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Workshop Discussions

GO/NGO/PO Levels of Partnership: Development Framework
Principles of GO-NGO-PO Partnership
Framework and Mechanism on Project Formulation for People’s Participation in Rural Development Activities
Workshop Resolution
Proposed Project Ideas for Possible GO-NGO-PO Follow-up Action

GO/NGO/PO Levels of Partnership: Development Framework

Institutional partnership may be defined as the mode of interaction among various sectors, agencies, or groups to achieve a particular task, objective, goal, or vision while maintaining their own institutional autonomy. Institutional partnership takes on various forms and mechanisms to operationalize it. Such relationships are nurtured and developed depending on the degree of urgency to respond to a particular need, level of trust, organizational culture, target clientele/area, or commonality of mandate. It revolves around the sharing of vision, resources, expertise, and systems to create a greater and meaningful impact on a certain sector, a community, and the nation as a whole.

Consultative partnership. This exists among institutions who wish to establish new relations with other organizations for information exchange. Regular venues such as consultations or dialogues are organized to serve as initial mechanism through which various institutions know each other by sharing experiences, ideas, and opinions.

Coordinative partnership. Efforts are exerted to avoid duplication of activities and synchronize separate institutional initiatives for greater efficiency and effectiveness in field operations. As starting point for coordination, interagency committees and activities are usually organized to do a checklist or inventory of project interventions in the communities. An example is the relief efforts undertaken by government and NGOs where an interagency group is organized to avoid duplication in the distribution of goods to earthquake victims.

Complementary partnership. In this form or level of relationship, though each party has separate initiatives, they are both guided by a common program framework characterized by purposive efforts to support each other. An example is the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program of the Aquino Government where some NGOs have taken the initiative to undertake land transfer programs within the CARP framework and mechanism.

Collaborative partnership. In this relationship, both institutions agreed to work together, sharing a common vision, establishing common objectives, and plans of action on a program level. Mechanisms are institutionalized so as to facilitate delivery of services to their target communities.

Critical partnership. This may be the highest form and level of partnership where both institutions consider each other as indispensable partners in pursuing broad development goals and visions. Both sectors work together on a more strategic long-term arrangement on various aspects of the socioeconomic and political life of the community. NGOs are given access to government resources and are also given the chance to participate in the policy formulation and decisionmaking processes.

GO/NGO/PO Levels of Partnership Development Framework

Nature of partnership




Possible areas for partnership

Key success factors

Consultative partnership

Open lines of communication for Information exchange

· Information exchange
· Awareness building

· Regular venues for Information exchange

· Seminars, workshops, consultations, newsletters

· Openness
· Sustained efforts
· Participatory

Coordinative partnership

Separate initiatives not necessarily supportive of each other yet aspire in some form of complementation to achieve efficiency and effectiveness

· Avoidance of duplication
· Synchronization of activities

· Interagency committees and activities

· Campaigns
· Disaster relief operations
· Adhoc committees on sectoral concerns

· Openness
· Regular and sustained efforts
· Representative
· Clear expectations

Complementary partnership

Separate initiatives but guided by a common framework characterized by purposive efforts to support each other

· Program support
· Resource sharing

· Programs that are supportive of each other

· Agrarian reform
· Environment
· Advocacy Issues
· Capability building

· Mutual trust
· Shared vision
· Leadership support
· Participatory

Collaborative partnership

Joint efforts with a common vision and objectives

· Joint programs
· Policymaking

· Long-term joint programs
· Institutionalized mechanisms

· Integrated area development
· Policy formulation
· Decision making In national bodies · Resource delivery
· Capability building

· Mutual trust
· Shared vision
· Congruence in strategy
· Leadership
· Participatory
· Clear delineation of tasks/responsibilities

Critical partnership

Interdependence Recognition of each other as Indispensable partners in the development process

· Strategic planning, decisionmaking, and Implementation

· Long-term and Institutionalized working relations

· In most aspects of socioeconomic and political life

· Common and mutually shared vision, mission, and goals

Principles of GO-NGO-PO Partnership a

a Adopted by the participants of the “National Workshop on Project Formulation for People’s Participation in Rural Development Activities” held in Tagaytay City, Philippines on 9 November 1990. ANGOC, 1992.
1. Government and NGOs shall strive to attain the following:
a. Social justice and equity
b. People’s empowerment and solidarity
c. Transparent and effective governance
d. Sustainable and self-reliant development
e. Structural changes within the constitutional and legal framework
f. Subsidiarity
2. Government and NGOs are accountable to the people.

