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 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:Northern area of Kivu (Masisi) and southern area of Kivu (Idjwi Island on the Kivu Lake, frontier area).
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:This product originated from the Tutsi tribes area. The Tutsi are pastoralist tribes partially migrated from RWANDA and BURUNDI to Kivu in ZAIRE about 50 years ago.
 Raw material:Whole cow milk and pieces of rotten wood (MUSAGAVU, KANYAGASAMBO and UMUSHENGEZI).
 Type:AMAVUTA is a body cream used by young ladies. It has a yellowish colour, a spreadable consistency and a rancid flavour.
 Consistency:Firm but spreadable.
 - TECHNOLOGY:Raw whole milk is allowed to acidify for 3 days in an earthenware pot. Once coagulated, the sour milk is poured in a pan and heated to boiling point with some pieces of dried wood or leaves of eucalyptus. These pieces of wood are produced from fragrant species. Pieces of fresh wood from which bark is removed, are cut and allowed to rot. Subsequently, they are dried before use. Under the effect of heating and stirring, milk fat melts and comes on the top of the liquid. This flavoured oil is collected and poored into a small wooden vessel closed with a lid. The shelf life of this product depends on the quality of the oil.
 - REMARKS:In the ancient times, AMAVUTA was also used to soften skins and leather.
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Nyanza Province (KENYA)
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:Ukwala Division, Siaya District (KENYA)
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:This product is closely associated to the life of Luos tribes. It is a traditional product and has limited production.
 Raw material:Whole zebu milk
 Additives:Urine collected from heifers and stored for 1–2 days before use.
 Type:CHAK MAPUO is acidified buttermilk obtained after fat has been separated from acidified milk. It is a liquid product containing some clusters of fat globules which remain after churning. It has a yellowish colour and a sharp and sour taste.
 Consistency:Liquid with a lumpy texture.
 - TECHNOLOGY:Raw milk is not subjected to any heat treatment. The gourd used as vessel to prepare CHAK MAPUO is first cleaned by shaking a mixture of warm water and sand in it. After a first rinse with cold water, the gourd is finally rinsed with heifer urine and then left to dry upside down. According to the quantity of fresh milk available, the gourd is filled to about two thirds of its capacity all at once or by additions at several times. Raw whole milk is allowed to ferment spontaneously for 2 to 3 days at room temperature. Once coagulated, a little heifers urine which was collected one or two days before is poured on the top of the acidified milk which is churned with the gourd well closed. This latter is uncorked from time to time to release gas. CHAK MAPUO is the mixture of butter grains floating on sour buttermilk. When the producer decides to make ghee, butter grains are collected on the surface of CHAK MAPUO and stored in another container until the amount available is sufficient. Meanwhile, some urine is poured on the butter to improve its firmness and preservation and to give it a nice yellow colour.
1.3- NAME:MKANGO   Country: KENYA
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Mbololo area
  ORIGIN AND HISTORY:MKANGO was considered as a concentrated food consumed mainly by travellers. Nowadays it is consumed as a desert. It is exclusively prepared for home consumption.
 Raw material:Whole or skimmed zebu milk
 Additives:Roasted maize flour, honey, butter or any cooking oil if skimmed milk is used.
 Type:MKANGO is a thick and dried paste which can be cut with a knife. It has a brownish colour, a grainy texture and a sweet taste. Its size and shape depend on the container used for baking.
 - TECHNOLOGY:Some maize grains are roasted in a pan without oil until they become brown. Then, they are ground to obtain a brownish flour which is mixed with boiled milk (whole milk preferably) and liquid undiluted honey. Some more milk is added until the mix consistency is like porridge (uji). This mixture is heated under continuous stirring to remove most of the water. At this stage, its consistency is similar to that of mashed potatoes. The vessel containing the paste is closed with a lid and covered with embers. Cooking time depends on the initial consistency; however, it takes usually the whole night. Then, the saucepan is removed from the fire and the paste is ready for consumption. It is usually stored in the container used for baking and its shelf life is up to two months.
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Luo land (Nyanza province)
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:South Nyanza district (KENYA)
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:It is a traditional product prepared by Luos.
 Raw material:Fermented whole milk from zebu.
 Additives:Sugar, sorghum flour, water and sometimes Fat (margarine).
 Type:NYUKA MAR CHAK is a porridge made from sorghum flour, fermented milk and sugar. It has a brownish colour and a sweet taste.
 - TECHNOLOGY:Water is poured in a special saucepan and heated to boiling point. Meanwhile, sorghum flour is mixed with a little cold water to facilitate its dispersion. Then, boiling water is added little by little to the flour and the mix is vigorously stirred on fire until it reaches boiling point. Subsequently, this paste is removed from fire and some fermented milk and sugar are added to it. The porridge is then ready to be served.
 - REMARKS:This dish which is usually prepared for home consumption, can also be sold on the market. Its shelf life is about 24 hours at room temperature.
1.5- NAME:OMOKORA   Country: KENYA
 -AREA OF ORIGIN:Bogetutu area, Kisii (KENYA)
 -AREA OF PRODUCTION:Central Kitutu location - Kisii
 Raw material:Cow, goat milk and cow blood (Amanyinga)
 Type:OMOKORA is a ripened lumpy product. It has a darkbrown colour and a sour taste.
 - TECHNOLOGY:The raw milk is heated to boiling point and cooled down. Meanwhile, some fresh cow blood is subjected to a similar treatment. Then they are mixed together to spontaneously ferment for one week at room temperature. No starters are used. the shelf life of this product is about two weeks.
