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Annex 1 Poultry Processing: Flow Diagram

Annex 2 Separation of Clean and Dirty areas

ANNEX 3

EQUIPMENT FOR POULTRY PROCESSING UNITS

Model 1     50 Birds/day: NYD

Equipment summary

  1. 4 Cone killing stand

  2. Stunning/Sticking knife

  3. Dry plucking machine

  4. Holding table

  5. Feather bins × 2

  6. Mobile racks × 2

  7. Wash hand basin × 2

  8. Scale

  9. Cleaning equipment/hose lines (High pressure power washer)

  10. Insect electrocutors × 2

  11. Electrical fittings

  12. 12 Drainage fittings

  13. Ceiling fans

  14. Office equipment: Desk, table, chairs, filing cabinet, telephone etc

  15. Changing room equipment: Lockers, benches, sanitary ware, showers etc

  16. Laundry equipment: Sink, cupboard, clothes lines etc

  17. Boot wash

Staffing

1Reception/sticker1
2Plucker1
3Manager/dispatcher1
4Cleaner/labourer1
5Launderer1
Total5

Equipment Specifications

Killing stand:

Four cones to swivel about a central pillar and suspended over a blood trough. Total height about 1.2m, total diameter of 800mm, heavy duty hot dipped galvanised steel throughout.

Stunner/Sticking knife:

Low voltage stunning unit in self contained splash proof box approximately 0.25 × 0.25m. Fitted with safety trips which can cut out one or both contact pads in the event of a short circuit. The stunning prod consists of a stainless steel blade of 150mm length in a nylon non-slip handle and electrical contact pads.

Dry plucking machine:

Machine comprises a 1.1 kw (1 1/2 hp) motor driving a shaft supported by a bearing assembly. The shaft drives a plucking head by a belt. The plucking head consists of a series of rotating plates held at an angle by a thrust plate at each end of the plate bearing. As the discs rotate they close, drag in the feathers, grip them and pull them from the bird. As they continue to rotate, they separate, and release the feathers into a collection bag to the rear of the machine. The plucker is of adjustable height from about 1 to 1.5m. Voltage to local specifications, single phase.

Holding table:

1m × 600mm × 900mm height, heavy duty food grade stainless steel top and frame. Top to be slightly convex, no shelves, adjustable height feet.

Feather bins:

High density polyethylene, 1001 capacity. Tight fitting lid. Approx 2.5 × 0.6 × 0.6m.

Mobile rack:

The unit is shaped as an “A” frame mounted on four 120mm castors. The unit is approximately 1.2m × 600mm × 1.8m high. Horizontal bars hold 140 birds suspended by their feet. Hot dipped galvanised steel after manufacture.

Wash hand basin:

Heavy duty (not domestic) stainless steel with drainer. Hot and cold taps operated by knee or arm lever. Approximately 750 × 450mm.

Scale:

Electronic top pan balance. Range 5kg × 10g. Water resistant. Voltage to local specifications.

High Pressure Power Washer

To produce a high velocity jet of hot water for cleaning purposes. An electrically operated pump passes water from a small storage tank through an electrically powered heat exchanger to raise the temperature of the water at the nozzle to 95°C. The pump also raises the pressure of the water at the nozzle to about 41 bar (600 PSI) at 95°C and 90 bar (1300 PSI) at the lower temperature of 68°C. Fitted with a detergent facility which permits the application of a range of detergents to increase cleaning efficiency.

Cleaning equipment

All cleaning equipment to be manufactured in plastic, nylon or stainless/galvanized steel (preferably seamless) these items should conform to hygienic standards. Comprising: a high pressure washer system with heavy duty industrial couplings, components and hose lines suspended overhead. Hose lines to be of heavy duty plastic with pressure release tap to withstand 6.8 bar. Industrial wet‘n’dry vaccum cleaner, mobile bucket trolleys, mops and wringers, scrubbing brushes (with and without handles), stiff brooms and buckets (minimum capacity 13 litres).

