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Marilyn Headley

Owen Evelyn



Economic policy

Jamaica operates as a mixed, free market economy with state enterprises, as well as private sector business. Supported by multinational financial institutions, Jamaica has, since the early 1980s, sought to implement structural adjustment policies aimed at fostering private sector activity and increasing the role of market forces in resource allocation. During this period, emphasis has been placed on maintaining a strict fiscal discipline, a greater openness to trade and financial flows, market liberalization and a reduction in the size of government. Some very broad information about Jamaica is given in Box 1.

Box 1: Key statistics for Jamaica

Independent country since 1962.

Surface area: 1 096 416 hectares (including islands)

Latitude: 17o 30" to 18o 45" North

Elevation to 2 256 meters

Mean annual rainfall: 75 to 500 centimetres

Population (1997): 2 557 000

GNP/capita (1997): $1 550

Total natural forest area (1998); 316 933 ha.

Other wooded lands (1998); 204 307 ha.

Plantation area (1998); 8 187 ha.

Annual deforestation (1989-1998); 0.1%

Major sectors of the economy include agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and tourism, as well as the insurance and financial services. Between 1986 and 1990, the economy grew in real terms at an average annual rate of 4.9% before slowing to 1% between 1991 and 1995. While positive performance continued in some of the main goods producing sectors, particularly agriculture and mining, difficulties in the manufacturing sector, as well as negative growth in the financial and insurance services sector, limited overall growth for the remainder of the 1990's.

On the social side, the rural drift to urban centres persists and the erosion of the standard of living of most Jamaicans as a result of prolonged structural adjustment programmes, has led to the emergence of the 'working poor'.

In an attempt to address the issues of poverty and social decay, the Government has started a National Poverty Eradication Programme, with a Social Investment Fund of US$50 million financed largely from a World Bank loan. The recently developed Project for Resettlement and Integrate Development of Enterprises (PRIDE), intended to address inappropriate land use and squatter settlements, has been impacting favourably on the target groups concerned.

With respect to the issue of governance, the Local Government Reform Programme which started in 1990 has been proceeding satisfactorily. Through the programme, attempts are being made to restore to local Parish Councils most of the functions and responsibilities which were handled by them prior to centralization in the 1980's.

Importance of forests

Jamaica is blessed with abundant sloping land and steep mountainous countryside, originally covered with dense forest and vegetation. Over the years, these forests and woodland areas have been subjected to various impacts and pressures which have threatened their existence and their ability to contribute to the country's socio-economic development and the maintenance of the environment.

Some factors contributing to the decline of the forest resource include population growth, agricultural expansion, shifting cultivation and mining, land clearing for housing and the consumption of wood for energy. The decline was evidenced by obvious deforestation particularly in upper watershed areas, reduced water quality and yield, soil erosion and a general deterioration of the environment.

The contribution that the forest makes to sustainable human development in this country can be at three levels :

At the local level, our forests:

­  regulate water supplies;

­  prevent or reduce natural disasters caused by flooding and land slides;

­  support food production through the use of yam sticks, fence posts and fish pots;

­  indirectly maintain soil fertility for agriculture and the regulation of micro-climate;

­  provide shelter and materials for construction and household use, especially in rural areas;

­  provide the wood fuel requirements for large numbers of people in both rural and urban areas;

­  provide income-generating activities in wood harvesting and transport, small-scale wood processing activities, non-wood product harvesting and processing, and nature-related tourism; and

­  provide for cultural and aesthetic values important to society.

At the national level, our forests:

­  increase the development potential of rural areas and decrease the need for rural-urban migration;

­  provide opportunities for the development of a wide range of both wood and non-wood-based industries;

­  provide for the creation of employment opportunities in the various phases of the production and marketing chain and for earning export revenues to improve the balance of payments;

­  provide a source of renewable energy;

­  enhance environmental stability and security; and

­  provide possibilities for recreation and related services for local use and for the expansion of the tourist industry.

At the global level, our forests:

­  act as sinks and reservoirs for carbon released from the burning of fossil and organic fuels which would otherwise enter the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas;

­  play an important role in the regulation of global climatic conditions;

­  have a key role in maintaining the biological diversity of plants and animals.

Successive governments have been aware of the adverse impacts and problems encountered by the forestry sector. Some of these problems are documented in two early reports, one in 1886 by Hooper7 and the other by Wimbush8 in 1935. Both reports served to highlight the problems that existed in those times. It was against this background that in 1942 the Forestry Department (FD) was created.

Modest attempts to resolve some of the problems associated with deforestation have included tree planting. Projects of this nature have been undertaken by the FD since its inception. Reforestation activities peaked during the period 1974 to 1977 when 3 000 hectares of plantations were established under a project supported by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

Largely based on the success of this project, plans were made to expand the programme on commercial lines commencing in 1979 with the establishment of the Forest Industries Development Company (FIDCO). However the reforestation activities were abandoned following Hurricane Gilbert in 1988 which destroyed most of the poorly managed immature stands.

Undaunted by this catastrophe, the government requested the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to provide assistance in its plans to rehabilitate and develop the dwindling forest resources of the country on a sustainable basis. The main output of this work was the preparation of a National Forestry Action Plan (NFAP) in 1990. The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) took the lead role in its preparation, supported by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and Overseas Development Agency/United Kingdom (ODA/UK).

Since then, the government has been implementing some of the priority activities in that Plan. Two important constraints to sustainable forestry development are now being addressed. The first is the lack of detailed information on the extent, composition and condition of the forest resource without which, it has not been possible to make realistic short and longer term plans. The second constraint is the institutional limitations of the sector particularly with respect to legislation, policy framework and a decline in the strength and capacity of the Forestry Department.

These activities are being facilitated with support from CIDA's Trees For Tomorrow Project which started in 1992, and from a two-year UNDP-funded initiative, Forestry Capacity (Bridging) Project, which started in July 1998.


The most recent assessment of forest cover and land use in Jamaica is based on LANDSATTM satellite imagery acquired in 1996 and 1998, combined with aerial and ground reconnaissance. The work was conducted by the Forestry Department, with the support of the CIDA-funded Trees for Tomorrow Project. The assessment provided databases and maps (at scales of 1:100 000 and 1:250 000) showing land use, forest cover, watersheds, protected areas, reforestation potential and critical areas for protection and conservation.

Details of the system for classifying land use and forest cover is documented in Table 1 below. Land use/forest cover is divided into three broad classes: forest, mixed and non-forest. Each of the three classes is further divided into several sub-classes which provide the detailed land use/forest cover description. The Forest classification includes undisturbed and disturbed broadleaved forests, open dry forests, swamp and mangrove as well as bamboo areas. The mixed classification is composed of forest sub-classes where anthropogenic activities take place. Wholly cultivated lands, water bodies, urban and industrial areas, etc. make up the non-forest classification.

