Forests cover 41 percent of the total land area of the Republic. Slovakia is highly dependent on energy importation, as a matter of fact in 1994 the country imported around 90 percent of its total energy consumption. Biomass available resources are estimated to be around 7.8PJ from forestry, 12.4 from wood processing industry, 4.3 from Short Rotation Forestry and 6.4PJ from agricultural residues. But, only 30 percent of them were really utilised in 1997.
A. INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS
A.1. POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND PROJECTS
In February 1998 a new law on energy management was adopted in Slovakia (Act n°70/1998). This act was created as an attempt to unify energy industry regulation in Slovakia. Before the adoption of this act, the energy industry was ruled by a combination of energy laws developed under a central planned economy, permitting only State enterprises to undertake business activities in the energy sector. Its main purpose was to liberalise business activities in the energy sector38.
ENERGY CENTRE BRATISLAVA - ECB is responsible for international co-operation with the objective of implementing EU projects in Slovakia. The Centre is in the process of changing its legal status towards the establishment of the ECB Association. The association will implement its objectives in the rational use of energy including encouragement of and utilisation of RE.
The above-mentioned Act n°70/1998 allowed the harmonisation of Slovak energy legislation with EU standards. There is no consumer tax on energy however there is a value-added tax of 6% added for all basic kinds of primary fuel. The same tax is imposed on energy services.
At present no ecological tax is imposed on heat or electricity production in Slovakia.
38 Energy Centre Bratislava - "DH in Slovakia - sectoral profile", Dec. 1998