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Aaker, J. & Shumaker, J. 1997. Looking back and looking forward: a participatory approach to evaluation. Little Rock, Arkansas, Heifer Project International. 106 pp.

Adams, A.M., Cekan, J. & Sauerborn, R. 1998. Towards a conceptual framework of household coping: reflections from rural West Africa. Africa 68: 263-283.

Alston, J.M, Norton, G.W. & Pardey, P.G. 1995. Science under scarcity. principles and practice for agricultural research evaluation and priority setting. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press and ISNAR. 585 pp.

Altieri, Miguel. 1999. Applying agroecology to enhance productivity peasant farming systems in Latin America. Environment, Development, and Sustainability 1(3/4): 197-207.

Ashley, C. & Carney D. 1999. Sustainable livelihoods: lessons from early experience. London, Department for International Development. 55 pp.

Ashby, J. 1990. Evaluating technology with farmer: A handbook. Cali, Colombia, International Centre for Tropical Agriculture.

Bennett, C., McDonald B., Coffey S. & McNeal, B. 2000. Models for Planning and Evaluating Integrated Projects: Collaborative research and education. Presented at the Institute for Horticultural Development, Australia and the American Evaluation Association Meetings, Orlando, FL and Honolulu, HI. Washington. USDA Cooperative Research, Education and Extension

Bennett, C. & Rockwell, K. 1995. Targeting outcomes of program (TOP): an integrated approach to planning and evaluation. Washington, DC,USDA-CREES-PAS. 38 pp.

Berry, S. 1984. The Food Crisis and Agrarian Change in Africa: a Review Essay. African Studies Rev. 27 (2): 59-112.

Bertelsen, M. K. 2000. Holistic management in West Africa: a new approach to community based natural resource management and institutional development at the decentralized commune level. In Cason, K., ed. Cultivating community capital for sustainable natural resource management: Experiences from the SANREM CRSP. 29-37 pp.

Byerlee, D. & Alex, G.E. 1998. Strengthening national agricultural research systems. Policy issues and good practice. World Bank, Washington, DC. 87 pp.

DFID Natural Resources Department. 1998. Research and the sustainable rural livelihoods approach. In Carney, Diana, ed. Sustainable rural livelihoods: What contributions can we make? p. 131-137. London, Dept. for International Development.

Ellis, F. 1998. Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification. J Dev Studies, 35: 1-38

Estrella, M. with Blauert, J., Campilan, D., Gaventa, J., Gonsalves, J., Guiljt, I., Johnson, D. & Ricafort, R.eds. 2000. Learning from change: Issues and experiences in participatory monitoring and evaluation. London, Intermediate Technology Publications, International Development Research Centre. 274 pp.

FAO. 1997a. Food for all: Success stories in the battle for food security. Rome.

FAO. 1997b. Participation in practice: Lessons from the FAO people's participation programme. Rome, FAO. Retrieved December 2000 from FAO at:

FAO. 2000a. The state of food insecurity in the world 2000. Rome, FAO. Available on the World Wide Web:

FAO.2000b. FarmNet: farmer information network for agricultural and rural development. Rome, FAO Research, Extension and Training Division, SDR and World Agriculture Information Centre.

FAO. 2000c. VERCON: virtual extension, research and communications network. Rome, FAO Research, Extension, and Training Division, SDR and World Agriculture Information Centre, WAICENT.

FCND. 1999. Technical guides for operationalizing household food security in development projects. Washington, DC, International Food Policy Research Institute.

Feldstein, H. S.1999. An inventory of gender-related research and training in the consultative group on international agricultural research (CGIAR) centers 1996-1998. Cali, Colombia, CGIAR Participatory Research and Gender Analysis Program.

Holland, D. & Silva, C. 2000. Learning to participate - agricultural research communities and farming communities face the same challenges. Paper presented at ALARPM/PAR Congress, University of Ballarat, Australia, p. 13-15.

ICRISAT. 2001 ICRISAT's contribution to the mission of the CGIAR: improving policies. Sorghum in India:added value from new crop products Retrieved January 2001 from ICRISAT at:

IFAD. 1998. Agricultural implements used by women farmers in Africa. Rome, IFAD. 129 pp.

IFPRI. 1999. Research perspectives. Downloading a dream. Volume 21(2), Retreived January 2001 from the IFPRI at:

ILRI. 1999. System analyses and impact assessment. Retrieved from ILRI on the World Wide Web:

Johnson-Welch, C., Alemu, B., Msaki, T. P., Sengendo, M., Kigutha, H. & Wolff, A. 2000. Improving household food security: Institutions, gender, and integrated approaches. Madison, Wisconsin, BASIS CRSP, University of Wisconsin. 57 pp.