Over 30% of Jamaica, approximately 335 900 hectares, is classified as Forest (see Figure 1). 80% or about 88 000 hectares is closed broadleaved forest with a closed canopy and minimal human disturbance. Most of the remaining forest is "disturbed broadleaved" (showing varying degrees of human disturbance) or natural dry open forest. Although the latter is often referred to as woodland or scrub, dry limestone forests are a key component of Jamaica's forest ecology and economy.

Table 1: Definitions of land use and forest cover types used in broad inventory

Source: Forestry Department, December 1999

Just over 30% of the country is classed as Mixed use. These are areas of disturbed broadleaved forest mixed with another land use/forest cover, i.e. Pine plantation, agricultural field, bauxite extraction sites or bamboo.

The remaining 39% of the area of Jamaica is classified as Non-forest and consists of wholly cultivated areas, water bodies, bare rock, bauxite mines, and buildings/other infrastructure.

Note on classification of Primary Forest: Primary Forest refers not only to closed broadleaved forest but includes "open" (dry) forests that have not been disturbed. LANDSATTM imagery cannot differentiate between the short dry and the tall dry "open" forests. This level of classification can be done using aerial photographs and related fieldwork.

For the purposes of identifying protection status, areas are considered "protected" if they fall into one or more of the following categories:

­  forest reserve declared by or under the Forest Act;

­  national park declared under the Natural Resources Conservation Authority Act;

­  game reserve or bird sanctuary protected under the Wildlife Protection Act;

­  other protected areas designated under the Natural Resources Conservation Authority Act or the Forest Act.

Figure 2 shows the forested area distribution by forest type and protection status. The forest classification encompasses approximately 335 900 hectares. Of this, almost 64% is unprotected and comprises privately owned and Crown lands. A laudable proportion of classified forest land is designated as protected: almost 30% of all forests, and over 70% of closed broadleaved forest. The largest category of forest area in Figure 2. is unprotected disturbed broadleaved forest (approximately 158 000 hectares).

Although much of Jamaica's forest is ostensibly protected, Figure 3. Indicates that serious encroachment of forest reserves (including the Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park) has occurred. More than 20% of land within forest reserves has been impacted by human activity and is classed as disturbed broadleaved forest with another land use. Over one-third of all forest reserves and other protected areas has been significantly disturbed.

The responsibility for the management of mangroves was not addressed in the Forest Act, 1996. The Act will have to be amended to include these ecologically and economically important coastal forests.

Figure 1: Proportion of Jamaica covered by forests

Figure 2: Forest area by type and protection status

Figure 3: Present land use within forest reserves

There is no doubt that deforestation and forest degradation are occurring in Jamaica. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) defines deforestation as change of forest with depletion of crown cover to less than 10%. Degradation refers to changes in forest composition which negatively affect the site and lower the productive capacity. The FAO State of the World's Forests for 1997 reports that the annual rate of deforestation in Jamaica between 1990 and 1995 was 7.2%. However, if the rates of deforestation which FAO has reported since 1990 for Jamaica were correct, there would be very little forest left today and certainly not the areas reported above.

Estimation of deforestation rates in Jamaica has been confounded by inconsistent land classification systems and questionable extrapolation of limited data. The Forestry Department with the support of the CIDA-funded Trees for Tomorrow Project has just concluded a vegetation change analysis using 1989 and 1998 LANDSATTM imagery and has found the annual rate of change to be 0.1% between the two periods. A detail report on the methodology used and the extent of the field checks will be completed by May 2000.

In the future, reliable information at a more detailed management level will be provided by periodic biophysical re-inventory.

Prior to Hurricane Gilbert in 1988, plantations of Caribbean Pine (Pinus caribaea) in Jamaica covered approximately 11 250 hectares. The Hurricane reduced the extent of these plantations to less than half. An inventory carried out in 1990, two years after the hurricane, reported a total of 5 172 hectares of Caribbean Pine: 4 416 hectares formed the Forest Industries Development Company (FIDCO) estates and the balance (756 hectares) was non-FIDCO plantations. The present extent of Pine plantations is estimated at around 4 300 hectares9 and they are located mainly in the Eastern Region with a few smaller areas in the Central Region. Caribbean Pine is the dominant species with other Pine species making up approximately 5% of total areas.

By 1983 FIDCO was managing an established 572 hectares of hardwood plantations, mainly Mahoe, Teak, Eucalyptus and Honduras Mahogany, in the Eastern and Central Regions. Up to the same year, the Forestry Department established 3 309 hectares of hardwood plantations throughout Jamaica. Mahoe and Honduras Mahogany accounted for 40 and 45% respectively of trees planted. Other species included Cedar, Santa Maria, Teak, Jamaican Mahogany and Broadleaf.

The extent of plantations established by bauxite companies (as part of land rehabilitation) and other government agencies is not known, nor the extent of privately owned plantations.

Table 2: Estimate of total volume of Jamaican forests

Forest Lands

Volume (1) (2) (3)

Area (4)



m3 / ha*



Natural Forests


Closed Broadleaf


88 231

14 558 033

Disturbed Broadleaf


178 625

17 862 450

Open Dry [Tall & Short]


54 102

2 705 120

Swamps and Mangroves


11 978

898 350

Disturbed Broadleaf and Fields


165 954

8 297 690

Sub-Total Natural Forests


498 889

44 321 643

Forest Plantations




4 287

1 110 307



3 900

760 500

Sub-Total Forest Plantations


8 187

1 870 807



507 076

46 192 450

*m3 / ha = cubic metres per hectare


(1) Total volume for timber production (All species, volume over bark of free bole, DBH => 10 cm)

(2) Based on: UNDP/FAO (1969-72), Swedforest Consulting (1981), Jonhson et al (1981), Jacyna/FIDCO (1981), Evelyn/FIDCO (1982), Silvi Nova (1990), Forestry Department (1999).

(3) Rotation for Forest Plantations: Pines (20 years, Site class 3), Hardwoods (30 years).

(4) Forest areas from LANDSATTM 1996-98 interpretation (Forestry Department, 1998-99), except for hardwoods plantations area (Forestry Department, 1982).

(5) Estimate for main forest types (not included: Bamboo, Mixed types dominated by other landuse types); merchantable volume is 50% to 75% of total volume (UNDP/FAO, 1972; Swedforest consulting, 1981).

Source: Compiled by Forestry Department, December 1999

The total volume of Jamaican forests has not been estimated previously. The values in Table 2 represent the first ever attempt at estimating the total volume of standing timber in the country. The forest lands have been categorized according to the forest cover classification discussed above. The volume calculations are based on the per hectare volumes of different forest types, as reported in a number of studies10, and the area of the forest type. Because the true volume per hectare is itself an estimate, the total volumes reported in Table 2 should be viewed as providing an order-of-magnitude of the volume of the country's standing timber.

The Forestry Department, assisted by Trees for Tomorrow Project, is presently in the process of performing a broad national inventory. A biophysical inventory has begun in one watershed and volume calculations will be undertaken based on the data collected.


