DEFINITIONS AND ACRONYMS
DEFINITIONS USED IN THE
FOREST AND RELATED LAND COVER
These terms have been adopted for use in the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. Further information on definitions has been published in FAO documents (FAO, 1998d; FAO, 2000f), which are available on the FAO Web site at: www.fao.org/FORESTRY/FO/FRA/index.jsp.
Forest includes natural forests and forest plantations. The term is used to refer to land with a tree canopy cover of more than 10 percent and area of more than 0.5 ha. Forests are determined both by the presence of trees and the absence of other predominant land uses. The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 m. Young stands that have not yet reached, but are expected to reach, a crown density of 10 percent and tree height of 5 m are included under forest, as are temporarily unstocked areas. The term includes forests used for purposes of production, protection, multiple use or conservation (i.e. forest in national parks, nature reserves and other protected areas), as well as forest stands on agricultural lands (e.g. windbreaks and shelterbelts of trees with a width of more than 20 m) and rubberwood plantations and cork oak stands. The term specifically excludes stands of trees established primarily for agricultural production, for example fruit tree plantations. It also excludes trees planted in agroforestry systems.
A forest composed of indigenous trees, and not classified as forest plantation.
A forest established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation. It consists of introduced species or, in some cases, indigenous species.
Other wooded land
Land that has either a crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of 5 to10 percent of trees able to reach a height of 5 m at maturity; or a crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10 percent of trees not able to reach a height of 5 m at maturity; or a shrub or bush cover of more than 10 percent.
Establishment of forest plantations on land that until then was not classified as forest. It implies a transformation from non-forest to forest.
Natural expansion of forest
Expansion of forest through natural succession on land that until then was under another land use (e.g. forest succession on land previously used for agriculture). It implies a transformation from non-forest to forest.
Establishment of forest plantations on temporarily unstocked lands that are considered forest.
Natural regeneration on forest lands
Natural succession of forest on temporarily unstocked lands that are considered forest.
The conversion of forest to another land use or the long-term reduction of the tree canopy cover below the minimum 10 percent threshold (see the definition of forest and the following explanatory note).
Explanatory note: Deforestation implies the long-term or permanent loss of forest cover and implies transformation into another land use. Such a loss can only be caused and maintained by a continued human-induced or natural perturbation. Deforestation includes areas of forest converted to agriculture, pasture, water reservoirs and urban areas. The term specifically excludes areas where the trees have been removed as a result of harvesting or logging and where the forest is expected to regenerate naturally or with the aid of silvicultural measures. Unless logging is followed by the clearing of the remaining logged-over forest for the introduction of alternative land uses, or the clearings are maintained through continued disturbance, forests commonly regenerate, although often to a different, secondary condition. In areas of shifting agriculture, forest, forest fallow and agricultural lands appear in a dynamic pattern where deforestation and the return of forest occur frequently in small patches. To simplify reporting of such areas, the net change over a larger area is typically used. Deforestation also includes areas where, for example, the impact of disturbance, overutilization or changing environmental conditions affects the forest to an extent that it cannot sustain a tree cover above the 10 percent threshold.
Changes within the forest that negatively affect the structure or function of the stand or site, and thereby lower its capacity to supply products and/or services.
Changes within the forest that positively affect the structure or function of the stand or site, and thereby increase its capacity to supply products and/or services.
These definitions are an abbreviated form of those used in the FAO Yearbook of Forest Products, which includes full details (FAO, 2000c).
Wood in its natural state as removed from forests and from trees outside forests; wood in the rough.
Commodities include all forms of industrial roundwood and fuelwood.
Wood that will be used "in the rough" as fuel for purposes such as cooking, heating or power generation; and wood that will be used for charcoal production.
The commodities included in this category are sawlogs or veneer logs, pulpwood and other industrial roundwood. In the case of trade, chips and particles and wood residues are also included.
Wood (including sleepers) sawn lengthwise or produced by a profile-chipping process, and planed wood.
An aggregate term including the following commodities: veneer sheets, plywood, particle board and fibreboard. Particle board includes varieties such as oriented strand board (OSB) and flakeboard. Fibreboard includes hardboard, medium-density fibreboard (MDF) and insulation fibreboard.
Pulp for paper
This includes both wood pulp (mechanical, semi-chemical and chemical) and other fibre pulp (straw, bamboo and bagasse, etc.).
Used paper and paperboard or residues from paper conversion that are collected for reuse as a raw material for the manufacture of paper, paperboard or other products.
Paper and paperboard
The following commodities are included in this aggregate: newsprint, printing and writing paper, other paper and paperboard.
Non-wood forest products
Goods of biological origin other than wood that are derived from forests, other wooded land and trees outside forests.
Activities Implemented Jointly (FCCC)
Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
African Timber Organization
Belize Audubon Society
Caribbean Community and Common Market
Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center
Central American Council for Forests and Protected Areas (CCAD)
Central American Commission on Environment and Development
Clean Development Mechanism (FCCC)
Conference on the Central African Moist Forest Ecosystems
Committee on Earth Observation Satellites
Confederation of European Paper Industries
Center for International Forestry Research
Commonwealth of Independent States
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
Committee on Forestry (FAO)
Corporación Nacional Forestal (Chile)
Conference of the Parties
Collaborative Partnership on Forests
Canadian Standards Association
Commission on Sustainable Development (UN)
Department for International Development (UK)
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Economic and Social Council (UN)
Economic Community of West African States
European Economic Community
Framework Convention on Climate Change
Forestry Information System
Forest Policy Implementation Review and Strategy (World Bank)
Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000
Forest Stewardship Council
gross annual increment
Global Environment Facility
Global Fire Monitoring Centre
Geographic Information System
genetically modified organism
integrated conservation and development project
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
International Centre for Research in Agroforestry
International Development Research Centre
International Fund for Agricultural Development
Intergovernmental Forum on Forests
International Institute for Environment and Development (UK)
International Labour Organization
International Monetary Fund
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Intergovernmental Panel on Forests
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN)
International Organization for Standardization
International Trade Centre
Interagency Task Force on Forests (UN)
International Tropical Timber Organization
World Conservation Union
International Union of Forestry Research Organizations
International Year of Mountains
Joint Forest Management
Joint Implementation (projects) (FCCC)
Latin American Economic System
Indonesian Ecolabelling Institute
Land Use Change and Forestry (FCCC)
land use, land use change and forestry (projects) (FCCC)
laminated veneer lumber
North American Free Trade Agreement
net annual increment
National Timber Certification Council (Malaysia)
non-wood forest product
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Office National des Forêts (France)
oriented strand board
Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems
Pan-European Forest Certification Framework
Programme on Forests (UNDP)
quantified emission limitation or reduction commitment (FCCC)
reduced impact logging
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
Southern African Development Community
Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technical Advice (FCCC)
Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technology Advice (Conference on Biological Diversity)
Swedish International Development Agency
South Pacific Forum
Treaty for Amazonian Co-operation
Tropical Montane Cloud Forest (Initiative)
United Kingdom Woodland Assurance Scheme
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
United Nations Foundation
United Nations Forum on Forests
World Conservation Monitoring Centre
World Commission on Protected Areas (IUCN)
World Meteorological Organization
World Resources Institute
World Trade Organization
World Wide Fund for Nature