THE STATE
OF FOOD
AND
AGRICULTURE
2001

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2001


Table of Contents

Foreword
Glossary
Explanatory note


PART I
World review

I. CURRENT AGRICULTURAL SITUATION – FACTS AND FIGURES

1. Crop and livestock production
2. International agricultural prices
3. World cereal supply situation and outlook
4. Food shortages and emergencies
5. Food aid flows
6. External assistance to agriculture
7. Fisheries: production and trade
8. Production and trade of forest products

II. THE GLOBAL ECONOMY AND AGRICULTURE

World economic environment
Commodity prices
Medium-term prospects for agriculture in developing countries
Countries highly dependent on agricultural trade

III. SELECTED ISSUES

THE FUTURE OF THE AGRICULTURAL TRADING ENVIRONMENT: ISSUES IN THE CURRENT ROUND OF NEGOTIATIONS ON AGRICULTURE

Introduction
“Traditional” issues concerning the Agreement on Agriculture
Market access
Export competition
Domestic support
Non-trade concerns
Multifunctional role of agriculture
Food security
Development issues and special and differential treatment
Conclusions

THE COST OF HUNGER

Introduction
Undernutrition
Child undernutrition
The impact of nutrition on labour productivity
The impact of nutrition on health
The impact of nutrition on school performance
The impact of nutrition on economic growth
Conclusions

NOTES


PART II
Regional review

I. AFRICA

Regional overview
General economic performance
Agricultural performance
Agricultural commodity prices
The HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa
Introduction
The economic and social impact of HIV/AIDS
The impact of HIV/AIDS on the agriculture sector
Ethiopia
Introduction
Background
Undernourishment and food insecurity
Health and education
Macroeconomic conditions and policies
Agricultural situation
Policies and programmes for agricultural development and food security
Conclusion

II. ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

Regional overview
General economic performance
Agricultural performance
The Asian economic crisis and its implications for the agriculture sector
Viet Nam
The setting
Economic reforms and performance
Agriculture in the economic reform process
Current policy emphases in agriculture and rural development
Policy-related constraints to rural development
Conclusion

III. LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN

Regional overview
General economic performance
Agricultural performance
Market-based land reforms
Haiti
Introduction
Physical characteristics and resources
Economic and social development
Macroeconomic situation and policies
The agriculture sector
Agricultural prospects and policy issues
Challenges
Conclusion

IV. NEAR EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

Regional overview
General economic performance
Agricultural performance
Agricultural trade and policy reform
Water resources management

V. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE AND THE COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES

Regional overview
Macroeconomic trends and agricultural performance
GDP growth and agricultural performance: divergence between Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
Labour productivity gap between Central and Eastern Europe/CIS and OECD countries

VI. DEVELOPED MARKET ECONOMIES

Overview
General economic performance
Agricultural production
Agricultural policy changes


PART III
ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TRANSBOUNDARY PLANT PESTS AND ANIMAL DISEASES

I. OVERVIEW

A history of transboundary pest and disease control
Plant pests
Animal disease
Regions affected by selected transboundary pests and diseases

II. FACTORS DETERMINING THE LEVEL OF CONTROL

Economic factors
Political conflict
Regulatory regimes
Biological and ecological factors
Economic rationale for control
How much protection should be provided and by whom?
Control of migratory pests
Control of quarantine plant pests
Control of animal diseases

III. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TRANSBOUNDARY PESTS AND DISEASES

Types of economic impact
Production
Price and market effects
Trade
Food security and nutrition
Human health and the environment
Financial costs
Empirical studies of economic impacts
Economic impacts of transboundary migratory pests
Economic impacts of quarantine plant pests
Economic impacts of animal diseases
Impacts of control methods
Findings from the economic studies

IV. MANAGING TRANSBOUNDARY PESTS AND DISEASES AND THEIR ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Options for control
Reducing the probability of entry
Response to an introduction or outbreak
Options for managing economic impacts
Evolving and emerging issues
Increased susceptibility to outbreaks and infestations
Changed consumer and public attitudes
New surveillance and monitoring technologies
New regulatory and operational issues

V. CHOOSING AND IMPLEMENTING APPROPRIATE SOLUTIONS TO TRANSBOUNDARY PESTS AND DISEASES

Roles of local, national and international policies
Existing agreements, institutions and programmes
Private organizations and technical associations
Financing

VI. CONCLUSION

NOTES

Annex table


Editing, design and desktop publishing:
Editorial Group
FAO Information Division

ISBN 92-5-104600-X

The designations employed and the presentation of material do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. In some tables, the designations "developed countries" and "developing countries" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily reflect a judgement of the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.

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© FAO 2001