The decentralized nature of the sawmilling industry makes it difficult to collect lumber production figures. One report approximated total production by estimating the capacity of approximately 120 permanent sawmills and adding the estimated output from numerous portable chainsaws.11 Thus, in 1993, annual production was estimated at 59 000 cubic metres of hardwoods and 3 000 cubic metres of softwoods.

In the past few years there has been an increase in the number of chainsaw mills. These highly portable chainsaws can be taken deep into the forest to extract and convert timber trees previously considered inaccessible. The number of portable operations and their production levels cannot be estimated with accuracy.

The quantity of lumber produced legally from state-owned lands can be estimated from total wood volumes on cutting licenses issued by the Forestry Department and the application of an appropriate recovery rate. The recorded amount of timber taken from state-owned lands in recent years is less than 500 cubic metres per year and no estimates are available for the volume of timber illegally removed.

Little information is available about private sector logging and sawmilling in Jamaica: for example, the number of permanent and portable sawmill operations, sources and costs of roundwood, logging and transport costs, lumber production levels and costs, and selling prices.

What is known is that in recent years the supply of timber (legally obtained) from state- owned lands has declined. The bulk of the log supply is from private land, originating from land clearing activities and direct timber sales.12 Logs are mostly purchased directly by sawmill owners, but there are some independent log buyers. There is probably a significant volume of owner-felled and sawn timber for personal consumption and/or sale.

In 1997 lumber imports amounted to approximately 135,950 cubic metres with a CIF value of J$1.576 billion (see Table 3 below).

Table 3: Softwood and hardwood lumber imports to Jamaica, 199713

Species / Product

Volume (m3)

CIF Value J$


Rough coniferous, treated

22 378

229 851 937


Other rough coniferous


3 441 428


Pitch Pine, sawn

41 166

438 211 709


Other coniferous

57 800

649 034 384


Pattern stock, coniferous

4 101

59 054 212


Softwoods - Total

125 648

1 379 593 670


Rough Mahogany treated


10 317 160


Other non-coniferous, treated


21 677


Caribbean cedar


25 981 471




2 933 124



1 555

49 608 508


Other sawn non-coniferous

2 491

22 450 793


Pattern stock - non-coniferous


14 102 092


Railway or tramway sleepers

3 902

66 362 760


Hardwoods - Total

10 281

191 777 585

Source: Statistical Institute of Jamaica. 1997. External Trade. Part II.

Table 4 estimates 1997 national lumber consumption by combining the 1993 estimates of domestic production, adjusted by annual population growth rate14, with 1997 import data. There is a greater dependence on imported softwood lumber, while self-sufficiency for hardwoods is higher. Overall, local production satisfies about 32% of total lumber demand. Softwood lumber imports since the early 1980s have steadily increased, however a upward trend for hardwood lumber imports cannot be identified.

Table 4: Estimated annual demand for lumber in 1997


Actual Imports


Estimated Local

Production (m3) (adjusted by population growth)

Estimated Total



125 650

3 140

128 790


10 300

61 700

72 000


135 950

64 840

200 790

Source: Developed from data in External Trade (var. issues), Statistical Institute of Jamaica and Campbell (1993)

Softwood lumber is used primarily in construction while hardwood lumber is used for furniture making and for private house and shed building. The majority of furniture for the domestic market is made from locally produced hardwoods. A limited amount of quality reproduction period pieces are produced for the export furniture market, these are made exclusively from hardwoods.

The local hardwood is also used to make fences, pallets, boxes and crates, coffins and yam sticks. Annual production of yam sticks, of 3 to 4 metres in length and 6 to 8 cm in diameter, has been estimated at around 15 million sticks. This corresponds to an annual roundwood consumption of 150 000 cubic metres. As hardwood species (sweetwood, maiden plum, wild coffee and redwood) are preferred for yam sticks, extensive production of yam sticks will have a negative impact on natural regeneration of forests in the yam-growing areas of Jamaica.


Wood and wood energy

While it is undisputed that fuelwood and charcoal production is currently the largest users of forest biomass in Jamaica, no recent survey data is available with respect to consumption and production. Charcoal use remains widespread at the urban and rural levels for both households and the commercial sector, especially by the "jerk" food vendors.

Fuelwood consumed through direct burning is still used as a cooking fuel in rural areas by low income households. The most recent comprehensive household energy survey15 estimated national monthly wood consumption at 1 050 tonnes. The sugar factories utilise wood (in addition to bagasse, oil and grid electricity) for their energy needs and wood is also used in the construction industry as a fuel source for melting tar used for roofing, as well as bakeries, lime kilns, and brick and ceramic factories.

A study carried out in 198816 estimated charcoal demand at 60 000 tonnes per year, including commercial usage, and projected future demand to increase at the annual population growth rate of 1.6%. An assessment17 of the bioenergy sector in Jamaica carried out in 1992 by the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica, put charcoal production at 37 000 tonnes per year. This figure was based on a survey of 10% of all charcoal producers which the 1992 assessment reckoned to be about 2 500 Island wide.

The difference between the 1988 estimate of charcoal demand and the 1992 estimate is significant and shows how little basic data is available about fuelwood use in Jamaica.

The number of persons engaged in charcoal production varies and is not known but it is acknowledged that new entrance into the sector is related to availability of alternative employment opportunities. The lack of control of wood access and low or zero capital requirements makes charcoal production an easy and obvious income-earning activity for the rural unemployed.

The total value of the charcoal sector varies depending on the production figure used. Based on 60 000 tonnes of production, its value at wholesale level in 1988 was calculated at J$50 million.18

Trees outside forests

Fruit tree crops, accounts for the largest percentage of trees outside forests. They are very important to the Jamaican economy in that fruits provide important nutritional supplements which impact on the quality of diets, provide a source of income for small farmers and plantation owners through the local and export markets. Fruits are used in the food processing industry and provide non-food products such as fodder, medicinal and industrial products.

Tree crops grown in Jamaica can be categorized as:

_ traditional "orchard " types viz. citrus, coffee, cocoa, and coconut;

_ traditional "non-orchard" types e.g. ackee, avocado, breadfruit, cashew, guava, june plum, mango, naseberry, otaheite apple, pawpaw, pimento, starapple, soursop, and tamarind.

In recent years, traditional non-orchard crops such as ackee, avocado, mango, and pawpaw are being cultivated in orchards, but the numbers are few. There are also small quantities of non-traditional fruit trees such as lychee and carambola which can be defined as exotic.

Many tropical non-orchard fruits are becoming scarce due to the erosion of their natural habitats. Small farmers shy away from pure stand non-traditional fruit tree production because of its long-term nature, low returns, lack of organized markets, insufficient land space and the problem of praedial larceny.

Table 5.below shows the production figures for the major fruit tree crops produced in Jamaica.

