LECTURE NOTES ON THE MAJOR SOILS OF THE WORLD


Edited by: Paul Driessen, Wageningen Agricultural University, International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (ITC), Jozef Deckers, Catholic University of Leuven Otto Spaargaren, International Soil Reference and Information Centre Freddy Nachtergaele, FAO

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ISBN 925-104637-9

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FAO 2001


Table of Contents

Preface

Introduction

The World Reference Base for Soil Resources

Reference Soil Groups

Set #1. Organic Soils

Histosols

Set #2. Mineral Soils conditioned by Man

Anthrosols (AT)

Set #3. Mineral Soils conditioned by Parent Material

Major landforms in volcanic landscapes

Andosols (AN)

Major landforms in landscapes with sands

Arenosols(AR)

Major landforms in landscapes with smectites

Vertisols (VR)

Set #4. Mineral Soils conditioned by Topography

Major landforms in alluvial lowlands

Fluvisols (FL)
(with special attention for Thionic Fluvisols)

Gleysols (GL)

Major landforms in mountains and formerly glaciated regions

Leptosols (LP)

Regosols (RG)

Set #5. Mineral Soils conditioned by Limited Age

Cambisols (CM)

Set #6. Mineral Soils conditioned by a Wet (Sub)Tropical Climate

Major landforms in the (sub-)humid tropics

Plinthosols (PT)

Ferralsols (FR)

Alisols (AL)1

Nitisols (NT)

Acrisols (AC)

Lixisols (LX)

Set #7. Mineral Soils conditioned by a (semi-)Arid Climate

Major landforms in (semi-)arid regions

Solonchaks (SC)

Solonetz (SN)

Gypsisols (GY)

Durisols (DU)

Calcisols (CL)

Set #8. Mineral Soils conditioned by a Steppic Climate

Major landforms in steppe regions

Chernozems (CH)

Kastanozems (KS)

Phaeozems (PH)

Set #9. Mineral Soils conditioned by a (Sub)Humid Temperate Climate

Major landforms in (Sub-)Humid Temperate Regions

Podzols (PZ)

Planosols (PL)

Albeluvisols (AB)

Luvisols (LV)

Umbrisols (UM)

Set #10. Mineral Soils conditioned by Permafrost

Cryosols

References

Annexes

Annex 1. Key to Reference Soil Groups

Annex 2. Diagnostic horizons, properties and materials

Annex 3. Qualifiers (formative elements for naming soil units)

Annex 4. Suggestions for ranking qualifiers in soil unit names