The Pasteurella species cause various diseases in rabbits. The most common organisms are Pasteurella haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Pasteurella haemolytica infection in rabbits is associated with chronic rhinitis (colds), pneumonia or death. Pasteurella multocida causes chronic rhinitis, colds, snuffles, pneumonia, peritonitis and septicemia.
Transmission: Pasteurella organisms are found in the environment and in mucous membranes of healthy animals particularly in the respiratory tract mucosa. There are some predisposing factors involved with susceptibility of Pasteurella infection in rabbits including avitaminosis, inadequate diet, poor husbandry and hygiene, fungal and parasitic infections. The most common source of infection is contact with other infected rabbits and usually, an animal is infected through the respiratory tract. The organism can also be spread from contaminated equipment and cages.
Chronic rhinitis (Colds):
Rabbits usually do not recover from this infection and may have periodic flare-ups of the cold. The colds may lead to classically described snuffles and further to pneumonia.
Snuffles (Contagious catarrh): This is a chronic and destructive form of cold in rabbits.
Eye and middle ear infection:
Mastitis: Swollen, bluish glands in lactating does. Ulceration and sloughing may occur with discharge of pus from diseased tissue.
Arthritis: Enlarged, painful swollen joints
Snuffles: Inflammation and necrosis of nasal passages which contain mucoid to white purulent material
Abscesses: Walled off abscesses containing white creamy cheesy pus.
Eye and middle ear infection:
Mastitis: Swollen mammary gland with red to blue discoloration and congestion. White abscesses may be observed in the gland.
Metritis: Distended uterus contains white pus.
Arthritis: Cloudy fluid and pus present in the leg joints
Fig. 211: Pasteurellosis. Yellowish-white fibrinous deposits in the abdominal cavity.
Judgement : Carcass of the animal is condemned.
A mild form of the disease showing colds, snuffles, middle ear infection, mastitis or metritis, which do not affect the wholesomeness of the meat or cause systemic changes, may have a favourable judgement of the carcass. A few well off abscesses may also render meat fit for human consumption although the carcass may be judged inferior due to mutilation caused by removing of abscesses. Consumer should be made aware of this defect by the controlling authority.
Differential diagnosis : Salmonellosis and coccidiosis. Bacteria such as E. coli, Pseudomonas, Listeria and Proteus may cause metritis in rabbits. Staphylococcus aureus has been cultured from mastitis, metritis and arthritis cases. Staphylococcus and Bordetella have been isolated from the respiratory lesions and Streptococcus spp and Actinomyces pyogenes from abscesses.
Tape worm infection in rabbits (intermediate host) and dogs and cats (definitive host) is relatively harmless. However, in its severe form may cause chronic inflammation of the intestine, emaciation or intestinal obstruction. Infection in rabbits is of greater importance because the larval stages of the parasite develop in different organs and the musculature and often cause decreased food utilization and wasting of the host. The carcass or portion of the carcass may also be unfit for human consumption in severe cases which further contributes to the economic loss.
Cysticercus pisiformis is the cystic stage of Taenia pisiformis which occurs in dogs and rarely in cats. The larval stage develops in rodents, particularly rabbit and hare. The mature larvae are found in the peritoneal cavity and frequently in the mesentery of rabbits (Fig. 212). The cysts are the size of a pea, hence the name C. pisiformis. They are filled with clear fluid in early stages. There is formation of pus in older lesions.
Fig. 212: Tapeworm larvae in rabbits. Cysticercus pisiformis in the mesentery of rabbit.
Cysticercus fasciolaris is the cystic stage of Taenia taeniaeformis, known as the cat tapeworm. This parasite can be recognized by the lack of a neck and the bell-shaped posterior segments. The intermediate host are the rabbit, rat, mouse and other rodents. Cysticercus fasciolaris is 2.5 cm long and develops in the liver.