Table 5. Major fruit tree crops produced in Jamaica (1999)

Fruit tree crop

Area (ha)


10 160


13 200


10 300


17 804



Source: Policy and Planning Division, Ministry of Agriculture

A smaller percentage of trees outside of forests, can be found in urban areas. These are located on sidewalks, in parks, gardens and homes, and used mainly for shade and beautification.

There is no available information on the quantity of trees used in the urban areas.

The institutions concerned with the management and assessment of fruit trees are the Commodity Boards i.e. Cocoa, coffee, and coconut, the Rural Agricultural Development Authority (RADA) in the Ministry of Agriculture which provides extension services to farmers.

The urban forests are managed by the metropolitan and rural parks and markets authorities.

Non-wood forest products

Plant material collected from the forest is used for a variety of purposes. The principal source of materials for making hats, bags, table-mats, etc., is Jippi jappa (Carludovica palmata). Bamboo and thatch are used most often for temporary construction. Strips from the Rose Apple (Eugenia jambos) are used in the making of baskets and hampers. Wicker is widely used in furniture making. The bark from the bastard cabbage tree is used to make rope to bundle agricultural produce and for lashing poles together in temporary construction. Fern root is collected for the horticultural sector for use as a growing medium, particularly in orchid production. Mahogany bark is still collected for use as a dye.

Many trees and other forest plants are used medicinally: for example, chainy root is used in the making of restorative tonics, chewsticks are collected for cleaning teeth, nettle is steeped to make a drink rich in mineral salts and vitamins, and the extract of bitterwood bark is used as a liver tonic, for fevers and for eliminating round worm.

The Jamaican coney (Geocapromys brownii) and the wild hog are the only two mammals which are hunted and eaten by Jamaicans. Both animals are found in the deep forest and depend on this habitat for their survival. The coney is indigenous to Jamaica and is hunted mainly at Christmas when they are said to be "fat" and therefore more tasty; they are smoked prior to cooking. The wild hog was introduced to Jamaica by the Spaniards in the 16th Century.

How much of these materials and animals are removed from the forest is not known nor is there current information with respect to their relative social and economic importance. A survey (with quantity data) of the utilisation of minor forest products would provide valuable information for use in assessing forest management options.

Recreation and tourism

Ecotourism or nature tourism is directed mainly at in-country explorations of national phenomena such as mountains, streams, plant and animal diversity, compared with enjoying the beaches or sightseeing when the visitor is usually taken to see famous monuments or buildings.

There are a growing number of tourists being drawn to the natural environment in many countries. In Jamaica there are a number of environmental treasures such as the Blue and John Crow Mountains, the Blue Lagoon, Dunn's River Falls, the Coral Reefs, and the Cockpit Country which attract many visitors to the island and have been identified as potential sites for the development of ecotourism in Jamaica.

An extensive study completed in 1997 identified that the Blue and John Crow Mountains (B&JCM) have great potential for ecotourism in Jamaica. It was estimated that each year approximately 35 000 to 40 000 tourists visit the B&JCM on trips organized by tour operators. The majority of trips were simple sightseeing trips with stops at Hollywell and a coffee farm, followed by a brief drive through Kingston. Only a few of the trips included a hike to the Blue Mountain Peak. They spend approximately US$2.5-3 million per year19. Although this represents only 3.5% of all tourists who visits Jamaica, it is not apparently due to a lack of interests in ecotourism by tourists.

The survey showed that 58% of all tourists to Jamaica visited at least one nature tourism site. Table 6 shows that 46% of these visited the Dunn's River Falls, with 7.5% going to the Black River Safari.

Table 6: Nature tourism sites visited on current trip

Nature Attractions Visited in Jamaica


Percentage of Sample

Dunn's River Falls



YS Falls



Black River Safari



Other Sites



Martha Brae Falls



Montego Bay Marine Park



Rio Grande



Blue Mountain Peak



Other Sites in Blue Mountains



Cockpit Country



Bath Mineral Springs






Source : Ecotourism in the B&JCM National Park of Jamaica, West Indies - Agricultural Research Program & North Carolina A&T University, School of Agriculture.

Tourists visiting ecotourism sites prefer full-day trips, or trips with one overnight stay. The preferred activities are day hiking, bicycling and getting out and experiencing the mountains. Unfortunately, other than the bicycle trips offered by a few companies, the most readily available activity in Jamaica is sightseeing drive-through trips.

Tourists prefer medium-sized visitors centre with information on the ecology and communities in the mountains, and on an average would be willing to pay about US$12 per person per day as an entrance fee (significantly higher than the US$3.54 suggested by the tour operators).

The study also shows that many local Jamaicans use the B&JCM for recreation, primarily day trips to get away from the heat and congestion of Kingston, and for the adventure of climbing to the top of the Blue Mountain Peak. If the facilities were improved Jamaicans would be willing to pay $120 (US$3) as an entrance fee to the park. They also prefer medium-sized visitors centre, and most prefer a rustic lodge or cabin.

The potential demand for ecotourism in the B&JCM could generate considerable revenues for the country. If tourists had been charged US$12 entrance fee the year before the study in the B&JCM National Park would have received approximately US$500 000 for the twelve months.

Watershed protection and management

The island is divided into 26 Watershed Management Units (WMUs), comprising all of the land from the mountains to the sea and containing over 100 streams and rivers. These WMUs are essentially composites of river basins which fall within (10) hydrological basins. The land in the upper part of the WMUs is characterized by steep slopes usually in excess of 20 degrees. Limestone derived soils cover about 65% of the watersheds and the remaining areas are composed of soils derived from weathered igneous and metamorphic rocks.

Jamaica's awareness of the need for soil conservation and watershed protection dates back to the 1930's. In the early 1950's, two land authorities were established, under the land Authority Act (1951). The Authorities main tasks were to rehabilitate land, check soil erosion and improve farming practices, however success was limited. .

The 1960's saw several important developments in watershed protection, with the promulgation of the "Watershed Protection Act 1963" which empowered the Minister to declare Watershed areas. The primary focus of the Act is the conservation of water resources by protecting land in or adjoining the watersheds. The Act is intended to ensure proper land use in vital watershed areas; reduce soil erosion; maintain optimum levels of ground water and promote regular flows in waterways.

With the promulgation of the Natural Resources Conservation Act in 1991 the Natural Resources Conservation Authority was created with several divisions including a Watershed Protection and Management Branch, which was vested with the management of watersheds. The Forestry Department which manages crown lands in the upper watershed areas also has responsibility for the protection of the upper watersheds.

There are several other pieces of legislation pertinent to the management of the country's watersheds. The major ones are listed below:

_ Natural Resources Conservation Authority Act (1991),

_ Forest Act (1996),

_ Rural Agricultural Development Act (1990),

_ Water Resources Act (1995),

_ Town and Country Planning Act (1988),

_ Land Development and Utilisation Act (1966),

_ Country Fires Act (1988),

_ The Mining Act (1947),

_ Wildlife Protection Act (1945).