 - REMARKS:This product is used as a staple food in some areas; however, its manufacture tends to decrease due to religious principles which advise people against consuming blood as food.
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:North and northeastern part of BURKINA FASO
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:This product originated from north/north- western part of BURKINA FASO where peuhl tribes live. These transhumant pastoralist people have developed the manufacture of this soap which spread all over the country.
 Raw material:Cream obtained from cow milk, potash, small millet flour.
 Type:SILMISSAFANDE is a traditional soap made from milk cream, potash and small millet meal. It has a shape of grey spheres with a varying weight. It has no smell; its texture is even.
 Consistency:Soft, spreadable
 - TECHNOLOGY:Cream separated by gravity from cow milk is melted in a pan. Some potash and small millet meal are added to the boiling fat under continuous stirring. Once obtained, the soap paste is kneaded by hand and divided into small spheres. The soap can keep in a calabash for an indefined time.
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Matabeleland (Umthubi) Mashonaland
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:Matabeleland (Umthubi) Mashonaland
 Raw material:Cow colostrum
 Type:UMTHUBI is the product obtained by heat coagulation of colostrum.
 - TECHNOLOGY:Fresh colostrum is heated to boiling point for 3 minutes under continuous stirring to avoid scorching. As soon as proteins coagulate, colostrum is removed from fire; stirring is continued during cooling.
 - REMARKS:Another type of coagulated colostrum is produced in Mashonaland in ZIMBABWE: This product called MUNHAMBA is obtained by mixing boiled colostrum with corn flour. The blend is heated until proteins precipiate and it is cooled before consumption. Both these products are made only for home consumption.


2.1- NAME:BASUNDI   Country: INDIA
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:Same as above
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:The origin of the product is not known but it has been traditionally prepared for centuries in the Western part of INDIA as a dessert, served on special occasions such as weddings.
 Raw material:Cow or buffalo milk
 Type:BASUNDI is a sweet concentrated milk to which flavours and nuts are added. The product is served chilled as a dessert. It looks like condensed milk with flakes. It has a light brown colour with thin flakes in a thick fluid. It has a cooked pleasant flavour similar to condensed milk which is relished by the consumer.
 Composition:Fat content: 18–22%
  Milk: 28–32%
  Sucrose: 20–33%.
 - TECHNOLOGY:Raw milk is heated to boiling point in a shallow pan, The heat coagulated film that appears on the surface is collected and spread on the sides of the vessel. The process of collecting the film and spreading it on the sides is continued as concentration proceeds to a point where the volume of milk is reduced to one-half of the original volume. Then, the pan is removed from the fire and sugar is added along with nuts and flavours. The mass is mixed until the sugar is dissolved. The product is cooled and served chilled.
 - REMARKS:About 25 000 tons of BASUNDI are produced each year in INDIA by small workshops.
 -AREA OF PRODUCTION:Baryumas regent's
 -ORIGIN AND HISTORY:DODOL SUSU production was developed four years ago in order to valorize the milk surplus produced by smallholders in Central Java.
 Raw material:Cow or buffalo milk
 Additives:Sugar, wheat flour
 Type:DODOL SUSU is considered as a delicacy. It is a brown and jelly-like product with a sweet taste,
 - TECHNOLOGY:Milk is boiled and mixed with sugar. This blend is heated to boiling point for 2 hours and a half. Then, some wheat flour is added little by little and is well mixed. After 30 minutes, once the mix is thick enough, the paste is removed from the fire and cooled at ambient temperature. It is packed in plastic bags and stored at room temperature. Its shelf life is about 90 days.
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:All over the country
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:EZGIY is a product which was made and consumed in MONGOLIA since time immemorial.
 Raw material:Cow, goat, sheep milk
 Type:EZGIY is a milk protein based product. It has a yellowish colour and a dry lumpy texture with a milky flavour and a sweet taste.
 Composition:Moisture: 10%
  Dry matter. 90%
  Fat content: 22%
 - TECHNOLOGY:Whole fresh milk is heated in an open pan to boiling point. Boiling is continued until milk proteins coagulate. Once coagulated, milk is removed from the fire and whey is drained off. Then, the precipitate is steamed at a temperature of 90°C until it is completely dried. This dried product can be stored for up to 6 months.
 - REMARKS:It is produced at home as well as in milk processing factories.
 Raw material:Skim milk powder
 Additives:Sugar, wheat flour or gelatin and flavouring substances.
 Type:KEMBANG GULA SUSU is a sweet delicacy prepared from milk and sugar. It is shaped into small brown pieces which have a firm texture and a milky sweet taste.
 - TECHNOLOGY:Recombined skim milk is heated in a shallow pan under continuous stirring until its volume is reduced to half of what it was initially. A quantity of sugar equal to the amount of milk processed is heated separately until it melts. Either gelatin or wheat flour is added to milk in small quantities as thickening agent before the desired concentration is reached. Then, the concentrated milk and the melted sugar are well mixed and the final product is flavoured with chocolate essence or vanilla. The product is divided into small size pieces which are wrapped in coloured paper.
2.5- NAME:KHEER Country: INDIA
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Northwestern area of the Indian sub- continent.
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:Northern, western and central regions of the Indian subcontinet - NEPAL
 Raw material:Cow milk
 Additives:Rice, sugar, chopped cashew nuts and cardamon.