Insect electrocuters:

An ultra - violet light source set within a metal case to attract virtually all flying insects. Once the insect has been attracted to the unit, it comes into contact with an electrically charged grid where it is electrocuted and falls into a large collection tray at the base of the unit. Approximately 250 × 250 × 610mm, UV light output 160 Watts.

Electrical Fittings:

To IP 54/56/65 standard for safety. Equipment should be water resistant, heavy duty.

Drainage fittings

Heavy duty grilles, cast iron.

Ceiling fans:

Heavy duty (industrial) variable speed control, water resistant.

Office equipment:

Standard furniture, heavier duty preferred.

Changing room equipment:

Industrial quality.

Laundry equipment;

Industrial quality.

Boot wash:

Heavy duty, locally fabricated to fit chosen site.

ANNEX 4

EQUIPMENT FOR POULTRY PROCESSING UNITS

Model 2 200 Birds/day: Chilled whole poultry carcases

  1. Poultry crates × 100

  2. 8 Cone killing stand

  3. Stunner/Sticking knife

  4. Waterfall dip tank, with thermometer

  5. Flight feather remover

  6. Holding table, 2 × 1m

  7. Bowl plucker or 1.5m plucker

  8. Feather bins × 3

  9. Mobile racks × 3

  10. Evisceration carousel or Evisceration table

  11. Evisceration tools, 3 sets

  12. Single sided giblet station × 1

  13. Carcase washer

  14. Sink unit/sterilizer × 2

  15. Wash hand basin × 3

  16. Icemaker, for use with ice tank only

  17. Ice tank or Spiral washer chiller

  18. Packing table × 2

  19. Shelving

  20. Offal truck

  21. Scale

  22. Dry store room

  23. Cold storage

  24. Blast freezer

  25. Freezer storage

  26. Insect electrocutors × 3

  27. Electrical fittings

  28. Drainage fittings

  29. Ceiling fans

  30. Office equipment: Desk, table, chairs, filing, cabinet, telephone etc

  31. Changing room equipment: Lockers, benches, sanitary ware, showers etc

  32. Laundry equipment: Sink, cupboard, clothes lines etc

  33. Boot wash

  34. Cleaning equipment/hose lines (High pressure power washer)

  35. Bagging machine × 2

  36. Bags, trays, film, cartons etc

  37. Optional air conditioning

Staffing

1Reception/sticker1
2Scalder1
3Plucker1
4Eviscerator1
5Truss/Packer2
6Manager/dispatcher1
7Cleaner/labourer1
8Launderer1
Total9

Equipment Specifications

Cone killing stand, Stunner/Sticking knife, Holding table, Feather bins, Mobile racks, Wash hand basin, Scale, High Pressure Power Washer, Insect electrocutors, Electrical fittings, Drainage fittings, Ceiling fans, Office equipment, Changing room equipment, Laundry equipment, Boot wash, Steam cleaner: All as model 1

Poultry crates:

Commercial standard in heavy duty plastic to hold 10–12 live birds. Washable under high pressure

Waterfall dip tank, with thermometer:

A 1.22m waterfall dip tank which ensures the bird is immersed in hot water. Powered by a 0.75kw motor and heated by LPG or electricity.

Flight feather remover:

Two horizontal metal shafts of 300mm in length and 50mm diameter set at 2– 5mm gap are powered by a 1kw motor. As the shafts rotate, they grip the offered flight feathers and pull them from the wings. The action is similar to that of a washing mangle. With safety guards/stops to prevent fingers and wing meat being drawn into the roller jaws.

Bowl plucker or 1.5m plucker:

Aluminium bodied plucking machine mounted on legs. Round plucking bowl contains two double, rubber flails which are rotated by an electrical motor of 4kw. Carcases to manufacturers weight specification are placed into the bowl and plucked in about 35 seconds.

Plucker comprises tank holding a horizontally mounted stainless steel drum of about 0.5m diameter. The drum holds protruding rubber fingers of about 200mm. The drum revolves briskly away from the operator taking the feathers from the offered carcase and throwing them to the back.