A Green Paper (No. 2/99) entitled Towards a Watershed Policy for Jamaica has been prepared and is now in general circulation for public discussion and review. The main objective of the draft policy is to promote the integrated protection, conservation and development of land and water resources in watersheds for their sustainable use and for the benefit of the nation as a whole. The document identifies the Natural Resources Conservation Authority (NRCA) as the lead policy and monitoring agency for watershed management.

The Forestry Department is named as the implementing agency with overall responsibility for watershed protection and conservation. Additional duties as they relate to watershed management will become part of the FD's mandate.

In a recent study conducted by the NRCA with assistance from the UNDP the 26 watersheds were assessed to determine the levels of degradation. Ten were classified as high priority i.e. they are in critical condition, 7 as medium priority and the rest as low priority.


Forest policy

The earliest statement on record that could be regarded as a national forest policy recommendation is contained in Hooper's report (1886) on the forests of Jamaica. In 1935, Wimbush also reported on the forestry problems of the country with emphasis on deforestation, the protection of existing forest lands, reforestation and shelterbelts.

Although there was a gap of almost 50 years between the two reports, their policy recommendations were essentially the same ... "to reserve, demarcate, survey, and protect against fire, theft, and trespass." During this period, forest degradation escalated to the extent that the Jamaica Agricultural Society (JAS) passed a resolution expressing concern about what was described as frequent droughts and floods caused by deforestation.

In 1945, the then Conservator of Forests, Christopher Swabey20 wrote what is considered to be Jamaica's first formal Forest Policy Statement, comprised of four sections. The first section contains nine Basic Considerations which could be regarded as a list of guiding principles on which the Statement is based.

The second section deals with General Policy and the four recommendations therein are reproduced below (in bold italics) with comments on how they have since fared.

Establishment of adequate areas of forest reserves under public ownership. The present publicly owned forest reserve system owes its existence to the wisdom and foresight of the early foresters who successfully implemented this policy objective.

Development of the use of native timbers and other forest products to provide the highest possible proportion of the Island's requirements. The achievement of this policy without adequate sustainable management plans can be measured by the extent to which the closed broadleaved forests have been cleared. The demand for immature smaller trees in the form of fuelwood, posts and yam sticks is now such that the natural recovery of the forest in many of the reserves can no longer be taken for granted.

Encouragement of sound forest management on private lands. This was never achieved but as token recognition of this need, the Forestry Department has, over the years, been providing advice and free seedlings to interested farmers.

Managing the reserves on the basis of conservation and development for multiple use. Although the technical measures for managing forests on a sustainable basis are fairly well known, the forests of Jamaica are still not under sustainable management. This has been largely due to the fact that until recently, only very general estimates were available on the country's forest resource area, its location, species composition, volume, growth rates and site conditions as well as the lack of local management plans.

Although no record of the formal approval of this policy by government was traced, there appears to be little doubt that successive governments and the forestry organization accepted the above four recommendations as the national forest policy of Jamaica.

The decade of the 1980s was marked by a resurgence of interest to protect and conserve the Nation's deteriorating environment and awareness of forestry's potential role in ameliorating some of the adverse effects. Recognizing the need to revise and bring the forest policy in line with the renewed environmental dimension, two policy statements were prepared with assistance from the UNDP/FAO funded JAM/82/006 project. One policy statement was on forestry and the other was on soil conservation as part of UNDP's support in strengthening the Department of Forestry and Soil Conservation as it was then known. Two policy statements were considered necessary in view of the uncertainty at that time of the survival of both subjects under the umbrella of a single agency.

The most recent statement relating to forest policy is contained in the document entitled Forest Land Use Policy for which assent was given by Parliament in 1996. This policy sets out in the first section the areas which priority attention will be given for the purpose of managing the forest estate on a sustainable basis. These are listed below:

_ conservation and protection of forests,

_ management of forested watersheds,

_ management of forest lands,

_ promotion and regulation of forest industries,

_ forest research,

_ public awareness and environmental education,

_ forest education and training.


The Forest Law of 1937 was repealed and replaced by the Forest Act of 1996 which mandates that the Forestry Department sustainable manage all forests on Crown lands, prepare a National Forest Management and Conservation Plan and promotes the development of forests on private lands.

A set of Forest Rules (1945) is presently under revision. The final draft will be presented to the Minister for approval. When adopted, the new Forest Regulations will enable the Forestry Department to carry out its mandated functions as elaborated in the Forest Act, 1996. Among other things, the draft Regulations provide for and address:

_ approval and distribution of Forest Management Plans as well as specifying content;

_ permitted uses of roads within forest reserves and penalties for non-compliance;

_ burning permits and fire restrictions within forest reserves;

_ trespass by cattle and people;

_ conditions surrounding timber extraction from forest reserves, including the requirement for permits to transport power driven saws, sawmill licenses and permits, records to be kept by licensees, right of seizure and search, and authority of FD officers to request information;

_ illegal removal of produce from forest reserves or protected areas;

_ protection of wildlife;

_ establishment of community catchment areas;

_ incentives to encourage private forestry, including provision of technical advice, provision of tree seedlings at special rates, duty-free concessions for inputs and remission of property taxes;

_ conditions for leasing of forest reserve lands; and

_ development and management of forest reserves for recreation sites.


The Forestry Department is the lead agency in the forestry sector, as mandated in the Forest Act 1996. The other related agencies are:

_ the Natural Resources Conservation Authority (NRCA) - with responsibility for all environmental matters;

_ Rural Agricultural Development Authority ( RADA) - agricultural extension agency, inform farmers on proper land husbandry practices;

_ Water Resources Authority (WRA) - responsibly for the regulation of the island's surface and underground water sources;

_ National Water Commission (NWC) - responsible for supplying potable water. Owns and manages approximately 3000 ha of land in the Hope and Wagwater River Watersheds;

_ environmental non-government organizations - are more involved with the management of national parks'.


Following the first National Forestry Action Plan (1990) in Jamaica, the Forestry Land Use Policy and the National Land Policy were adopted in 1996 and later in 1997, the Policy for Jamaica's System of Protected Areas. A Watershed policy (Green paper) is under discussion and the Forest Regulations are at the stage of preparation. All these policies call for protection of forest ecosystems, watershed management, regulation of forest uses, public awareness, and forest research.

A new 5-year Plan (2000-2005) has been prepared in accordance with the provisions of section 16 of the Forest Act of 1996. Its development has been influenced by the number of related national plans and policies published since 1990. The Plan is presented in three parts. Part I provides background information on forest policy and law. In Part II, forestry values to society, corresponding goals and plans to achieve them are presented in a tabular format. Part III consists of the implementation strategies to be used and the coordination and monitoring arrangements. The implementation strategies include:

_ community participation and preparation of local forest management plans;

_ public education;

_ forestry research;

_ cooperative management arrangements with NGO's and other agencies and private companies;

_ forest protection;

_ forest production programme;

_ investments and incentives.