Coenurus serialis is the intermediate stage of Taenia serialis, a tapeworm of the dog and fox. Coenurus serialis is almost fatal to hares, rabbits and other related rodents. It is passed into the connective tissue of the lumbar muscles, hind leg muscles and rarely into the jaw muscles. Coenurus serialis may also occur accidentally in the brain and muscle tissue of humans. The mature cyst in rabbits is ovoid or round, approximately 5 cm in diameter and has scolices the size of a rice grain. It may have as many as forty scolices. Sometimes these Coenuri behave like hydatids by budding off new cysts internally or externally. These internal cysts are frequently fertile. The external cysts are attached by stalks and are often sterile. They resemble a bunch of grapes.
Judgement: Rabbit carcases with extensive Cysticercus pisiformis infestation associated with cheesy material in older lesions and accompanied with emaciation are condemned. Slight or moderate infestation in which cysts contain straw coloured fluid, may have a favourable judgement. In Coenurus serialis infestation, the rabbit carcass is approved if only few cysts are present in the musculature. In extensive infestation the carcass is condemned.
Coccidiosis is the most common parasitic disease of rabbits which occurs in hepatic and intestinal forms. Liver coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria stiedae and intestinal coccidiosis by E. magna, E. perforans and E. irresidua.
Transmission: Faecal contamination of water and food containing oocysts. Humid, dirty and overcrowded rabbit houses predispose rabbits to the infection.
Judgement: Carcass in good flesh is approved. If the disease is associated with emaciation, the carcass is condemned.
Differential diagnosis : Pasteurellosis, tuberculosis, pseudotuberculosis, listeriosis and salmonellosis.
Fig. 213: Coccidiosis. Enlarged liver with multifocal greyish-white coalescing lesions and yellowish liquid pus caused by E. stidae.
FAO TECHNICAL PAPERS
FAO ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH PAPERS
|1||Animal breeding: selected articles from the World Animal Review, 1977 (C E F S)|
|2||Eradication of hog cholera and African swine fever, 1976 (E F S)|
|3||Insecticides and application equipment for tsetse control, 1977 (E F)|
|4||New feed resources, 1977 (E/F/S)|
|5||Bibliography of the criollo cattle of the Americas, 1977 (E/S)|
|6||Mediterranean cattle and sheep in crossbreeding, 1977 (E F)|
|7||The environmental impact of tsetse control operations, 1977 (E F)|
|7 Rev. 1||The environmental impact of tsetse control operations, 1980 (E F)|
|8||Declining breeds of Mediterranean sheep, 1978 (E F)|
|9||Slaughterhouse and slaughterslab design and construction, 1978 (E F S)|
|10||Treating straw for animal feeding, 1978 (C E F S)|
|11||Packaging, storage and distribution of processed milk, 1978 (E)|
|12||Ruminant nutrition: selected articles from the World Animal Review, 1978 (C E F S)|
|13||Buffalo reproduction and artificial insemination, 1979 (E*)|
|14||The African trypanosomiases, 1979 (E F)|
|15||Establishment of diary training centres, 1979 (E)|
|16||Open yard housing for young cattle, 1981 (Ar E F S)|
|17||Prolific tropical sheep, 1980 (E F S)|
|18||Feed from animal wastes: state of knowledge, 1980 (C E)|
|19||East Coast fever and related tick-borne diseases, 1980 (E)|
|20/1||Trypanotolerant livestock in West and Central Africa — Vol. 1. General study, 1980 (E F)|
|20/2||Trypanotolerant livestock in West and Central Africa - Vol. 2. Country studies, 1980 (E F)|
|20/3||Le bétail trypanotolérant en Afrique occidentale et centrale - Vol. 3. Bilan d'une décennie, 1988 (F)|
|21||Guideline for dairy accouting, 1980 (E)|
|22||Recursos genéticos animales en América Latina, 1981 (S)|
|23||Disease control in semen and embryos, 1981 (C E F S)|
|24||Animal genetic resources - conservation and management, 1981 (C E)|
|25||Reproductive efficiency in cattle, 1982 (C E F S)|
|26||Camels and camel milk, 1982 (E)|
|27||Deer farming, 1982 (E)|
|28||Feed from animal wastes: feeding manual, 1982 (C E)|