Evisceration carousel

A circular tray made of heavy duty aluminium of 1.25m in diameter at waist height. A wheel is located above this tray at a height of 1.5m from which is suspended a series of poultry hangers. One to five operators stand around the tray and each performs a part of the evisceration process. The wheel is turned by hand so that the next carcase is presented to the operator. Offal is dropped into the tray. The tray has a hole through which the offal passes into an offal truck.

Evisceration table:

2m × 1m × 900mm height. Heavy duty industrial stainless steel table with cutting board. A small hole is cut into the surface of the table, under which an offal truck or bin can be placed.

Evisceration Tools:

A set of heavy duty stainless steel tools for the removal of most of the organs from the cavities of the bird, the head, neck and associated tissues. A comprehensive set of tools comprise; fork/spoon, knife, hook(for roping), rollcut secateurs, hand singeing gun, stubbing knife, drawing tool and lung remover (serrated loop).

Single sided giblet station:

Comprising: Table, 3 giblet pans and 3 pan supports. Giblet pans, chopping blocks and cleaning screens are arranged over a large heavy gauge steel plate basin which is mounted on four substantial legs fitted with two spray traps for connection to mains water supply. Unwanted material is automatically washed away leaving the working surface clean and uncluttered.

Carcase washer:

water hose suspended from the ceiling with a gun-style water nozzle. Water is sprayed onto the carcase by operation of the trigger.

Sink unit/sterilizer:

For cleaning and sterilizing poultry processing tools and implements. Comprising; 1m long stainless steel sink unit with draining board and an electrically operated sterilizer constructed from heavy gauge stainless steel, 0.2 × 0.3 × 0.3m.

Icemaker:

Self contained stainless steel machine producing flaked ice at approx-25°C from a mains cold water supply. Production capacity 400 kg/day. Standard storage capacity 200 Kg. Dimensions(W × D × H)1.08 × 0.85 × 1.58m. Extra storage bins(0.38m2) required to increase storage capacity to 500 Kg. Mains water, electricity and a drain required.

Ice Tank

Insulated tank to contain slush ice for initial cooling of poultry carcases. Dimensions 2.5 × 0.6 × 0.6m

Spiral washer chiller

Insulated stainless steel tank containing water previously cooled over an in- built refrigeration coil to 4°C. The refrigeration compressor, motor, valves etc are integral with the machine and to a capacity specific to the production system. A programmable timer is supplied to prechill the water in readiness for production. May be supplied with an auger to assist passage of carcases.

Packing table:

As holding table

Shelving:

Heavy duty (industrial) hot dipped galvanised or stainless steel.

Offal Truck

Heavy duty galvanised steel truck mounted on four industrial castors/wheels. Approximately(L × W × D) 0.6 × 0.6 × 0.45m. Comprising, galvanised steel basket inside the truck, into which offal is placed and a tap at the base for draining liquids.

Dry store room:

A dry, well ventilated and lit store room approximately 3 × 4m. Insect proof air bricks for ventilation fitted with industrial heavy duty shelving. Under extreme environmental conditions a dehumidifier or air conditioning unit may be required.

Cold storage:

Modular construction cold storage cabinet(2°C). Approx 2.5 × 3m. To cool 300kg of poultry carcases from 10°C to 2°C in 12 hours under prevailing environmental conditions. Power and drain required.

Blast freezer:

Self contained machine for freezing of up to 100 birds (150kg) from 2°C to- 40°C within 2 hours. Dimensions (w/d/h) approx 2045 × 3315 × 2590m. Power supply and drain required.

Freezer storage:

Modular construction walk-in freezer(-20°C). Approx 3 × 4m. To hold 450kg of poultry carcases at -20°C. Power and drain required.

Bagging machine:

An electrically operated machine for manual vacuum bagging/wrapping of birds one at a time in high shrink plastic film bags. Power required.