Bibliography - Vegetation of Jamaica

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Adams, C.D. and M.C. du Quesnay, 1970. "Vegetation". p. 49-119. In Woodley, J.D. (ed.). Hellshire Hills Scientific Survey. University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.

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Bellingham, P.J., Tanner, E.V.J. and J.R. Healey, 1995. "Damage and responsiveness of Jamaican montane tree species after disturbance by a hurricane". Ecology 76(8): 2562-2580.

Bellingham, P.J., Kapos, V., Varty, N., Healey, J.R., Tanner, E.V.J., Kelly, D.L., Dalling, J.W., Burns, L.S., Lee, D. and G. Sidrak, 1992. "Hurricanes need not cause high mortality: the effects of Hurricane Gilbert on forests in Jamaica". Journal of Tropical Ecology 8: 217-223.

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Coke, L.B., Bertrand, R. and S. Batchelor, 1982. "Macrophyte vegetation of the Negril and Black River morasses, Jamaica", appendix V, 29 pp. in Bjork, S. "Environmental feasibility study of peat mining in Jamaica". University of West Indies / Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica, Kingston.

Dalling, J.W. and E.V.J. Tanner, 1995. "An experimental study of regeneration on landslides in montane rain forest in Jamaica". Journal of Ecology 83: 55-64.

Dickinson, T.A. and E.V.J. Tanner, 1978. "Exploitation of Hollow trunks by Tropical trees". Biotropica 10(3):231-233.

Fuchs, F., 1992. "Field guide for the most common plants in the Hellshire Hills". Kingston, 98 p.

Gloudon, A. and C. Tobisch, 1995. "Orchids of Jamaica". The Press University of the West Indies, Kingston, 222 p.

Grossman, D.H., Iremonger, S.F. and D.M. Muchoney. 1992. "A rapid ecological assessment of Jamaica: Phase I - An Island-Wide characterisation and mapping of natural communities and modified vegetation types". The Nature Conservancy/Conservation Data Centre-Jamaica/Rural Physical Planning Unit, Arlington, Virginia, 44 p.

Grubb, P.J. and E.V.J. Tanner, 1976. "The montane forests and soils of Jamaica: a reassessment". Jour. Arnold Arb. 57: 313-368.

Healey, J.R., 1990. "Regeneration in a Jamaican montane tropical rainforest". Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, England.

Howard, R.A. and G.R. Proctor, 1957a. "The vegetation on bauxitic soils in Jamaica - Part I". Jour. Arnold Arb. 38: 1-50.

Howard, R.A. and G.R. Proctor, 1957b. "The vegetation on bauxitic soils in Jamaica - Part II". Jour. Arnold Arb. 38: 151-169.

Iremonger, S., 1992. "The high altitude forests of Jamaica: a vegetation survey". Jamaica Agricultural Development Foundation, Kingston, 12 p.

Kapos, V., 1986. "Dry limestone forests of Jamaica", pp. 49-58. in Thompson, D.A., Bretting, P.K. and M. Humphreys (eds.). "Forests of Jamaica". The Jamaican Society of Scientists and Technologists, Kingston, 162 p.

Kapos, V. and E.V.J. Tanner, 1985. "Water relations of Jamaican upper montane rain forest trees". Ecology 66(1):241-250.

Kelly, D.L., 1985. "Epiphytes and climbers of a Jamaican rain forest: vertical distribution, life forms and life histories". Journal of Biogeography 12:223-241.

Kelly, D.L., 1986. "Native forests on wet limestone in North-eastern Jamaica", pp. 31-42. in Thompson, D.A., Bretting, P.K. and M. Humphreys (eds.). "Forests of Jamaica". The Jamaican Society of Scientists and Technologists, Kingston, 162 p.

Kelly, D.L., 1988. "The threatened flowering plants of Jamaica". Biological Conservation 46:201-216.

Kelly, D.L., 1991. "The threatened flowering plants of Jamaica: a reappraisal". Jamaica Journal 1:19-26.

Kelly, D.L., Tanner, E.V.J., Kapos, V., Dickinson, T.A., Goodfriend, G.A. and P. Fairbairn, 1988. "Jamaican limestone forests: floristics, structure and environment of three examples along a rainfall gradient". Jour. Trop. Ecol. 4: 121-156.

Loveless, A.R. and G.F. Asprey, 1957. "The dry evergreen formations of Jamaica. I. The limestone hills of the south coast". Journal of Ecology 45: 799-822.

Muchoney, D.M., Iremonger, S.F. and R. Wright. 1994. A rapid ecological assessment of the Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park, Jamaica". The Nature Conservancy/Conservation Data Centre-Jamaica/Jamaica Agricultural Development Foundation-Research Programme, Arlington, Virginia, 90 p.

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Proctor, G.R., 1964. "The vegetation of the Black River morass". In Black River Morasses Reclamation Project. Appendix H, Grontmij, the Netherlands.

Proctor, G.R., 1967. "Additions to the flora of Jamaica". Bulletin of the Institute of Jamaica, Science series no. 16, Kingston, 84 p.

Proctor, G.R., 1970. "Mason River field station". Jamaica Journal 42:29-33.

Proctor, G.R., 1982. "More additions to the flora of Jamaica". Jour. Arnold Arb. 63(3): 199-315.

Proctor, G.R., 1985. "Ferns of Jamaica". British Museum (Natural History), London, 631 p.

Proctor, G.R., 1986a. "Cockpit Country and its vegetation", pp. 43-48. in Thompson, D.A., Bretting, P.K. and M. Humphreys (eds.). "Forests of Jamaica". The Jamaican Society of Scientists and Technologists, Kingston, 162 p.

Proctor, G.R., 1986b. "Vegetation of the Black River Morass", pp. 59-65. in Thompson, D. A., Bretting, P.K. and M. Humphreys (eds.). "Forests of Jamaica". The Jamaican Society of Scientists and Technologists, Kingston, 162 p.

Radenbaugh, T.A. and A.A. Seaborne, 1996. "The status of plant communities in the Duncans Bay area on Jamaica's North Coast". Caribbean Geography 7(2):97-112.

Rashford, J., 1994. "Jamaica's settlement vegetation, agroecology, and the origin of agriculture". Caribbean Geography 5(1): 32-50.

Shreve, F., 1910. "The coastal deserts of Jamaica". Plant World 13:129-134.

Shreve, F., 1914. "A montane rain forest: A contribution to the physiological plant geography of Jamaica". Carnegie Institute of Washington Publication No.199, 110 p.

Snell, R., 1991. "An assessment of forest structure and plant species diversity, distribution and abundance in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica". MSc dissertation, University of Wales, Bangor, UK.

Storer, D.P., 1958. "Familiar trees and cultivated plants of Jamaica". Institute of Jamaica, Kingston and MacMillan & Co. Ltd, London, 80 p.