|29||Echinococcosis/hydatidosis surveillance, prevention and control FAO/UNEP/WHO guidelines, 1982 (E)|
|30||Sheep and goat breeds of India, 1982 (E)|
|31||Hormones in animal production, 1982 (E)|
|32||Crop residues and agro-industrial by-products in animal feeding, 1982 (E/F)|
|33||Haemorrhagic septicaemia, 1982 (E F)|
|34||Breeding plans for ruminant livestock in the trophics, 1982 (E F S)|
|35||Off-tastes in raw and reconstituted milk, 1983 (Ar E F S)|
|36||Ticks and tick—borne diseases: selected articles from the World Animal Review, 1983 (E F S)|
|37||African animal trypanosomiasis: selected articles from the World Animal Review, 1983 (E F)|
|38||Diagnosis and vaccination for the control of brucellosis in the Near East, 1982 (Ar E)|
|39||Solar energy in small-scale milk collection and processing, 1983 (E F)|
|40||Intensive sheep production in the Near East, 1983 (Ar E)|
|41||Integrating crops and livestock in West Africa, 1983 (E F)|
|42||Animal energy in agriculture in Africa and Asia, 1984 (E/F S)|
|43||Olive by-products for animal feed, 1985 (Ar E F S)|
|44/1||Animal genetic resources conservation by management, data banks and training, 1984 (E)|
|44/2||Animal genetic resources: cryogenic storage of germplasm and molecular engineering, 1984 (E)|
|45||Maintenance systems for the dairy plant, 1984 (E)|
|46||Livestock breeds of China, 1984 (E F S)|
|47||Réfrigération du lait à la ferme et organisation des transports, 1985 (F)|
|48||La fromagerie et les variétés de fromages du bassin méterranéen, 1985 (F)|
|49||Manual for the slaughter of small ruminants in developing countries, 1985 (E)|
|50||Better utilization of crop residues and by-products in animal feeding: research guidelines - 1. State of knowledge, 1985 (E)|
|50/2||Better utilization of crop residues and by-products in animal feeding: research guidelines - 2. A practical manual for research workers, 1986 (E)|
|51||Dried salted meats: charque and carne-de-sol, 1985 (E)|
|52||Small-scale sausage production, 1985 (E)|
|53||Slaughterhouse cleaning and sanitation, 1985 (E)|
|54||Small ruminants in the Near East - Vol. I. Selected papers presented for the Expert Consultation on Small Ruminant Research and Development in the Near East (Tunis, 1985), 1987 (E)|
|55||Small ruminants in the Near East - Vol. II. Selected articles from World Animal Review 1972–1986, 1987 (Ar E)|
|56||Sheep and goats in Pakistan, 1985 (E)|
|57||The Awassi sheep with special reference to the improved dairy type, 1985 (E)|
|58||Small ruminant production in the developing countries, 1986 (E)|
|59/1||Animal genetic resources data banks - 1. Computer systems study for regional data banks, 1986 (E)|
|59/2||Animal genetic resources data banks - 2. Descriptor lists for cattle, buffalo, pigs, sheep and goats, 1986 (E F S)|
|59/3||Animal genetic resources data banks - 3. Descriptor lists for poultry, 1986 (E F S)|
|60||Sheep and goats in Turkey, 1986 (E)|
|61||The Przewalski horse and restoration to its natural habitat in Mongolia, 1986 (E)|
|62||Milk and dairy products: production and processing costs, 1988 (E F S)|
|63||Proceedings of the FAO expert consultation on the substitution of imported concentrate feeds in animal production systems in developing countries, 1987 (C E)|
|64||Poultry management and diseases in the Near East, 1987 (Ar)|
|65||Animal genetic resources of the USSR, 1989 (E)|
|66||Animal genetic resources - strategics for improved use and conservation, 1987 (E)|
|67/1||Trypanotolerant cattle and livestock development in West and Central Africa - Vol. I, 1987 (E)|
|67/2||Trypanotolerant cattle and livestock development in West and Central Africa - Vol. II, 1987 (E)|
|68||Crossbreeding Bos indicus and Bos taurus for milk production in the tropics, 1987 (E)|
|69||Village milk processing, 1988 (E F S)|
|70||Sheep and goat meat production in the humid tropics of West Africa, 1989 (E/F)|
|71||The development of village-based sheep production in West Africa, 1988 (Ar E F S) (Published as Training manual for extension workers, M/S5840E)|
|72||Sugarcane as feed, 1988 (E/S)|