 Type:KHEER is a sweetenend product of thick consistency resembling rice pudding.
 Composition:Whole milk Skimmed milk
  Moisture: 45–55 40–50
  Dry matter: 45–55 50–60
  Milk fat: 15–25% 0.5%
  Lactose: 14–16% 14–16%
  Protein: 12–13% 12–13%
  Ash 3–3.5% 2.5–3.0%
  Cane sugar 15–25% 15–25%
 - TECHNOLOGY:Coarse rice previously soaked in water is added to milk in the porportion of six to seven percent as well as four to eight percent of cane sugar. With the addition of sugar the concentration of milk reaches 3 to 1. The mixture is simmered until the rice softens and shows signs of gelatinization, leading to substantial thickening of the product. Chopped cashew nuts and cardamon are usually added at this stage.
 - REMARKS:This product is mainly prepared for immediate consumption at home. In southern INDIA, a sweetened product similar to KHEER is prepared. The product called PALPAYASAM is made in the same way as KHEER but sugar or jaggery (coarse brown Indian sugar made from palm-sap), flavouring substances and saffron are usually added. Fruits like jack fruit are optional ingredients.
2.6- NAME:KHOA Country: BHUTAN
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Indian subcontinent
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:All over the Indian subcontinent
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:Its origin is unknown. However, it has been prepared for centuries in INDIA as the raw material for sweet making. About 600 000 metric tons of KHOA are produced in INDIA alone. Usually the preparation of KHOA is the easiest way of preserving milk produced during the flush season. In many places KHOA manufactured in January – February is kept in cold store for use in the summer season.
 Raw material:Cow and/or buffalo milk
 Type:KHOA is a kind of concentrated whole milk. It is a paste which has a white to yellowish colour with just a tinge of brown. It has a slightly oily or granular texture, and a rich nutty flavour associated with a milk cooked and sweet taste due to the high concentration of lactose.
 Composition:Moisture: 28 to 30%
  Dry matter: 70 to 72%
  Fat content: 25 to 26%.
 - TECHNOLOGY:A small quantity of milk (3–5 kg) is poured into a shallow open pan and is heated directly over a smokeless strong fire. The milk is brought to boiling point while being stirred slowly with a scraper using a circular movement and scrapping firmly all parts of the pan in contact with the milk. This is done in order to avoid scorching of milk solids, sticking to the sides of the pan during the concentration. Continuous evaporation takes place and milk thickens rapidly. At a certain concentration, usually of 2.5 to 2.8 times, the precipitation of proteins begins. Concentration then takes place at a faster rate and colour changes. Heating is reduced to 82–87°C and stirring and scraping is intensified to avoid browning of milk solids due to scorching. The viscous milk begins to form a semi-solid mass. The vigourous agitation induces an emulsification of fat which, therefore, becomes evenly distributed throughout the body of the finished product. When the KHOA mass begins to become loose on the sides and the bottom of the pan, heating is stopped. Then, the KHOA is formed into pats by working and cooling the contents. The pats are allowed to cool down and may be wrapped in a large batch. KHOA shelf-life depends on the level of contamination with moulds and bacteria from external sources. Usually KHOA is prepared just before the manufacture of sweets.
 - REMARKS:Several types of KHOA exist in INDIA, depending upon the specific uses. They are “PINDI”, “DHAP”, “DANEDAR” and “HARIYALI-KHOA”. The latter is obtained after a certain time of storage. Such KHOA acquires a green colour due to moulds growth on the surface of the pats. HARIYALI means green KHOA. This KHOA is preferred for the preparation of a type of sweets called GULABJAMUN for it gives a grainier texture to the product. The other types: PINDI, DHAP and DANEDAR are reserved for the following uses:
  Type Fat Dry matter Specific sweets
   (per cent) prepared
  PINDI 21–26 67–69 BURFI, PEDA
  DANEDA 20–25 60–65 KALAKAND
  Milk of high acidity produces a granular KHOA known as “DANEDA”. Buffalo milk is preferred for KHOA making because it yields a whiter product with a soft, loose body and a smooth granular texture which makes it suitable for the preparation of high-grade KHOA sweets. A minimum of 4 percent fat for cow milk and 5 percent fat for buffalo milk is necessary to obtain the suitable body and texture in KHOA. Lower levels of fat result in undesirable hard body and coarse texture. The traditional trade usually pays for milk on the basis of the yield of KHOA. Yield of KHOA from cow milk is usually about 18 percent and 20 percent when made from buffalo milk.
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:Of recent introduction, the production of KRUPUK SUSU was developed as a means to handle surplus milk.
 Raw material:Cow and buffalo milk
 Additives:Starch, salt and shallots
 Type:KRUPUK SUSU is a dry product consumed either as a snack or as an appetizer. it has the shape of thin dried slices. Its colour is white and it has a salty taste.
 - TECHNOLOGY:The whole fresh milk is heated to boiling point. Meanwhile, starch flour, salt and diced shallots are mixed together and then added little by little to boiled milk. The blend is well homogenized. Then, the paste obtained is pressed and boiled. Once cooled, the mass of paste is cut into thin slices which are subsequently sundried until most of the moisture is removed. KRUPUK SUSU is packed into plastic bags where it can be stored for up to 90 days.
2.8- NAME:KULFIor  Country: INDIA
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Northeastern area of INDIA
 Raw material:Cow or buffalo milk
 Type:KULFI is an ice cream based on milk. It is frozen in small containers which have generally a conical or a cylindrical shape. It may be flavoured either with chocolate, ground nuts or fruit pulp.