Sugden, A.M., Tanner, E.V.J. and V. Kapos, 1985. "Regeneration following clearing in a Jamaican montane forest: results of a ten year study". Journal of Tropical Ecology 1: 329-351.

Swabey, C., 1941. "The principal timbers of Jamaica". Department of Science and Agriculture, Bulletin No. 20 (New Series), Kingston, 37 p.

Swabey, C., 1949. "Classification of vegetation in Jamaica". In Glimpses of Jamaican Natural History, Vol.1, pp. 56-62. Institute of Jamaica, Kingston.

Swabey, C., 1949. "Plant introductions". In Glimpses of Jamaican Natural History, Vol.1, pp. 62-65. Institute of Jamaica, Kingston.

Swabey, C., 1949. "The palm trees of Jamaica". In Glimpses of Jamaican Natural History, Vol.1, pp. 65-68. Institute of Jamaica, Kingston.

Tanner, E.V.J., 1977. "Four montane rain forests of Jamaica: a quantitative characterization of the floristics, the soils and the foliar mineral levels, and a discussion of the interrelations". J. Ecol. 65:883-918.

Tanner, E.V.J., 1980. "Studies on the biomass and productivity in a series of montane rain forests in Jamaica". J. Ecol. 68:573-588.

Tanner, E.V.J., 1980. "Litterfall in montane rain forests of Jamaica and its relation to climate". J. Ecol. 68:833-848.

Tanner, E.V.J., 1981. "The decomposition of leaf litter in Jamaican montane rain forests". J. Ecol. 69:263-275.

Tanner, E.V.J., 1982. "Species diversity and reproductive mechanisms in Jamaican trees". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 18:263-278.

Tanner, E.V.J., 1983. "Leaf demography and growth of the tree-fern Cyathea pubescens Mett. ex Kuhn in Jamaica". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 87:213-227.

Tanner, E.V.J., 1985. "Jamaican montane forests: nutrient capital and cost of growth". J. Ecol. 73:553-568.

Tanner, E.V.J., 1986. "Forests of the Blue Mountains and the Port Royal Mountains of Jamaica", pp. 15-30. in Thompson, D. A., Bretting, P. K. and M. Humphreys (eds.). "Forests of Jamaica". The Jamaican Society of Scientists and Technologists, Kingston, 162 p.

Tanner, E.V.J. and V. KAPOS, 1982. "Leaf structure of Jamaican upper montane rain-forest trees". Biotropica 14(1):16-24.

Thompson, D.A., Bretting, P.K. and M. Humphreys (eds.), 1986. "Forests of Jamaica". The Jamaican Society of Scientists and Technologists, Kingston, 162 p.

General Bibliography - Forestry in Jamaica

Agricultural Research Programme, North Carolina A&T State University, School of Agriculture, 1997. "Ecotourism in the B&JCM National Park of Jamaica, West Indies.

CADI/NRCA, 1999. "Development of a national watershed and monitoring programme, Jamaica". Technical assistance report, Fort Collins/Kingston, 24 pp + annexes.

Campbell, K., 1993. "Jamaica: The Rationalisation of Sawmills". FSCD-Ministry of Agriculture/ODA, Kingston.

Centre for Property Studies, 1998. "Case Study of Jamaica Land Management". University of New Brunswick/CIDA, 47 p. + appendices.

Chambers, M.G., 1999. "Commercial Fuelwood Plantations". National Integrated Watershed Management Programme, Kingston, 68 p.

Chambers, N., 1993. "Analysis of a Conservation Corridor and Buffer Zone for the Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park and the Port Antonio Marine Park (proposed), Jamaica". NRCA/The Nature Conservancy/UNEP, 84 p.

CRIES, 1982. "Jamaican Resource Assessment". RPPD-Ministry of Agriculture / Michigan State University-USDA-Ohio State University, Kingston, 75 p. + appendices.

Edwards, U., R.S. Jones and D. Wright, 1993. "Report on the State of Forestry in Jamaica, 1991-1993". Paper prepared for the 18th Session Latin American and Caribbean Forestry Commission, Maldonado, Uruguay, 10 p.

Evelyn, O., 1982. "An Inventory of the Hardwoods and other Pine Plantations of FIDCO's Estate in Eastern Jamaica". FIDCO, Kingston, p. 27 + appendices.

Evelyn, O., 1997. "Deforestation in Jamaica: an analysis of the data". Forest Department, Kingston, 9 p.

Eyre, L.A., 1986. Deforestation in Jamaica: Its rate and implications. Department of Geography, University of the West Indies, Kingston, 29 p.

Eyre, L.A., 1987. Jamaica: a test case for tropical deforestation. Ambio 16(6): 336-343.

Eyre, L.A., 1996. The tropical rainforests of Jamaica. Jamaica Journal 26(1): 26-37.

Follansbee, B., 1980. "Hardwood inventory interim report". Forest Department, Kingston, 10p.

Forestry Department/TFT, 1999. "Land use/cover types areas 1989 and 1998 per watershed management unit and protection status". Technical report, Kingston, 69 pp. + 1:100 000 and 1:250 000 scale colour maps.

Forestry Department, 2000. "Forest Plan - A National Forest Management and Conservation Plan for Jamaica". Kingston, (In press).

GOJ/UNDP, 1990. "Tropical Forestry Action Plan". Main report, Kingston, Jamaica.

Government of Jamaica. "Forest Act 1996". Kingston.

Government of Jamaica. "Forestry Land Use Policy 1996". Kingston.

Government of Jamaica. "Policy for Jamaica's System of Protected Areas 1997", Kingston, 47 p.

Gray, K.M. and G.A. Symes, 1969. "Forestry Development and Watershed Management in the Upland Regions of Jamaica: Forest Inventory, Part 1 - Operating Procedures". UNDP/FAO Special Fund Project, Kingston, 131 p.

Gray, K.M. and G.A. Symes, 1969. "Forestry Development and Watershed Management in the Upland Regions of Jamaica: Forest Inventory, Part 2 - Tree Volume Sub-routines". UNDP/FAO Special Fund Project, Kingston, p. 21 + appendix.

Gray, K.M. and G.A. Symes, 1972. "Forestry Development and Watershed Management in the Upland Regions, Jamaica: Forest Inventory of Jamaica". UNDP/FAO Technical Report 3, Kingston, 175 p. + maps.

Grossman, D.H., Iremonger, S.F. and D.M. Muchoney. 1992. "A rapid ecological assessment of Jamaica: Phase I - An Island-Wide characterisation and mapping of natural communities and modified vegetation types". The Nature Conservancy/Conservation Data Centre-Jamaica/Rural Physical Planning Unit, Arlington, Virginia, 44 p.

Hall, K., 1995. "FIDCO Pine Plantations Reacquisition Study". Trees for Tomorrow Project - Interim phase, Forestry Department/CIDA, Kingston, 54 p + appendices.

Hall, K., 1998. "Review of Forestry Policies in Jamaica". In Forestry Policies in the Caribbean, FAO Forestry Paper 137/2 pp. 357-379.