Bags, trays, film, cartons etc:

High shrink plastic film which prevents dehydration, acts as a moisture barrier and is permeable to oxygen, thereby maintaining meat colour. Also expanded polystyrene trays and plastic cartons for hygienic meat packaging.

Air conditioning

To suit local conditions

ANNEX 5

EQUIPMENT FOR POULTRY PROCESSING UNITS

Model 3 350 Birds/hour: Chilled whole poultry carcases and portions

  1. Poultry crates, × 1000

  2. Complete hanging/sticking/bleeding/scalding equipment, comprising: loading bar, 15m overhead conveyor for killing and bleeding out, 75 S/S shackles, 2.5m bleeding trough and 3m waterfall dip tank.

  3. Stunner/sticking knife

  4. Flight feather remover

  5. Bowl plucker or 1.5m plucker with booster flail

  6. Feather bins × 3

  7. Pinning table or finisher

  8. Evisceration unit comprising: 16m conveyor line, 65 shackles, 3.7m evisceration trough and mobile offal truck.

  9. Carcase washer

  10. Giblet processing station, comprising table, 3 pans and 3 pan supports

  11. Gizzard skinner

  12. Mobile racks × 10

  13. Evisceration tools, 4 sets

  14. Secateurs

  15. Boning knives × 48

  16. Pinning knives × 24

  17. Knife sharpener

  18. Thermometer

  19. Carcase washer

  20. Sink unit/sterilizer × 42

  21. Wash hand basin × 2

  22. Icemaker for use with ice tank only

  23. Ice tank or spiral washer chiller(both optional)

  24. Refrigeration for carcases(optional)

  25. Packing table × 2, 2 × 1m

  26. Poultry portioning machine

  27. Shelving

  28. Scale × 2

  29. Dry store room

  30. Blast freezer,

  31. Freezer storage

  32. Cleaning equipment/hose lines(High pressure power washer)

  33. Insect electrocutors × 5

  34. Electrical fittings

  35. Drainage fittings

  36. Ceiling fans

  37. Office equipment: Desk, table, chairs, filing cabinet, telephone etc

  38. Changing room equipment: Lockers, benches, sanitary ware, showers etc

  39. Laundry equipment: Sink, cupboard, clothes lines etc

  40. Boot wash

  41. Bagging machine

  42. Trays, films, and cartons for packaging

  43. Offal skip

  44. Air-conditioning(optional)

Staffing

Killing and Plucking 
1Unloading, handling and washing crates1
2Removing birds from crates and hanging onto conveyor line1
3Killing1
4Plucking machine operators4
5Pinning, inspection of plucked birds 2 and hanging plucked bird onto conveyor 
Total9
Evisceration 
1Slitting necks, detaching from crop and depositing into evisceration trough
2Cutting round vents and opening aperture1
3Drawing out viscera but leaving it attached to the carcase1
4Removing liver, hearts and gizzards and placing them in the appropriate giblet trays. Detaching inedible offal and allowing it to fall into the evisceration trough 1
5Inspecting inside the carcase, removing remainder of lung tissue, removing head and placing in evisceration trough. Removing neck and placing into the appropriate giblet tray  2
6Cutting off feet and hanging carcase onto air conditioning racks1
Total7
Offal preparation 
1Slitting and washing gizzards1
2Sorting and packing edible offal1
3Supervisor, moving full and empty offal trays and assisting1 
Total3
Cooling 
1Handling and moving air conditioning racks in and out of chill room, and to and from various work stations1
Total1

Packing 
1Putting chilled packed offal inside carcase1
2Tying down, banding or trussing1
3Putting bird inside bag1
4Weighing and placing preprinted weight label inside bag
5Sealing bag and placing in freezer tray1
Total5
Supervisory and reliefs4
Grand Total29

Equipment Specifications

Crates, Stunner/sticking knife, Flight feather remover, Finisher, Bowl plucker or 1.5m plucker with booster flail, Feather bins, Mobile racks, Evisceration tools, Spiral washer chiller, Carcase washer, Sink unit/sterilizer, Wash hand basin, Shelving, Scale, Dry store room, High pressure power washer, Insect electrocutors, Electrical fittings, Drainage fittings, Ceiling fans, Office equipment: Desk, table, chairs, filing cabinet, telephone etc, Changing room equipment: Lockers, benches, sanitary ware, showers etc, Laundry equipment: Sink, cupboard, clothes lines etc, Boot wash, Trays, films, and cartons for packaging: As for 200 Birds/day.

