### Appendix 1 Valuing the production of large ruminants

The annual value of large ruminant production (TVL) can be estimated using the following formula:

TVL = PV + MV + OV + DV + CV + HV

where

 DV is the value of draught power MV is the value of milk produced OV is the value of offspring produced DV is the value of manure, and MeV is the value of meat produced HV is the value of hides produced.

PV = t × pP

where

t is the time spent performing draught work in days, and
pP is the price of draught work per hour (excluding the cost of labour).

It would be expected that at peak times of use the price of draught power would be greater than at other times. therefore any price must be an estimate of the overall price of draught power throughout the year.

MV = qM × pM

where

qM is the quantity of milk produced
pM is the price of milk.

DV= n × qD × pD

where

n is the number of animals
qD is the quantity of manure produced per animal in kilograms, and
pD is the price per kilogram of the manure.

MeV = qC × pC

where

qC is the quantity of large ruminant meat produced, and
pC is the price of meat per kilogram.

HV = qH × pH

where

qH is the number of hides produced, and
pH is the price per hide.

Costs of keeping large ruminants

The annual cost of keeping large ruminants (CL) can be calculated using the formula:

CL = n × (g + h + t + v)

where

 n is the number of animals g is the cost of feed per animal h is the cost of housing t is the cost of tending and in the case of draught animals of training each animal, and v is the cost of maintaining a draught animals health.