3. Government, NGOs, and POs should have a working understanding of each other’s principles, policies, processes, programs, and structures so that the elements of responsiveness, flexibility, and workability are built into GO-NGO-PO partnership.

4. The autonomy of NGOs and POs shall be recognized by the government. Government shall perceive the participation of NGOs and POs as a means to achieve a partner relationship, otherwise, working together will be a futile exercise in the long run. Partnership shall not be seen as an end in itself but must result in constructive progress toward the goals of the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (WCARRD).

5. NGOs and POs shall be substantially and equally represented in all levels of decisionmaking. Mere presence in planning councils or bodies does not indicate participation in decisionmaking. NGOs and POs shall be given equal opportunity to express their views and to decide on issues.

6. Participation in government shall not be the sole role of national-level NGOs, though they can initiate this process. To really involve the people themselves in the development stream, the people shall have a voice from the grassroots up to the national level.

7. Establishment and strengthening of NGO and PO networks shall take place both horizontally and vertically. This will also help strengthen their position vis-a-vis government and enhance their credibility.

8. The knowledge of concepts, objectives, and nature of participative activities shall not be confined only among the key personnel of both government and NGOs. Continuing orientation of government personnel at all levels, including those indirectly involved in the project, shall be undertaken so that they understand the rationale and nature of working relationships with the NGO and PO sectors.

9. Of particular importance to NGOs and POs is the need for continuous dialogue with government on the matter of NGO-PO-donor relationships with a view of evolving policies and procedures that satisfy the specific concerns of NGOs, POs and government.

10. NGOs and POs shall be conscious of the need to carry out periodic and systematic self-evaluation of their role and impact Also, they shall regularly update themselves by a process of self-education.

11. NGOs, especially at the grassroots level, must be seen in a complementary role and not in competition with government agencies operating at that level. Government should respect the integrity and autonomy of NGOs just as NGOs should retain their critical outlook. On the other hand, publication of criticisms that undermine the spirit of partnership should be avoided. NGOs and POs must realize that regular budgetary support from government could undermine their autonomy.

12. NGOs and POs must endeavor to establish their credibility with the government and the people, and for this purpose, they must demonstrate their sincerity, capability, and commitment.

13. NGOs and POs must be prepared to take the initiative to secure their recognition and also to propose constructive programs of partnership with government in evolving and carrying out practical programs in areas of concern to NGOs and POs.

14. GO-NGO-PO may resort to independent initiatives to pursue their development interests that take into account people’s participation in the event measures for forging a GO-NGO-PO partnership are not yet in place.

Framework and Mechanism on Project Formulation for People’s Participation in Rural Development Activities b

b Adapted by the participants of the “National Workshop on Project Formulation for People’s Participation In Rural Development Activities” held In Tagaytay City, Philippines on 9 November 1990. ANGOC, 1992

Project phase



Basic requirements

1. Project concept generation (Developing opportunities for partnership)

Bottom up project idea generation gathered from constituencies based on their needs: subnational offices, NGOs, POs, etc.

Explore project concept with GO or NGOs and POs

Determine if project concept is consistent with national development objectives, policies, programs; agency priority

Conduct joint/GO/NGO/PO forum to discuss:

· feasibility of project concept
· different perspectives of the problem
· areas of possible cooperation

Other NGOs, POs, and government agencies may be invited to the forum when the project requires expertise and resources not present among initiators of project and when the project snows a potential for greater impact if coverage is expanded.

Common perspective/ understanding of problem Agreement in principle to pursue development of project concept

Focal points

Presence of NGO and PO focal point in each government agency at all levels primarily to act as clearinghouse for:

· information on government programs
· linkage with NGOs, POs, and government
· data base on NGO/PO

Active and effective NGO/PO liaison system to be operationalized as an organic part of government

Presence of GO focal points for rural development NGOs at central and regional office levels Focal points have working knowledge of mechanisms/processes involved in consultation with agency field offices, NGOs, and POs.