 Composition:According to the bureau of Indian standards:
  Plain KULFI Flavoured KULFI
  Dry matter: 35.0% 30%
  Milk fat: 8.0% 6%
  Proteins: 3.5% 3.5%
  Sucrose: 13.0% 12%
 - TECHNOLOGY:Raw milk is heated to boiling point. Then, sugar is added and the mixture is concentrated to approxima- tely 2:1. When the concentrate has been cooled, MALAI (indigenous cream), crushed nuts and selected flavours are added and then well mixed. This mix is poured into conical or cylindrical moulds of various capacities, made of glavanised iron sheet. The moulds are closed on top by means of a small disc and the edges are air proofed with wheat flour dough. Modern moulds are made of aluminium and their shape is generally conical with screw plastic caps. The mix in the moulds is frozen using a large earthenware vessel containing a 1=1 mixture of ice and salt.
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:Northern region of INDIA
 Raw material:Buffalo milk
 Type:KURCHAN is a sweetenend concentrated, whole milk product similar to RABRI. It is used for direct consumption. It has a slightly cooked flavour, which is relished.
 Composition:Moisture: 28%
  Dry matter: 72%
  Fatcontent: 24%
 - TECHNOLOGY:3–4 kg of whole raw milk are heated in a shallow pan and allowed to simmer. The milk is not allowed to boil and is not stirred until after the addition of sugar. The absence of stirring helps the formation of a thick creamy layer on the surface of the milk. When the volume of the milk is reduced by evaporation of water to about one-fourth of the original volume of milk, good quality sugar, equal to 5–6 percent of the weight of the original quantity of milk, is added to and dissolved in the mass of concentrated product.
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:Its exact origin is not known. However, this product is very popular all over the PHILIPPINES. It is a speciality served at parties.
 Raw material:Fresh milk
 Additives:Condensed milk, egg yolk, vanilla extract, lemon zest and sugar.
 Type:LECHE FLAN is a dessert similar to a cream caramel. It is a jelly-like product, homogeneous in texture, which has a sweet taste and that smells like vanilla flavour and lemon rind.
 - TECHNOLOGY:One cup of brown sugar is dissolved in 1/4 cup of water and is heated over medium heat until the sugar caramelizes. A suitable size mould is lined with the caramel evenly and it is set aside. Then, 2 cups of fresh milk are heated to the boiling point and cooled to warm temperature. Eight egg yolks and vanilla extract are added to the boiled milk and well mixed. One tin of condensed milk is added to the mixture which is strained through a coarse cheese cloth and poured into the caramel lined mould. The mould is placed in a big pan half filled with water and is baked until the mixture becomes firm. The product is cooked before removing from moulds. In general this product is marketed in the mould covered with a cellophane.
 - REMARKS:It is usually stored in refrigerator to improve its firmness and protect it from insects. Its shelf life is 3–5 days at room temperature and 2–3 weeks if it is kept in refrigerator.
2.11- NAME:MALAI   Country: INDIA
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:Northeastern area of the Indian subcontinent
 Raw material:Cow, buffalo, sheep and goat whole milk.
 Type:MALAI is the firm skin that forms on cooling boiled milk. It is a mixture of fat and coagulated proteins which has an even appearance. Its colour is white to yellowish and it has a fresh taste.
 Composition:Moisture and dry matter are unknown Fat content: 20–30%.
 - TECHNOLOGY:Whole fresh milk is steadily heated to boiling point. the boiling time is not reported precisely. Then, the milk is removed from the fire and cooled. The thick layer of milk fat and coagulated proteins which form on the surface is collected with a spoon or a laddle and mixed with ghee. Its shelf life is 2–3 days in summer and 4–6 days in winter at room temperature.
 - REMARKS:This product is mainly made at home and consumed for breakfast. It is also called BALAI in INDIA.
 - AREA OF ORIGN:Muktagacha District; Mynensingh, BANGLADESH
 Raw material:Casein obtained from cow milk
 Additives:Sugar, cardamon
 Type:MUKTAGACHAR MONDA is a delicacy. It is a white to yellowish dried product with a sweet and spicy taste.
 Composition:Moisture: 20–25%
  Dry matter: 75–80%
  Fat content: 4–6%.
 - TECHNOLOGY:Whole milk is heated to boiling point and boiling is continued until milk proteins coagulate. Then, milk is removed from the fire and whey is drained off. The precipitate is ground by hand on a wooden tray and cooked. Sugar and spices are added and mixed with the casein. The blend is then cooled at room temperature and packed in plastic bags (199 g to 150 g/packet). its shelf life is 3 to 7 days at room temperature.
 - REMARKS:This product is usually produced on a small scale.
2.13- NAME:ÖRÖM   Country: MONGOLIA
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:Same as above
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:ÖRÖM is a traditional product consumed by the Mongolian people since time immemorial.
 Raw material:Cow, sheep and/or goat milk
 Type:ÖRÖM is a kind of concentrated product prepared from boiled milk. It has a yellowish colour with an even appearance. Its texture is homogeneous and it has a fresh taste.
 Composition:Moisture: 15–25%
  Dry matter: 75–85%
  Fat content: 67–75%
 - TECHNOLOGY:Whole raw milk is strained and heated to 90°C. the milk is then removed from the fire, allowed to cool and it is emulsified to obtain a thick foam. The skin which appears during cooling on the surface of milk is collected and forms ÖRÖM. The process of collecting the film is continued until there is no more skin on milk. ÖRÖM can be stored for about 30 days in a cool place.
