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Explanatory note

The following symbols are used in the tables:



none or negligible



not available



a crop, marketing or fiscal year running from one calendar year to the next



average for three calendar years

Figures in statistical tables may not add up because of rounding. Annual changes and rates of change have been calculated from unrounded figures. Unless otherwise indicated, the metric system is used throughout.

The dollar sign ($) refers to US dollars. "Billion", used throughout, is equal to 1 000 million.

Production index numbers

FAO index numbers have 1979-81 as the base period. The production data refer to primary commodities (e.g. sugar cane and sugar beet instead of sugar) and national average producer prices are used as weights. The indices for food products exclude tobacco, coffee, tea, inedible oil seeds, animal and vegetable fibres and rubber. They are based on production data presented on a calendar-year basis.1

1 For full details, see FAO Production Yearbook 1992.
Trade index numbers

The indices of trade in agricultural products also are based on 1979-81. They include all the commodities and countries shown in the FAO Trade Yearbook. Indices of total food products include those edible products generally classified as "food". All indices represent changes in current values of exports (f.o.b.) and imports (c.i.f.), all expressed in US dollars. When countries report imports valued at f.o.b. (free on board), these are adjusted to approximate c.i.f. (cost, insurance, freight) values. This method of estimation shows a discrepancy whenever the trend of insurance and freight diverges from that of the commodity unit values.

Volumes and unit value indices represent the changes in the price-weighted sum of quantities and of the quantity-weighted unit values of products traded between countries. The weights are, respectively, the price and quantity averages of 1979-81, which is the base reference period used for all the index number series currently computed by FAO. The Laspeyres formula is used in the construction of the index numbers.2

2 For full details, see FAO Trade Yearbook 1991.
Definitions of "narrow" and "broad"

The OECD definitions of agriculture are generally used in reporting on external assistance to agriculture. The narrow definition of agriculture, now referred to as "directly to the sector" includes the following items:

· Appraisal of natural resources
· Development and management of natural resources
· Research
· Supply of production inputs
· Fertilizers
· Agricultural services
· Training and extension
· Crop production
· Livestock development
· Fisheries
· Agriculture (subsector unallocated)
The broad definition includes, in addition to the above items, activities that are defined as "indirectly to the sector". These activities are:
· Forestry
· Manufacturing of inputs
· Agro-industries
· Rural infrastructure
· Rural development
· Regional development
· River development
Regional coverage

Developing countries include: Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Near East 3 and the Far East.4

3 The Near East includes: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Oman, Qatar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.

4 The Far East includes the former Asian centrally planned economies: Cambodia, China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Mongolia and Viet Nam.

Developed countries include: 5 North America, Western Europe (including former Yugoslavia, SFR), Oceania, Bulgaria, former Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Israel, Japan, Poland, Romania, South Africa and the former USSR. Albania is omitted in this report because of insufficient data.
5 Note that "industrial countries", as defined by the IMF, include: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States.
Country designations used in this publication remain those current during the period in which the data were prepared.

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