive to development requirements through such mechanisms as:
Improving information flow and communication
11. Efficient management of the sector requires improved information flows at the national, regional and inter-regional levels which will avoid duplication of effort and save costs, while encouraging consistency in areas such as education and training, policy-making, planning and the application of rules and procedures.
12. Improved information flows will increase institutional capacities for dealing with emerging issues and can be achieved by:
13. The collection and dissemination of accurate and verifiable information on aquaculture may help to improve its public image and should be given attention.
Improving food security and alleviating poverty
14. Enhancing food security and alleviating poverty are major and complementary global priorities. Aquaculture has a special role in achieving these objectives because, firstly, fish is a highly nutritious food that forms an essential, if not indispensable, part of the diet of a large proportion of the people in developing countries. Secondly, while aquaculture contributes to the livelihoods of poor farming households, particularly in areas of Asia where it is a traditional farming practice, there is a huge, unfulfilled potential in most countries, as aquaculture is a relatively recent and underdeveloped sector as compared to agriculture and animal husbandry. Aquaculture could improve food security, provide entry points and contribute to sustainable livelihoods for the poor through:
Improving environmental sustainability
15. There is a need to develop and adopt policies and practices that ensure environmental sustainability, including environmentally sound technologies and resource efficient farming systems, and integration of aquafarms into coastal area and inland watershed management plans. Improvements in environmental sustainability can be achieved through:
Integrating aquaculture into rural development
16. With the goal of increasing the impact of aquaculture on rural development and poverty alleviation, strategies are required to put people as the focal point for planning and development for such programmes and to integrate aquaculture into overall rural development programmes. In essence, this can be achieved through:
Investing in aquaculture development
17. Future investment in aquaculture should be made with long-term strategies in mind to ensure sustainability. Private sector investments make the biggest contribution to aquaculture development, but adequate public sector finance for capacity building, institutional development and infrastructure, is indispensable for society to reap the full benefits of a well managed and efficient aquaculture sector.
18. Sound investment strategies should include:
19. International development assistance is becoming increasingly directed towards poverty alleviation and needs to adhere to basic principles of social equity, including gender equity, environmental sustainability, technical feasibility, economic viability and good governance. The level of risk is important when supporting initiatives to address poverty alleviation.
20. To make efficient use of international donor resources, a programme approach to multi-sectoral development should be applied under which donors can more effectively co-operate and collaborate with each other. Ultimately, this should occur within comprehensive planning and development frameworks. There is thus a need for donors to adopt more cohesive approaches and procedures.
Strengthening institutional support
21. One of the key issues for the growth of aquaculture will be the ability of countries and organisations to strengthen their institutional capacity to establish and implement policy and regulatory frameworks that are both transparent and enforceable. Incentives, especially economic incentives, deserve to be given more attention in the planning and management of aquaculture development.
22. Institutional capacity should be made more effective and strengthened through:
Applying innovations in aquaculture
23. The technologies for sustainable aquaculture development should provide a varied and adaptable "tool box" from which people can select and design the system which most effectively meets their needs and best fits the opportunities and constraints of the local environment. The delivery of such techniques requires efficient communication networks, reliable data on the merits and drawbacks of the various approaches, and help with the decision making process through which people choose their production systems and species.
24. As we move into the next two decades, water and land for aquaculture will become critical issues. New opportunities for aquaculture development will also emerge through improvements in science and technology for aquaculture systems.
25. The potential areas for further consideration include:
Improving culture-based fisheries and enhancements
26. Fisheries enhancements in inland and coastal waters include culture-based fisheries and habitat modifications in common pool aquatic resources, which require minimal food and energy inputs. These practices therefore provide important opportunities for resource poor sections of the population to benefit from relevant aquaculture technologies and permit efficient use of under-utilised, new or degraded resources. Culture-based fisheries in particular have considerable potential for increasing fish supplies from both freshwater and marine fisheries and generating income in rural inland and coastal areas.
27. The full potential of enhancements and culture-based fisheries could be achieved by:
Managing aquatic animal health
28. Disease is currently an important constraint to aquaculture growth which has impacted both socio-economic development and rural livelihoods in some countries. Addressing aquatic animal health issues has, therefore, become an urgent requirement for sustaining growth of aquaculture, especially through pro-active programmes. Harmonising health protection approaches and measures and effective co-operation at national, regional and inter-regional levels are needed to maximize the effectiveness of limited resources.