Complete hanging/sticking/bleeding/scalding equipment, comprising: loading bar, 15m overhead conveyor for killing and bleeding out, 75 S/S shackles, 2.5m bleeding trough and 3m waterfall dip tank.

An oblong open structure in galvanised steel, measuring 7 × 1.5m comprising the superstructure to hold an overhead rail. The rail is about 2.2m from the floor. The rail holds a conveyor system of approx 15m in length comprising 75 stainless steel shackles supported by a rod and trolley system. The shackles are “W”-shaped and used for holding poultry by their legs. Each shackle is separated and attached to its neighbour at 0.2m intervals by a chain. This continuous loop is driven by a motor at a speed of 0.6–1.4m/min. A loading bar of 1.0m is positioned at the same height as the poultry shackle to steady it as the poultry is loaded. As the shackles move round the system they pass over a 2.5m stainless steel bleeding trough at the second bend. This “L”-shaped structure is free standing on adjustable stainless steel legs. Continuing on its journey, the rail guides the conveyor downwards by about 0.5m for the dead poultry to pass into the stainless steel waterfall dip tank. This scalding tank is 3m in length and 0.6m wide. It is free standing on adjustable stainless steel legs. It has a drain and a system for maintaining its water level. The scald water is heated to temperature by electricity or gas. Finally, the rail rises to its original level before turning two bends to reach the loading bar again. See Drawing 3.

Pinning table:

1 × 0.6 × 0.9m height, heavy duty stainless steel top and frame with adjustable feet. For the removal of pin feathers from poultry.

Evisceration unit comprising: 16m conveyor line, 80 shackles, 3.7m evisceration trough and mobile offal truck.

An open structure in galvanised steel comprising the superstructure to hold an overhead rail. The rail is about 2.2m from the floor and is about 16m in length on a continuous loop which is roughly “L”-shaped. See Drawing 3. The rail holds a conveyor system comprising 80 stainless steel shackles supported by a rod and trolley system. The shackles are “W”-shaped and used for holding poultry by its legs. Each shackle is separated and attached to its neighbour at 0.2m intervals by a chain. This continuous loop is driven by a motor at a speed of 0.6–1.4m/min. The shackles pass over a stainless steel evisceration trough. This trough measures 3.7m × 1.0m and stands about 1m from the floor. It is a wide “V” shape in cross section and slopes to the mobile offal truck situated at one end. The trough is provided with water taps to assist with transport of the viscera to the truck. The trough holds three giblet pans mounted on supports. The overhead rail then passes through the bird washer (which see) and over the pinning table to complete the circuit. The mobile offal truck comprises a perforated container of 0.53m, made of galvanished steel. The container is supported on a trolley of four wheels, a handle and a tap at base to drain liquids.

Carcase washer

To wash the carcase thoroughly both externally and internally after it has been completely eviscerated. Incorporating a water spray and two soft flail loaded spindles. The gentle sponging action ensures a clean carcase. Adjustable legs and an accommodation for various bird sizes. The two cleaning drums are rotated by two independent electrical motors. Alternatives include replacement of the flails with 12 angular adjustable spray heads. A pump ensures water at high pressure cleans carcases.

Giblet processing station:

Comprising table, 6 giblet pans and 6 pan supports. Giblet pans, chopping blocks and cleaning screens are arranged over a large heavy gauge steel plate basin which is mounted on four substantial legs fitted with two spray traps for connection to mains water supply. Unwanted material is automatically washed away leaving the working surface clean and uncluttered.

