Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission
Regional training strategy:
supporting the implementation of the code of practice for forest harvesting in Asia-Pacific


The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Senior Forestry Officer, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 39 Phra Atit Road, Bangkok, Thailand.

Cover photos : Sarawak Timber Association and Thomas Enters

For copies of the report, write to:

Patrick B. Durst
Senior Forestry Officer
FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
39 Phra Atit Road
Bangkok 10200
Tel:(66-2) 697 4000
Fax: (66-2) 697 4445

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
Bangkok, Thailand

ISBN 974-88439-5-5


For the past several years, member countries of the Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission (APFC) have directed their efforts at achieving sustainable forest management. An important milestone was reached with the development of the Code of Practice for Forest Harvesting in Asia-Pacific. The Code encourages environmentally-sound forest harvesting throughout the region. The public and private sectors have responded positively to the Code, and many countries have developed national codes. However, although the need for change is acknowledged widely, most countries face considerable difficulties in achieving higher standards in forest harvesting. In many countries, logging and supervisory personnel are insufficiently prepared to put the Code into practice.

Providing training to increase the skill levels of forest harvesting operators is not a new idea. Most employees are informally instructed and learn on the job. In addition, many projects have provided training courses for field-level workers over the last decade or longer. However, most efforts have been uncoordinated and conducted in the absence of thorough needs assessments. As a result, the impact of the training has been disappointing. What has been lacking in the past is a cohesive strategy for improving forest harvesting practices through a structured and systematic approach to training and education of industry and forest agency personnel at all levels.

The Regional Training Strategy has been developed by the APFC ad hoc Working Group on Sustainable Forest Management to lay the foundation for a comprehensive effort to build a skilled and trained workforce with the ability to implement the Code. It provides guidance for developing training activities and encourages collaboration among countries, to avoid the hitherto duplication of efforts. FAO is pleased to have contributed to the formulation of this strategy and we hope that it will ultimately result in the application of the necessary harvesting standards for the benefit of the region's forests and its people.

Assistant Director-General and
Regional Representative for Asia and the Pacific
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations


Numerous organizations and individuals contributed to the development of the Regional Training Strategy, including providing support for the “Regional Workshop to Develop a Training Strategy.” They deserve to be thanked and acknowledged:

Green Tropics International (GTI) for coordinating and facilitating the process of developing this Regional Training Strategy and drafting the document

Ministry of Forestry (MOF, Indonesia) for organizing and hosting the workshop

The Ad Hoc Working Group for Sustainable Forest Management of the Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission (APFC) for providing the secretariat and logistical support

Japan International Forestry Promotion and Cooperation Center (JIFPRO), USDA Forest Service and MOF (Indonesia) for providing financial support

The ITTO Pre-project “Strengthening Sustainable Management of Natural Forests in Asia-Pacific” for providing additional support

Patrick Durst of FAO/RAP for useful guidance and moral support

I.G.M. Tantra of MOF (Indonesia) for his leadership role in the workshop

Benni H. Sormin of MOF (Indonesia) and Borhanuddin bin Hj. Arshad of the Forestry Department, Peninsular Malaysia for chairing workshop group sessions

Peter C.S. Kho of the Sarawak Timber Association (STA) and Augustine Lumanghkun of the Tanjung Pura University for serving as rapporteurs

Grahame Applegate of the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) for providing valuable leads to information relevant to the development of the Regional Training Strategy and for his incisive critique of the draft.

Nunuk Supritanto of Gadjah Mada University for valuable background papers on training strategy development

Robin Leslie and Thomas Enters for their editorial support for this document


AFFADepartment of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry - Australia
ANFEAsian Network for Forestry Education
APFCAsia-Pacific Forestry Commission
AusAIDAustralian Agency for International Development
CDCompact disk
CIFORCenter for International Forestry Research
COLPCode of Logging Practices
CPFHCode of Practice for Forest Harvesting
DFIDDepartment for International Development (UK)
FAOFood and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FAO/RAPFAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
GTZDeutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit
ITTOInternational Tropical Timber Organization
JICAJapan International Cooperation Agency
JIFPROJapan International Forestry Promotion and Cooperation Center
MOFMinistry of Forestry (Indonesia)
NCIUNational Coordinating and Implementing Unit
NGONon-governmental organization
PIFTSPPacific Islands Forests & Trees Support Programme
RCIURegional Coordinating and Implementing Unit
RILReduced impact logging
RTCTRegional Training Course for Trainers
SFMSustainable forest management
SWOTStrengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
TNATraining needs assessment
UNDPUnited Nations Development Programme
USAIDUnited States Agency for International Development
USDA/FSUnited States Department of Agriculture/Forest Service

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The need for a training strategy to support the Code implementation

Previous training efforts in support of Code implementation

The need for a comprehensive training strategy

Regional training strategy



The regional training strategy

Key training target groups

Actions required to meet the objectives of the training strategy

Advantages of the proposed regional training strategy

Implementation of the regional training strategy

Coordinating and implementing mechanism

Design and development of CD-based training materials

Development and organization of the RTCT

Selection of national trainers to be trained

Selection of training specialists

Development of the course design

Selection of host institutions and course venues

Course implementation

Course evaluation

Development and organization of in-country courses

Identification and prioritization of stakeholder groups to be trained

Assessment of the training needs of priority stakeholders

Preparation of course designs or plans for stakeholders

Preparation of training materials

Formation of support staff groups

Selection of course venues

Implementation of courses

Course evaluation

Integration of the Code in formal forest harvesting and silvicultural courses

Sharing of training resources

Funding the implementation of the training strategy


Appendix 1 Identifying training groups for Code implementation

Appendix 2 Training needs assessment (TNA)

Appendix 3 Establishing training objectives based on TNA

Appendix 4 Pro forma training modules