Headley, M.V. and D.A. Thompson, 1986. "Forest Management in Jamaica", pp. 91-96. in Thompson, D.A., Bretting, P.K. and M. Humphreys (eds.). "Forests of Jamaica". The Jamaican Society of Scientists and Technologists, Kingston, 162 p.

Jacyna, S. 1981. "Provisional Yield Tables for Blue Mahoe (Hibiscus elatus) ". FIDCO Technical report no. 3/81, Kingston, 7 p.

Jacyna, S. and D. Thompson, 1981. "A manual of procedures for permanent sample plots". FIDCO/Forestry Department, Kingston, 33 p + map.

Johnson, M.S., Alder, D. and M.E. Jefferson, 1981. "Inventory of Carib pine in central and eastern Jamaica - Report". Land Resources Development Centre/ODA, Project report 81, Surrey, UK, 61 p.

Johnson, M.S., Alder, D. and M.E. Jefferson, 1981. "Inventory of Carib pine in central and eastern Jamaica - Appendices: Area, age class and volume tables". Land Resources Development Centre/ODA, Project report 81, Surrey, UK.

Jones, R.S., 1985. "Country report on Jamaica". Paper prepared for Caribbean Development Bank Workshop in Barbados, 16 p.

Marshall, H., 1998. "Considerations for Reforestation Planning". Trees for Tomorrow Project, Forestry Department/CIDA, Kingston, 19 p.

Marshall, H., 1999. "Basis for a National Reforestation Plan". Trees for Tomorrow Project, Forestry Department/CIDA, Kingston, 39 p. + appendices.

McKenzie, A. C. and P. Barrett, 1997. "Protected areas management in Jamaica". In Protected Areas Management Proceedings of the Eighth Meeting of Caribbean Foresters at Grenada, June 3-7, 1996, Rio Pedras, Puerto Rico, USDA/Forest Service/IITF, pp. 66-69.

Miller, D.J., 1998. Invasion of the Cockpits: Patterns of Encroachment into the Wet Limestone Rainforest of Cockpit Country, Jamaica. p. 373-389 in McGregor, D.F.M., Barker, D. and S. Lloyd Evans (eds). Resource Sustainability and Caribbean Development. The Press University of the West Indies, Kingston, 408 p.

Ministry of mining and Energy. "1989 Household Energy Survey". Kingston.

Muchoney, D.M., Iremonger, S.F. and R. Wright. 1994. A rapid ecological assessment of the Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park, Jamaica". The Nature Conservancy/Conservation Data Centre-Jamaica/Jamaica Agricultural Development Foundation-Research Programme, Arlington, Virginia, 90 p.

NRCA/Ministry of Environment & Housing, 1999. "Towards a Watershed Policy for Jamaica". Green Paper No. 2/99, Kingston, 21 p.

NRCD/RMFA, 1987. "Jamaica Country Environmental Profile". IIED/USAID, Kingston, 361 p.

Porter, K., Balmer, W. and J. Hansen, 1989. "Fuelwood and Energy". National Forestry Action Plan, Kingston, p. 25 + appendices.

Potopsingh, R. 1992. "Bioenergy Resources Assessment Study". Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica, Kingston.

Rainford, O., 1996. "The Status of Mined and Rehabilitated Bauxite Lands". Jamaica Bauxite Institute, Kingston, p.10 + appendices.

Rees, T.I.,1963. "Unpublished forest inventory data, Jamaica". JA/FAO/103.

Roper, J., 1997."An Overview of Reforestation in Jamaica". Trees for Tomorrow Project - Interim phase, Forestry Department/CIDA, Kingston, 37 p. + appendices.

Silvi Nova AB, 1990. "Forest Inventory of the FIDCO pine plantations - Jamaica". Final Report, Sweden, 23 p. + 5 appendices.

Silvi Nova AB, 1990. "Manual for Forest Inventory of the FIDCO pine plantations, Jamaica". FIDCO, Kingston, 22 p. + appendices.

Statistical Institute of Jamaica. "Statistical Yearbook of Jamaica 1997". Kingston.

Swedforest Consulting AB, 1981. "The hardwood sawmill project - A. First Stage-Wood Supply". General report + appendices 6-15 + maps. FIDCO/Forest Departement, Kingston.

Swedforest Consulting AB, 1981. "The hardwood sawmill project - A. First Stage-Wood Supply". Appendices 1-5 [Volumes, height curves, data processing, field manual, statistics]. FIDCO/Forest Department, Kingston.

Thompson, D.A., Bretting, P.K. and M. Humphreys (eds.), 1986. "Forests of Jamaica". The Jamaican Society of Scientists and Technologists, Kingston, 162 p.

Thompson, D.A., Wright, D.L. and O, Evelyn, 1986. "Forest Resources in Jamaica", pp. 81-90. in Thompson, D.A., Bretting, P.K. and M. Humphreys (eds.). "Forests of Jamaica". The Jamaican Society of Scientists and Technologists, Kingston, 162 p.

UNDP/World Bank. 1988. "Jamaica Charcoal Production Project". Energy sector management assistance program, activity completion report no. 090/88, 70 pp. + annexes.

WRA, 1990. "Water Resources Development Master Plan". Kingston.

7 Hooper, E.D.M. 1886. Report Upon the Forests of Jamaica. Waterlow and Sons Limited, Printers. London.

8 Wimbush, A. 1935. Report on the Forestry Problems of Jamaica.

9 Plantation is defined as areas with more than 50 Pine trees per hectare.

10 UNDP/FAO (1969-1972), Swedforest Consulting (1981), Johnson et al (1981), Jacyna/FIDCO (1981), Evelyn/FIDCO (1982), Silvi Nova (1990), Forestry Department (1999).

11 Campbell, Keith. March 1993. Jamaica: The Rationalisation of Sawmills. Report prepared for the Forestry and Soil Conservation Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of Jamaica.

12 Most of the timber from private land is legitimately purchased. The degree of illegal removal of trees from private and state owned lands is not known.

13 The Statistical Institute of Jamaica. 1997 External Trade. Part II. Kingston, Jamaica.

14 Statistical Institute of Jamaica. Statistical Yearbook of Jamaica 1997. (approx. 1.1% per year between 1994 to 1997)

15 The Ministry of Mining and Energy. 1989 Household Energy Survey.

16 Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program. September 1988. Jamaica Charcoal Production Study.

17 Potopsingh, Ruth. 1992. Bioenergy Resources Assessment Study. Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica, Kingston.

18 Applying annual CPIs published by STATIN, this J$50 million is the equivalent of J$550 in 1997 dollars.

19 These are lower bound figures since a few operators may not have been included in the survey, and it does not include tourists visiting the B&JCM on their own (e.g. in rental cars)

20 Swabey, Christopher. 1945. Forestry in Jamaica. Forestry Bulletin No. 1. Forest Department, Jamaica.

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