Gizzard skinner:

Two intermeshed serrated rollers powered by a geared electric motor remove the skin after the gizzards have been cut open and thoroughly washed to remove all the grit. This machine can be mounted either over the eviscerating trough or above the giblet station so that the skins are washed away as they are peeled off.

Secateurs:

Heavy duty stainless steel

Boning knives:

Heavy duty stainless steel, in a non-slip nylon handle

Pinning knives:

Heavy duty stainless steel, in a non-slip nylon handle

Knife sharpener:

Heavy duty

Thermometer:

Electronic battery or mains operated digital display instrument constructed in heavy duty, splashproof plastic with a 150mm stainless steel washable probe.

Icemaker:

Self contained machine producing flaked ice at approx -25°C from a mains cold water supply. Production capacity 5000 kg/day. Storage capacity up to 5000 kg. Dimensions (W×D×H) 1.72 × 2.15 × 1.85m. Plug in unit requiring only connection to water, power supply and drain.

Ice tank (optional):

Insulated tank to contain slush ice for initial cooling of poultry carcases. 5 × 1.4 × 1.4m

Refrigeration (optional)

To cool 4 racks of 150 birds (900kg of poultry carcases) from 35°C to 2°C in 2 hours under prevailing environmental conditions.

Packing table:

As holding table

Poultry Portioning Machine:

Electrically operated machine in stainless steel. Bird is placed onto guarded blade for portioning. With rest for bird placement.

Blast freezer:

There are two options:

Freezer storage:

Modular construction walk-in freezer unit (-20°C) approx 9 × 4.5m. Power and drain required.

Bagging machine:

A vacuum packaging machine for bagging/wrapping birds in high shrink plastic film bags. Power required. Birds arrive by conveyor, with fully automatic wrapping and sealing for virtually continuous packaging.

Offal skip:

Standard skip to take 14001 of offal waste

Air conditioning

To suit local conditions

ANNEX 6

Evisceration, Trussing and Portioning Poultry Carcases

Table Dressing

1 Remove neck

1

2 Cut across the vent

2

3 Carcase cut around the vent

3

4 Hand pulling viscera

4

5 Empty carcase and viscera

5

6 Viscera

6

7 Slitting gizzard; heart and liver

7

8 Trussing: First steps

8

9 Trussing: Pull string tight and cross at back

9

10 Trussing: Tie off at Parson's nose

10

11 Trussed bird with giblets

11

Poultry Portioning

1 Half the chicken by cutting under the breast under the breast bone

1

2 Divide the legs and thighs from the breast

2

3 Quarter the legs and thighs

3

4 Thighs and drumsticks

4

5 Cut the drumsticks from the thigh through the joint

5

6 Chicken thigh and drumstick

6

7 Split the breast down the middle, cutting through the breastbone

7

8 Breast quarters

8

9 Cut the wings from the breast through the main joint

9

10 Chicken breast, thigh, leg and wing portions

10

Annex 7 Elevation of Baffled Sedimentation/Flotation tank

 

ANNEX 8a

Alternative Layouts For Small Scale Poultry Processing Plants

Capacity: 120 Chickens/hour
Building size: 65m2

ANNEX 8b

Alternative Layouts For Small Scale Poultry Processing Plants

Capacity: 350 Chickens/hour
Building size: 115m2

ANNEX 8c

Alternative Layouts For Small Scale Poultry Processing Plants

Capacity: 500 Chickens/hour
Building size: 235m2

ANNEX 8d

Alternative Layouts For Small Scale Poultry Processing Plants

Typical Overhead Conveyor System

Capacity: from 500 Chickens/hour

ANNEX 8e

Alternative Layouts For Small Scale Poultry Processing Plants

Podular System: Plant provided as a series of 40 foot containers fitted together on site to make the poultry processing plant

Capacity: up to 500 Chickens/hour based on a 2-container unit


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