 - REMARKS:In 1987, 2 525 tons of ÖRÖM were produced. Its manufacture is subjected to the state standards.
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:San Miguel, Bulacan, Tuguegarao, Cagayan and Masbate provinces.
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:Tagalog, Region III; Northern Luzon, Region
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:PASTILLAS DE LECHE originated from San Miguel and Bulacan. Its manufacture spread to Cagayan and Masbate provinces. In the beginning, it was home made by farmers rearing carabaos. Then, a small-scale industry developed in the area to produce PASTILLAS DE LECHE.
 Raw material:Carabao and/or cow milk
 Additives:Sugar and lemon juice
 Type:PASTILLAS DE LECHE is a sweet delicacy. It has the shape of a cylinder (1/2–1 cm diameter and 4 cm long). Its body is yellowish and has a sweet and fruity taste.
 Composition:Moisture: 10%
  Dry matter: 90%
  Fat content: unknown.
 - TECHNOLOGY:A maximum of 4 litres of milk per batch is heated on a low fire in a shallow stainless steel, china or copper pan under continuous stirring. When about half of the water content is evaporated, refined sugar and lemon juice are added. The milk concentra- tion increases by simmering under continuous stirring so as to avoid scorching. The pan is removed from the fire when the concentrated milk can easily be formed into a ball. Then, the paste is transferred to a shallow tray, flattened using a roller and cut into rectangles 1/2–1 cm wide by 4 cm long. Then, each piece is given a cylindrical shape, wrapped in aluminium foil and overwrapped with cellophane. Its shelf life is 12 to 15 days at room temperature and 2 to 3 weeks under refrigeration.
 - REMARKS:This product is marketed by retail grocers.
2.15- NAME:PEDA  Country: INDIA
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:Same as above.
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:The quantity of PEDA produced in INDIA is the most important production of milk based sweet using khoa as the raw material. PEDA is made by “halwais” which are manufac- turers of traditional sweets. Nowadays PEDA still plays an important social role as presents called “Prasad” which are given on religious and social occasions.
 Raw material:Khoa
 Additives:Sugar, nuts, flavouring and colouring substances.
 Type:PEDA is a sweet delicacy prepared from khoa and sugar. It has usually the shape of small spheres weighing 15 to 20 g. Its colour is whitish to yellow and it has a coarse, grainy texture.
 - TECHNOLOGY:Khoa and sugar are mixed in the ratio of 3:1. The khoa and sugar mixture is warmed and mixed in a pan on a gentle fire until firm balls are formed. The pan is removed from the fire; nuts and flavouring materials are added, if desired. Some traders use permitted colours to obtain PEDA of different colours and in particular saffron to obtain KESAR PEDA, one of the preferred types of PEDA. The contents are mixed throroughly and made into balls of 15–20 g size by rolling them between the palms of the hands after having rubbed the hands with little ghee. The product may also be formed into different shapes and sizes using different dies and moulds. PEDA is usually packed in paperboard cartons with a parchment paper or greaseproof paper.
 - REMARKS:A similar product called GUNPAK is very popular in NEPAL.
2.16- NAME:RABRI  Country: INDIA
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:Northern and eastern regions of INDIA. All over NEPAL
 Raw material:Cow or buffalo milk
 Type:RABRI is a concentrated and sweetened whole milk product containing several layers of clotted cream.
 Composition:Moisture: 30%
  Dry matter: 70%
  Lactose: 17%
  Protein: 10%
  Ash: 3%
  Cane sugar: 20%
 - TECHNOLOGY:3 to 4 kg of milk are heated in a fairly shallow pan over an open fire and are allowed to simmer. The milk is neither stirred nor allowed to boil. The surface of the milk may be gently fanned to help the process of skin formation. A portion of this skin, about 3–4 sq cm, is continuously broken with a thick wooden stick (or bamboo/cane splints) and pushed to the side of the pan which is cooler and where the skin dries up. A flat-edged scraper known as a “panyo” is used in NEPAL. This operation requires considerable skill and constant attention. The preparation time is about 25–40 minutes depending on the rate of boiling. As the slow evaporation reduces the milk to about 1/5–1/8th of its original volume, good quality ground sugar (5–6 percent by weight of the original milk) is added to the milk concentrate and dissolved in it. The layers of skin collected on the sides of the pan are then immersed in the mixture and the final product is obtained by heating the whole mass for another brief period. The finished product consists of non-homogeneous skin flakes partly covered by and partly floating in sweetened condensed milk. By heating the concentrate slightly at the end, a more homogeneous chewy texture mass is obtained. The product can be packed and sold in any of the modern types of containers.
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Calcutta
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:This sweet delicacy is of recent origin. It was developed in 1868 by an enterprising Calcutta sweetmeat maker: Nabin Chandra Das.
 Raw material:Fresh and soft Chhanna
 Additives:Wheat flour or semolina, sugar.
 Type:RASOGOLLA is a sweet delicacy stored and served in sugar syrup. It is given the shape of small spheres, 30 mm of diameter, with a typical spongy body and smooth texture.