Maxwell, S. &. Frankenberger, T. 1992. Household food security: Concepts, indicators, and measurements. New York, UNICEF and IFAD. 274 pp.

Mikkelsen, B. 1995. Methods for development work and research: A guide for practicioners. Thousand Oaks, California, Sage Publications. 296 pp.

Mills, B. & Mbabu, A. 1998. The role and levels for agricultural research priority setting. In Mills, B., ed. Agricultural research priority setting: Investments for the improved use of research resources. The Hague, The Netherlands, ISNAR, 5-15 pp.

Mywish M., Byerlee, D. &. Anderson, J. 2000. Ex-post evaluation of economic impacts of agricultural research programs: a tour of good practice. Paper presented to the Workshop on The Future of Impact Assessment in CGIAR: Needs, Constraints, and Options, Standing Panel on Impact Assessment (SPIA) of the Technical Advisory Committee, May 3-6, 2000, Rome.

Neely, C.L., Buenavista, M.G. & Earl, J. 1999. Looking back on the landscape: impacts and lessons of the SANREM CRSP. Athens, Georgia, University of Georgia. 76 pp.

Okali, C., Sumberg, J. & Farrington, J. 1994. Farmer participatory research: Rhetoric and reality. London, Intermediate Technology Publications. 159 pp.

Pachico, D.H. 1994. Experiences and challenges in the assessment of international agricultural research impacts. In Lee, D.R. and Uphoff, N., eds. Assessing the impact of international agricultural research for sustainable development. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University.

Pretty, J.N., Guijt, I., Scoones, I. & Thompson J. 1995. A trainer's guide for partipatory learning and action. London, IIED Participatory Methodology Series. 267 pp.

Satio, Katrine A. & Daphne Spurling. 1992. Developing agricultural extension for women farmers. World Bank Discussion Paper 156. Washington, DC, World Bank.

Savory, A. 1988. Holistic resource management. Washington, DC, Island Press. 564 pp.

Savory, A with Butterfield, J. 1999. Holistic management: A new framework for decision making. Washington, DC, Island Press. 616 pp.

Scoones, I. 1998. Sustainable rural livelihoods: A framework for analysis. Working Paper no. 72, Institute of Development Studies. Brighton, UK, University of Sussex.

Selener, D., Endara, N. & Carvajal, J. 1999. Participatory rural appraisal and planning. Quito, International Institute for Rural Reconstruction. 146 pp.

Sen, A. 1981. Poverty and famines: an essay on entitlement and deprivation. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 257 pp.

Silva-Barbeau, I., Sissoko, H., Berthe, M., Haidara, M., Barbeau, W.E., & Caldwell, J.S. 1998. Addressing child feeding concerns of women farmers in Mali: Composition and effects on child nutrition of a locally developed weaning food. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 37(1): 1-19.

Silva-Barbeau, I., Prehm, M., Hull, G., Ndure, S.K., Jome, K.B., Jawneh, A. & Sey, A. 1999. Small scale sesame oil production - a means to improved child nutrition security in The Gambia. Final Project

Report (1/1995 - 12/1998), Thrasher Research Fund and IMPACT Project, USAID. 22 pp.

Silva-Barbeau, I., Sissoko, H.T., Caldwell, J.S., Fofana, M., Diakite, D. & Gonzales-Vigilar, M.C.R.V. 2001. Factors contributing to the diversity of complimentary weaning food in three villages in Central Mali. The Ecology of Food and Nutrition Journal, Under Review.

Texas A&M. 2000. Development and evaluation of models and methods to improve the assessment of status and estimate the economic and environmental impact of options to enhance food security. Vol. 1 & 2. 1999 Workshop, Bamako Mali. Impact Assessment Group Texas A&M University.

Toomey, G. & Saad, N. 1999. Crossing perspectives: farmers and scientists in participatory plant breeding. Cali, Columbia, CGIAR Systemwide Program on Participatory Research and Gender Analysis.

UNDP. 2000. Guidebook on participation. Chapter 6: resources for promoting participation. Retrieved January 2001 from UNDP at:

USAID. 1995. USAID: Food aid and food security. Washington, DC, USAID.

Weijenberg, J. 1995. Strengthening national agricultural research systems in Eastern and Central Africa: a framework for action. World Bank technical paper, no. 290. Washington, DC. World Bank.

World Bank. 1986. Poverty and hunger: issues and options for food security in developing countries. World Bank Policy Study, Washington, DC, World Bank.

World Bank. 1996. The World Bank participation sourcebook. Washington, DC, World Bank. 276 pp. Available at: www.

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