FAO Fisheries Circular No. 771


FIIU/C771(En)

 

 

 

Planning and engineering data
3. Fish freezing

 

Edited by

J. Graham
Torry Research Station
Aberdeen, Scotland, UK

Table of Contents


FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, October 1984

The mention or omission of specific companies, their products or brand names does not imply any endorsement or judgement by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
 
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Information Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

FAO 1981

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manuel recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


Table of Contents


PREPARATION OF THIS MANUAL

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Subject Matter
1.2 Aim and Purpose
1.3 Sources of information
1.4 Related Material

2. RAW MATERIAL

2.1 Fish
2.2 Fish Handling
2.3 Preparation of Raw Material

2.3.1 Gutting machines
2.3.2 Scaling machine
2.3.3 Heading machine
2.3.4 Filleting machines
2.3.5 Skinning machines
2.3.6 Bone separator or mincing machines
2.3.7 Battering and breading machines
2.3.8 Forming machine
2.3.9 Automatic shrimp-peeling machine
2.3.10 Weighing and grading machines

2.4 Ingredients

2.4.1 General
2.4.2 Additives

2.5 Products

2.5.1 General
2.5.2 Small pelagic
2.5.3 Whole demersal
2.5.4 Tuna
2.5.5 Frozen blocks
2.5.6 Shrimp/prawn
2.5.7 Fillets
2.5.8 Minced and/or formed frozen fish products

3. PROCESSES AND EQUIPMENT

3.1 Sources of Cold

3.1.1 General
3.1.2 Mechanical refrigeration
3.1.3 Liquefied gases

3.2 Specific Processes and Equipment

3.2.1 General
3.2.2 Air-blast freezers
3.2.3 Horizontal plate freezers
3.2.4 Vertical plate freezers
3.2.5 Direct contact

3.3 Packaging and Glazing

3.3.1 Packaging
3.3.2 Glazing

4. STORAGE AND EQUIPMENT

4.1. Storage Conditions

4.1.1 Recommended conditions
4.1.2 Densities and stowage rates
4.1.3 Handling
4.1.4 Insulation and refrigeration costs

4.2 Cold Stores

4.2.1 Building
4.2.2 Equipment

4.3 Management

4.3.1 Administrative routines
4.3.2 Equipment routines
4.3.3 Safety

5. BASIC SERVICES

5.1 Energy
5.2 Quality Control

5.2.1 General
5.2.2 Requirements

5.3 Transport

5.3.1 Vessels
5.3.2 Vehicles
5.3.3 Cold store complex

5.4 Distribution and Marketing Stores

6. LAYOUTS AND CONSTRUCTION WORK

6.1 Typical Layouts

6.1.1 General
6.1.2 Shrimp processing
6.1.3 Whole fish processing

6.2 Building

6.2.1 General
6.2.2 Walls
6.2.3 Floors
6.2..4 Ceilings
6.2.5 Doors and Windows
6.2.6 Lighting
6.2.7 Ventilation
6.2.8 Drains
6.2.9 Power supply
6.2.10 Water supply
6.2.11 Factory yards

6.3 Site

6.3.1 Location
6.3.2 Site level
6.3.3 Communications
6.3.4 Site size

7. COSTING AND CASE STUDIES

7.1 .General
7.2 Case Study

7.2.1 General
7.2.2 Cost model
7.2.3 Comparative costing

8. LITERATURE CONSULTED

9. CONVERSION FACTORS