 Composition:Moisture: 55%
  Dry matter: 45%
  Milk fat: 5%
  Sucrose: 45%
  Protein: 5%
 - TECHNOLOGY:The traditional RASOGOLLA manufacturing method includes 4 steps:
  - Production of the RASOGOLLA balls
  - preparation of the cooking medium
  - cooking of the RASOGOLLA balls
  - preserving the RASOGOLLA balls in sugar syrup.
  - Production of the RASOGOLLA balls
  Freshly made Chhanna is put in a muslin cloth and is squeezed by hand to remove as much whey as possible. Wheat flour and/or semolina is added to Chhanna at the rate of 1 to 4% of the amount of cheese processed. The two ingredients are mixed in a container and kneaded thoroughly by hand to make an homogeneous paste which is aportioned and formed into balls of about 15 mm diameter with a smooth surface and no cracks (1 kg of Chhanna yields 90–100 RASOGOLLAS).
  - Preparation of of the cooking blend
  It can be either sweet or plain according to the type of milk processed - sweet cooking mixture is usually preferred to prepare RASOGOLLA made from cow milk whereas plain cooking stuff is used to cook the other types of RASOGOLLA:
  Sugar syrup
  Three parts of sugar are mixed with 1 part of whey and 3 parts of water in the case of Chhanna obtained from buffalo milk whereas only 2 parts of water are necessary for Chhanna prepared from cow milk. The pH is adjusted to about 6.8 with calcium oxide. The solution is boiled and the scum which forms at the top is scooped off before the preparation is used for cooking.
  Plain cooking blend
  Three parts of fresh Chhanna are mixed with 1 part of water. The pH is adjusted at the same level as that of sugar syrup. The precipitated calcium lactate is removed and only the clear supernatant solution is used for cooking.
  - Cooking of the RASOGOLLA Balls
  Raw RASOGOLLA balls are dipped in the heated cooking liquid which is so regulated that it forms a stable foam. The concentration and pH are kept constant during all the cooking time. Once the spheres are properly cooked, they are transferred in water at 30–35°C for 5–10 minutes to stabilize their colour and texture. About 10% of the cooking solution is replaced by some fresh one every time it is to be used again to cook another batch of RASOGOLLA.
  - Preserving in sugar syrup
  The desired sugar syrup concentration in the final product is 45–50 percent. This is achieved by dipping the textured-stabilized balls first in 35–40 percent sugar syrup. The product finally acquires the desired sugar concentration after a balance between the sugar syrup inside and outside the spheres is reached. The sugar syrup is prepared by mixing sugar in the required amount to boiling water adjusted to pH 6.0 by means of fermented whey and lactic acid. One percent of skim milk is added to the boiling syrup and boiling is continued for about 5 minutes. The scum collected at the top is skimmed off and the syrup is filtered through a filter press and quickly cooled to room temperature. The pH of the sugar syrup should not exceed 7.0. RASOGOLLAS are stored at or below 10°C. In order to obtain a more precise sugar concentration in the final product, it is possible to use three different sugar syrups with an increasing concentration instead of two. Chhanna obtained from milk coagulated by means of lactic acid is preferred for RASOGOLLA whereas Chhanna obtained with citric acid is usually preferred for Sandesh manufacture.
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Northeastern area of the Indian subcontinent
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:Northeastern area of INDIA and all over NEPAL
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:Unknown but ancient origin as the name derives from sanskrit.
 Raw material:Dahi
 Additives:Sugar, spices
 Type:SHRIKHAND is a semi-soft whole milk product made from concentrated lactic fermented curd. It is a white to yellowish product with a grainy texture. It has an acid, fruity and spicy taste.
 Composition:Moisture: 40 to 45%
  Dry matter: 55 to 60%
  Fat content: 5% FDM
  Sucrose: 40 to 42%
  Protein: 7 to 8%
  Lactose: 8 to 9%
  Ash: 0.45 to 0.55%
 - TECHNOLOGY:The fermented milk called Dahi is broken and placed into a muslin bag. This latter is hung to drain off whey for 10–12 hours. During this period, the curd is intermittently squeezed to facilitate drainage. The solid mass which is obtained, called chakka or maska, is mixed with the required amount of sugar (on average 50–100% of curd quantity) and spices to produce SHRIKHAND.
 - REMARKS:SIKARNI is mainly produced for home consumption in NEPAL whereas in INDIA SHRIKHAND is either produced at home or produced by dairy factories. In this case, whey is removed from Dahi by centrifugation and chakka is mixed with sugar in a planetary mixer. Usually, this SHRIKHAND is pasteurized on a scraped surface heat exchanger. The shelf life of pasteurized SHRIKHAND is 3–6 months. In a process developed by the National Dairy Development Board, SHRIKHAND is packed into performed cups on a form-fill-seal machine.
  SHRIKHAND VADI is a derived product from SHRIKHAND. It is obtained by further concentration of SHRIKHAND as prepared above by heating in an open pan over a direct fire until it forms a hard mass. SHRIKHAND VADI has the following composition:
  Moisture: 5 to 6%
  Fat: 7 to 8%
  Protein: 8 to 10%
  Lactose: 15 to 17%
  Sugar: 63 to 65%
  Ash: 0.75 to 0.8%
  Lactic acid: 1.0 to 1.2%
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Bulacan, Laguna, Rizal, Panpanga
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION::Bulacan Laguna, Rizal, Pampanga, nueva Ecija, Cagayan, Baguio City.
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:This product has been developed by rural people to lengthen the shelf life of Pastillas de Leche.
 Raw material:Carabao and/or cow milk
 Additives:Egg yolk, water, sugar and vanilla extract.