Focal points regularly exchange information

Strong commitment from NGOs, PO, and GOs


Mutually agreed set of accreditation criteria for program/project participation by NGO, GO, and PO

For ongoing projects

Listing of NGOs/POs list of accredited NGOs/POs

Each GO agency has a regularly updated POs in the rural development sector

Project assessment/ Reassessment

Conduct review of project design to determine if project has elements of people’s participation

Determine social acceptability of project to intended beneficiaries

Conduct joint GO/NGO/PO forum to reassess project and discuss areas of partnership: meet with donor to propose to redesign project

Agreement of all parties concerned on proposed changes

Acceptance of donor to redesign project


Formation of broad coalition among NGOs and POs (GO and NGO networks to consider/consult also nonaffiliated organizations)

II. Partnership development (Strengthening of relationship in all stages of project cycle at the national, provincial, and municipal levels)

Orientation workshops to discuss

· assessment of individual strengths and weaknesses
· GO/NGO/PO principles on partnership (see ANNEX A)
· Levels of GO/NGO/PO Partnership (see ANNEX B)
· GO/NGO/PO culture

· programs and experiences on GO/NGO/ PO partnership
· GO/NGO/PO institutional setup and operations

Consensus on framework of partnership

Deeper understanding of the nature and operations of GO/ NGO/PO

Willingness of GOs and NGOs to allocate or program a portion of their funds and/or realign existing resources, when and where possible to activities that will forge and strengthen GO/NGO partnership, i.e. orientation workshop, transportation cost of NGOs and POs based in the province who need to attend meetings organized in Manila

Exposure trips to relevant GO/NGO/ PO projects

Regular meetings to exchange information, expertise, and resources

Training modules on

· managerial and technical skills
· value formation
· others Orientation and training of GO, NGO, and PO personnel

Institutionalized Information exchange/resource sharing

Strengthened staff competencies Inventory of training modules available from GO and NGOs

A community-conceived mechanism/consultative body where more defined GO/NGO/PO prospects for partnership are discussed, agreed upon, carried out, and assessed

Continuing involvement of GO/NGO/PO key officers and staff who are directly or indirectly involved in the project

Support from NGO, GO, PO, and local government unit to pursue and sustain partnership

III. Project planning/preparation

Meeting to discuss, define, and agree on

· critical indicators of successful projects
· equity consideration, accountability, sustainability, women in development, etc.
· basic minimum strategy/requirements of projects
· community organizing, continuing capacity building, people’s participation, etc.
· process documentation
· priority, thrust, and strategies of GO, NGOs, and POs and possibly to include those of the donor agencies

Provision of training programs to beneficiaries on data generation/analysis

Developed framework for monitoring and evaluation

Adequate financial and technical resources are available for project preparation. This will shoulder cost of feasibility study, training of POs in research, conduct of baseline survey, etc.

Functional mechanisms that ensure PO participation in the project preparation stage

Support of local government officiate to the project

Mechanism whereby existing operations and procedures of government are assessed and made responsive to NGO-PO partnership, e.g., bidding procedures, etc.

Conduct of baseline research/needs assessment of beneficiaries; develop research instrument with beneficiaries

POs are involved at the onset of project development

Formation of tripartite working advisory team (GO/NGO/PO) to oversee conduct of feasibility study and project proposal

Identification and analysis of needs and resources

Initiation of GO/NGO/PO institutional cooperation

Consultations with DBM, COA, NEDA whenever necessary

Project auditing and accounting system approved by tripartite working advisory team

Validation of feasibility studies and project proposals through tripartite consultation mechanisms (at all levels depending on the project)

Assured timely funding Final form of project proposal accepted by beneficiaries/ endorsed by GO/supported by NGOs

Memorandum of Agreement

For ongoing projects

Project replanning/ redesign

Modify project concept/design/ targets/timetable

New program of work

Conduct reorientation program for project implementors and intended beneficiaries

Common understanding of project

IV. Resource mobilization

Develop and mobilize internal and external resources

Strategies and mechanisms for internal resource generation

Recognition of noncash assets and contribution as counterpart of POs and NGOs by GO and donors

Liaise with donor partner

Familiarity with the thrust, priorities, and operations of potential donor partners

Commitment of support from donor partners

Determine roles and responsibilities of the various partners

V. Project implementation

Orientation and planning meetings of executing agencies: GO, NGO, and beneficiary group

Program of work and organization

Local government and military officials attend orientation and planning meetings and support program of work

Provisions for technical and financial assistance are made available

Smooth project operations

Project is flexible to allow for contingency action in case of unforeseen major problems

Training on capability-building for NGOs and POs to ensure project sustainability

Strengthened local delivery structures; communities organized

Linkaging with various sectors and establishing institutional alliances

Strengthened interagency cooperation

Socioeconomic projects

Provision of opportunities for participation of NGOs and POs in the management of fund resources of the project

Capital buildup, increased income

Conduct of capability-building sessions on resource mobilization, project identification, program/project management, soda, mobilization, etc.