29. This can be achieved through:
30. Establishment of an effective international mechanism, such as an international task force which is outcome-oriented with focussed strategies and milestones that are independent of vested interests, would be beneficial in reducing the losses due to diseases in aquaculture.
Improving nutrition in aquaculture
31. Nutrition and feeding strategies play a central and essential role in the sustainable development of the aquaculture sector. Feed development will need to give increased emphasis on efficient use of resources and reduction of feed waste and nutrient discharge. Fishmeal reduction in diets will be important to reduce feed costs and avoid competition with other users.
32. These can be achieved through:
Applying genetics to aquaculture
33. Genetics has an important role to play in increasing productivity and sustainability in aquaculture through higher survival, increased turnover rate, better use of resources, reduced production costs and environmental protection. This will require resources, but the benefits in both the short and long term should justify these efforts.
34. There are many elements and practices of genetics that may be considered for aquaculture. Recognising that aquaculture has not benefited as much as terrestrial animal husbandry from the adoption of best practices such as selective breeding and stock improvement programmes, high priority should be given to the application of genetics in aquaculture. The interventions include:
35. Biotechnology as a science has the potential to impact on all food production sectors. In the future the aquaculture sector will confront the issue of biotechnology through:
Improving food quality and safety
36. As consumer awareness increases, aquaculture producers, suppliers and processors will need to improve the quality of products and enhance product safety and nutritional value. The incentives for this will be potentially higher prices, lower insurance rates and increased consumer demand.
37. This can be achieved through:
Promoting market development and trade
38. A focus on market development and trade will increase demand, add value and increase returns for aquaculture products. This will require developing marketing and promotional strategies for aquaculture products and understanding consumer requirements and changing market demands.
39. These goals can be achieved through:
Supporting strong regional and inter-regional co-operation
40. Over the years, regional and inter-regional co-operation has brought considerable benefits to aquaculture development through dissemination of knowledge and expertise. In an era of globalisation, further strengthening of this co-operation at all levels will ensure increased benefits for sectoral development and sustainability.
41. This could be achieved through:
42. The Conference noted there are issues relevant to aquaculture development that require a strong global focus to be addressed and that this need might best be achieved by establishing a global intergovernmental forum within an appropriate existing international organisation, having sustainable aquaculture development as its primary focus, and with a mandate for discussion, decision and agreement on technical and policy matters.
43. The Conference encourages States, the private sector and other concerned organisations to implement Strategies for Development of Aquaculture Beyond 2000.
44. The aquaculture sector has become considerably more diverse since the Kyoto Conference and has developed a broad range of stakeholders. This diversity provides considerable opportunity for productive co-operation.
45. The Conference recognises that the primary responsibilities for development and implementation of these strategies rest with States and their private sectors. The Conference recommends that States develop strategies through encouraging private sector development incorporating the key elements identified above.
46. The Conference further affirms that co-operative mechanisms among countries provide an excellent opportunity to co-ordinate and support the development of aquaculture, through sharing of experiences, technical support, and allocation of responsibilities for the varied research, education and information exchange. The fostering of co-operation among developing countries deserves special attention and support.
47. Furthermore, the Conference recommends that effective use of existing regional and inter-regional mechanisms be made, and that decision-makers seek to promote synergy and co-operation between existing organisations. Where effective regional inter-governmental organisations to promote co-operation in aquaculture development do not exist, such as in Africa and Latin America, building of such mechanisms, and sharing experiences with the existing regional networks, is recommended.
48. The Conference notes that there are considerable opportunities for enhanced regional and inter-regional co-operation among different partners including governments, non-governmental organizations, farmers organizations, regional and international organizations, development agencies, donors and lending agencies with a common interest in development through aquaculture.
49. In this regard, the Conference strongly recommends the development of an effective programme of regional and inter-regional co-operation to assist in implementation of the Strategies for Aquaculture Development Beyond 2000.
1 Aquaculture is defined by FAO, for statistical purposes (FAO/FIDI, 1999) as "Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some sort of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated. For statistical purposes, aquatic organisms which are harvested by an individual or corporate body which has owned them throughout their rearing period contribute to aquaculture while aquatic organisms which are exploitable by the public as a common property resource, with or without appropriate licences, are the harvest of fisheries." As envisaged by the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (FAO, 1995), aquaculture is considered to include culture-based fisheries.