 Type:YEMA is a sweet delicacy which has a brownish colour, a sweet and vanilla flavour and a lumpy texture. it has the shape of small spheres coated with dark syrup.
 - TECHNOLOGY:Raw milk is poured into a copper sauce pan (tacho) and is simmered under continuously stirring until it becomes thick and is reduced to about 1/4 of its original volume. Then, it is removed from the fire and slightly cooked. Some of the concentrated milk is mixed with a lightly beaten egg yolk and this blend is then added to the rest of milk under continuous stirring. Vanilla is added and the mix is simmered and stirred until it becomes thick enough to be given the shape of small spheres. After it has been removed from the fire and cooled, these spheres are dipped into a thick syrup. The syrup is prepared by dissolving slowly one part of sugar in one part of water. This mix is heated and scum is removed as soon as it reaches the boiling point. Boiling is maintained until the syrup reaches the stage when it makes hanging drops. Then syrup is ready for coating the YEMA balls. The candies are wrapped in multi- coloured cellophane and stored in tightly covered containers like cans, canister or jars. their shelf life is 1 to 2 months at room temperature.


 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Unknown, either Spain or Latin America
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:This product, very popular all over Latin America, was probably developed during the colonial period.
 Raw material:Whole or partly-skimmed cow or goat milk
 Additives:Sugar, bicarbonate, potassium sorbate
 Type:DULCE DE LECHE can be defined as a milk jam. It has a brilliant brown to yellowish colour with a very sweet milk taste. Its texture is lumpy to jelly like.
 Composition:Moisture: 30 to 35%
  Dry matter: 65 to 70%
  Fat content: 6 to 8%
 - TECHNOLOGY:Sugar is added to the pasteurized milk. Some sodium bicarbonate is added to neutralize the mix which is then heated to the boiling point under continuous agitation. Once the volume of the mix is reduced to one-half of its original volume, in general after 2 hours, the milk jam is removed from the fire and cooled down to 50–55°C before packing in plastic glasses or polyethylene bags. Its shelf life is about 30 days.
 - REMARKS:Its manufacturing method is similar all over Latin America. However, some differences exist according to the country where it is made. Thus, in Bolivia, some rice flour, coconut and almonds are added to the milk jam. A little bit of sorbate is added in some areas in order to control mould growth. This product is produced both by small workshops as well as by industrial dairies.
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Northeastern Michoacan State (Zamora)
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:Northeastern Michoacan, Southeastern Jalisco State
 Raw material:Half-skimmed milk of goat and cow
 Additives:Sugar or sugar syrup and cinnamon
 Type:CHONGOS ZAMORANOS may be considered as a milk jam. It looks like a baked custard with a yellowish to brown coffee colour. It has a milky sweet taste.
 Consistency:Gelatinous and coagulated
 Composition:Moisture: 52 to 55%
  Dry matter: 45 to 48%
  Fat content: 4%
 - TECHNOLOGY:The first steps up to salting are similar to PANELA technology (described on page 191). This cheese is a fresh unripened cheese used as raw material for CHONGOS ZAMORANOS preparation. It is cut in regular pieces, well drained and cooked in sugar syrup with cinnamon at 60°C for 30 to 40 minutes without stirring it until it takes a custard consistency and a light coffee colour. Then, this mix is poured either into glass jars or vacuum packed into tin cans. In this case it can be kept for about 180 days at room temperature.
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:COLA DE MONO is a traditional Chilean alcoholic beverage prepared only for very particular celebrations such as Christmas and Chilean National days.
 Raw material:Cow milk
 Additives:Agua ardiente (an alcoholic drink), sugar and coffee.
 Type:COLA DE MONO is a slightly alcoholic beverage consumed as a cold drink. It has a very clear brown colour and a pleasant taste and flavour.
 Composition:Alcohol 6%
 - TECHNOLOGY:Whole or partly skimmed milk is mixed with agua ardiente, sugar and some coffee.
 - REMARKS:This product is only made at household scale and usually consumed as a cold drink with Christmas cake or with special biscuits on traditional parties such as Chilean National days.
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:JAMONCILLO was developed by the missionaries when they settled in Puebla.
 Raw material:Whole cow milk
 Additives:Sugar, peeled pumpkin seed flour, artificial colouring (up to 0.1%).
 Type:JAMONCILLO is a white thick product which can be classified as a sweet concentrated milk. It has an even appearance and an homogeneous texture. It has a sweet milk taste.
 Composition:Moisture: 15%
  Dry matter: 85%
  Fat content: 6%
 - TECHNOLOGY:Raw milk is strained and heated to 60°C for 30 minutes. Then, sugar, peeled pumpkin seed flour and milk are put into a copper kettle and are heated to 60°C for 40 minutes. This mix is cooled and packed into cellophane paper. The colouring agent is usually added during heating.
 - REMARKS:The manufacture of this product is subject to the general Regulation on Health.

3.5- NAME:PENUS  Country: GUYANA
 Raw material:Colostrum
 Additives:Sugar, cloves, ginger, orange peel.
 Type:PENUS is a thick brownish product which has a spicy taste and a lumpy texture. It is obtained by heat coagulation of colostrum.
 - TECHNOLOGY:Sugar and different sorts of spices are added to the fresh colostrum which is heated to the boiling point until its colour becomes brownish and proteins coagulate.
 - REMARKS:This product is only prepared at home level by small- holders when the amount of colostrum available is in excess of the needs of the newborn calf.