Potentials for self-management actualized

VI. Monitoring and evaluation

Training of POs to develop capability in internal monitoring and evaluation

All GO agencies (where interagency cooperation is involved) NGOs, and POs agree on a monitoring and evaluation schedule and criteria

Developing/incorporating project-specific monitoring/evaluation and reporting system (simple, responsive, and participatory)

A community-based/managed monitoring and evaluation system

Conduct of periodic assessment/replanning/ consultation sessions by the local community

Project activities aligned/ bottlenecks resolved

Beneficiaries and field-level officers have direct access to GO Secretary or department official at central and regional office to validate monitoring and evaluation reports

Conduct of field visits, interviews with community organizations

Quarterly/yearend reports; on-site sessions

Conduct of annual/midterm and postproject evaluation

Plan of action to respond to findings: modified management scheme

Conduct of project impact research studies

Project impact study snared with and discussed among executing GO, NGO with POs

VII. Project completion phase

Tripartite meeting to develop post-implementation plan on the baste of discussion inputs/monitoring and evaluation results/program/project gains

Post-implementation plan, components of which are designed to be managed by local institutions and POs

Proposals for replication/expansion

Commitment by GO, NGO, and POs to pursue follow-up action plans in terms of institutionalizing gains from the project

Conduct of continuing advocacy activities

Priority clientele identified
Orientation/Workshops conducted for concerned groups whose roles are crucial in operationalizing postproject activities
implementation of plans

Conduct of regular follow-up visits/ dialogue, etc., and provision of technical assistance

Areas for further strengthening defined and prioritized

Conduct of an ex-post evaluation after 5 years

Impact assessment of social and economic benefit

Workshop Resolution c

c Adopted by the participants of the “National Workshop on Project Formulation for People’s Participation in Rural Development Activities” in Tagaytay City, Philippines on 9 November. 1990. ANGOC, 1992.
WHEREAS, people are the “subjects” of development since only the people themselves can change their condition and work for their own development, and are also the “objects” of development, being the target beneficiaries;

WHEREAS, the 1987 Constitution and the Medium-Term Development Plan (1987-1992) explicitly recognize people’s organizations (POs) and nongovernment organizations (NGOs) as indispensable partners in development;

WHEREAS, mutual respect and the principle of tripartism where GO-NGO-PO view themselves as partners in development should be enhanced and further sustained;

WHEREAS, two project documents have resulted from the “National Workshop on Project Formulation for People’s Participation in Rural Development Activities”, namely: (1) Principles of GO-NGO-PO Partnership and (2) Framework on Project Formulation for People’s Participation in Rural Development Activities;

WHEREAS, the abovementioned documents provide for ways by which to enhance GO-NGO-PO partnership, after a review of rural development activities in the Philippines;

Now, THEREFORE, be it resolved by the participants to the “National Workshop on Project Formulation for People’s Participation in Rural Development Activities,” conducted in Tagaytay City, 7-9 November 1990;

1. That the documents entitled “Principles of GO-NGO-PO Partnership” and “Framework on Project Formulation for People’s Participation in Rural Development Activities” be adopted by the participants to the National Workshop;

2. That the abovementioned documents be presented:

a) To Secretary Fulgencio S. Factoran, Jr., as Chairman of Cabinet Cluster (A) on Agro-Industrial Development for adoption by the said Cabinet Cluster and to other relevant Cabinet Clusters for consideration;

b) To the Caucus of Development NGOs and other NGOs and POs;

c) To UNDP. FAO, and other donor agencies for consideration in the evaluation of projects for assistance.

3. That a task force be formed from among the workshop participants to operationalize the framework, preferably in Region XI, and to pursue follow-up actions.

Proposed Project Ideas for Possible GO-NGO-PO Follow-up Action


1. Training Program for Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries

2. Tripartite Partnership Program on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development in Antique, Zambales and Camarines Sur

3. Capability-Building Development Program for Field Officers and Staff of DAR

4. Monitoring and Evaluation of the Agrarian Reform Program and Related Support Services

5. Establishment of DAR NGO Desk

6. Inter-Cooperative Rice Trading

1. New Village Settlement Project in Nagcarlan, Laguna
2. Integrated Social Forestry Revolving Fund
3. Integrated Forest Fire Management
4. Rattan Project in Palawan
5. Tenurial Security in the Uplands
Regional Development Council
1. Low-Income Municipality Development Program in Region XI (DA/DENR/NEDA/ ASDAR Joint Program)

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