|73||Standard design for small-scale modular slaughterhouses, 1988 (E)|
|74||Small ruminants in the Near East - Vol. III. North Africa, 1989 (E)|
|75||The eradication of ticks, 1989 (E/S)|
|76||Ex situ cryoconservation of genomes and genes of endangered cattle breeds by means of modern biotechnological methods, 1989 (E)|
|77||Training manual for embryo transfer in cattle, 1991 (E)|
|78||Milking, milk production hygiene and udder health, 1989 (E)|
|79||Manual of simple methods of meat preservation, 1990 (E)|
|80||Animal genetic resources - a global programme for sustainable development, 1990 (E)|
|81||Veterinary diagnostic bacteriology - a manual of laboratory procedures of selected diseases of livestock, 1990 (E F)|
|82||Reproduction in camels - a review, 1990 (E)|
|83||Training manual on artificial insemination in sheep and goats, 1991 (E F)|
|84||Training manual for embryo transfer in water buffaloes, 1991 (E)|
|85||The technology of traditional milk products in developing countries, 1990 (E)|
|86||Feeding dairy cows in the tropics, 1991 (E)|
|87||Manual for the production of anthrax and blackleg vaccines, 1991 (E F)|
|88||Small ruminant production and the small ruminant genetic resource in tropical Africa, 1991 (E)|
|89||Manual for the production of Marek's disease, Gumboro disease and inactivated Newcastle disease vaccines, 1991 (E F)|
|90||Application of biotechnology to nutrition of animals in developing countries 1991 (E F)|
|91||Guidelines for slaughtering, meat cutting and further processing, 1991 (E)|
|92||Manual on meat cold store operation and management, 1991 (E)|
|93||Utilization of renewable energy sources and energy-saving technologies by small-scale milk plants and collection centres, 1992 (E)|
|94||Proceedings of the FAO expert consultation on the genetic aspects of trypanotolerance, 1992 (E)|
|95||Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in animal feeding, 1992 (E)|
|96||Distribution and impact of helminth diseases of livestock in developing countries, 1992 (E)|
|97||Construction and operation of medium-sized abattoirs in developing countries, 1992 (E)|
|98||Small—scale poultry processing, 1992 (E)|
|99||In situ conservation of livestock and poultry, 1992 (E)|
|100||Programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development, 1992 (E)|
|101||Genetic improvement of hair sheep in the tropics, 1992 (E)|
|102||Legume trees and other fodder trees as protein sources for livestock, 1992 (E)|
|103||Improving sheep reproduction in the Near East, 1992 (Ar)|
|104||The management of global animal genetic resources, 1992 (E)|
|105||Sustainable livestock production in the mountain agro-ecosystem of Nepal, 1992 (E)|
|106||Sustainable animal production from small farm systems in South-East Asia, 1993 (E)|
|107||Strategies for sustainable animal agriculture in developing countries, 1993 (E)|
|108||Evaluation of breeds and crosses of domestic animals, 1993 (E)|
|109||Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, 1993 (E)|
|110||L'amélioration génétique des bovins en Afrique de l'Ouest, 1993 (F)|
|111||L'utilización sostenible de hembras F1 en la productión del ganado lechero tropical, 1993 (S)|
|112||Physiologie de la reproduction des bovins trypanotolérants, 1993 (F)|
|113||La technologie des fromages au lait de dromadaire (Camelus dromedarius), 1993 (F)|
|114||Food losses due to non-infectious and production diseases in developing countries, 1993 (E)|
|115||Manuel de formation pratique pour la transplantation embryonnaire chez la brebis et la chèvre, 1993 (F)|
|116||Quality control of veterinary vaccines in developing countries, 1993 (E)|
|117||L'hygiène dans l'industrie alimentaire, 1993 - Les produits et l'aplication de l'hygiène, 1993 (F)|
|118||Quality control testing of rinderpest cell culture vaccine, 1994 (E)|
|119||Manual on meat inspection for developing countries, 1994 (E)|
Availability: May 1994
* Out of print
** in preparation
The FAO Technical Papers are available through the authorized FAO Sales Agents or directly from Distribution and Sales Section, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.