4.1- NAME:AYRAN  Country: TURKEY
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Anatolia
 Raw material:Yoghurt from cow or sheep milk
 Type:AYRAN is a soft drink made from yoghurt. It is a liquid product which has a white colour, an homogeneous texture and a sour and salty taste.
 Composition:Moisture: 94%
  Dry matter: 6%
  Fat content: 1.5%
 - TECHNOLOGY:Once the yoghurt has been prepared, it is diluted with water, salt is added and well mixed. Then the drink is cooled and poured into tetrabrick cups or in glass bottles where it is stored at 4°C. Its shelf life is about 15 days in glass bottles and 30 days in tetra bricks.
 - REMARKS:4 600 000 1 of AYRAN were produced in 1986. Its manufacture is subject to the National Food and Food Additives Regulation.
4.2- NAME:HOGUT  Country: QATAR
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Bekaa Valley and Mount Lebanon in LEBANON, Upper EGYPT and SYRIA.
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:All over the Near East
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:The origin of KISHK is unknown; however, this product is traditionally consumed all over the Near East. For centuries, it has been prepared during the month of September and then consumed all over the year.
 Raw material:Cow, sheep and/or goat milk and ground wheat.
 Type:KISHK is a dried powder made from acidified milk mixed with ground wheat and then sundried. It is yellowish and has an acid and yeast fermented taste. KISHK taste is special when it is made from goat milk.
 Composition:Moisture: 10 to 15%
  Dry matter: 85 to 90%
  Fat content: 8 to 10%
 - TECHNOLOGY:First, 5 kg of hard wheat are half boiled, cooled and subsequently ground in pieces of a size of 2 to 4 mm. This product, called Bourghol, is a staple food for Lebanese people. Meanwhile, 10 kg of milk are heated to 70°C for 30 minutes. The Bourghol is added to the milk in an earthenware jar which is covered and the mix is allowed to settle for 24 hours at room temperature. The next day, 2 to 2.5 kg of Laban previously prepared is added to the mixture and mixed by hand. Once more, the mix is left to ferment for 24 hours. After three days, the whole mix turns into a white pale paste. This mixture is spread in a thin layer and is sundried for about half a day. When the product is well dry, it is ground and packed in cloth bags. It can be kept for one year.
 - REMARKS:About 1 000 tons of KISHK are produced in LEBANON per year and sold through retail shops. KISHK constitutes a well-balanced dish which is very popular amongst the Lebanese population. Mixed with water (1 to 5), salt, garlic, Kawarma (dried meat) and then boiled, it was consumed like a pleasant hot soup. However, this dish is becoming rare in Lebanese diet.
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Unknown, likely all over the country
 - AREA OF PRODUCTION:The exact origin of this product is unknown. However, it is a very popular dish for breakfast all over LEBANON, SYRIA and PALESTINE.
 Raw material:Akawieh cheese
 Additives:Sugar, flower water, ground biscuits, ghee.
 Type:KANAFEH BIL JIBN is one of the three most popular dishes consumed for breakfast in LEBANON. It is made from fresh cheese and ground biscuits cooked in ghee and has the consistency of paste.
 - TECHNOLOGY:Salt is first removed from cheese by soaking it in fresh water overnight. Ground biscuits are roasted in a pan with ghee. Then, the fresh cheese and some sugar are added and the mix is cooked for 20 minutes. Once cooked, the paste is covered with ground biscuits and flavouring substances are added. Its shelf life is 2–3 days at room tempeature in a carton box.
 - REMARKS:KANAFEH BIL JIBN is consumed with a special type of bread which has the form of a crescent.
 - AREA OF ORIGIN:Central area of SYRIA
 - ORIGIN AND HISTORY:Its origin is not known exactly, probably it originated from the central part of SYRIA.
 Raw material:Sheep, goat and/or cow milk
 Additives:Thyme, cumin seed, chilly powder, pepper and salt.
 Type:It is a spiced, ripened labne (drained acidified milk). It has a spherical shape and a brownish to green colour. Its taste is very sour and spicy.
 Composition:Moisture: 40 to 50%
  Dry matter: 50 to 60%
  Fat content: 13 to 18%.
 - TECHNOLOGY:The drained laban or labne is mixed with spices and is given the form of small spheres. It is then ripened for 7–8 days in open air and then stored either in straw baskets in a cool place or in olive oil. Accordingly, its shelf life is about 30 or 100 days.
 - REMARKS:SHENGLISH is only produced on a small scale.
 Raw material:Sour milk from goat milk or from a mixture of sheep and goat milk, ground wheat.
 Type:It has a yellowish colour and a sour milk sour taste.
 Composition:Moisture: 10 to 15%
  Dry matter: 85 to 90%
  Fat content: 8 to 10%
 - TECHNOLOGY:Goat milk or a mixture of goat and sheep milk is allowed to acidify for several days either spontaneously or by adding a culture of yoghurt. It is stirred every day until it reaches the desired acidity. Then sour milk is heated and some ground wheat and salt are added gradually and are mixed to the hot sour milk to obtain a thick mass. The mix then is heated to the boiling point. One it begins to boil, the paste is removed from the fire and allowed to cool down. It is cut in finger sized pieces and subsequently sundried. When it is dry enough, it is stored in a cool place.
 - REMARKS:TRACHANAS is only produced during summer and is used to prepare a hot soup consumed during winter.

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