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NATIVE CHICKEN

As indicated in the previous section and in Chapter 1 of this report native chicken - or indigenous chicken - are an important part of the poultry industry. They require almost no inputs and help to maintain hygiene in rural villages through scavenging activities. One really remarkable change has been the decline in the number of households keeping native chickens. According to information from the Direktorat Jenderal Peternakan, households with native chickens fell from over 13 million in 1973 to under 500000 by 1993 (Table 13). This fall in household numbers with native chicken was accompanied by an increase in native chicken numbers from almost 80 million to 222 million. This suggests that the raising of native chickens has become more commercial, since the average household with native chicken had about 480 birds in 1993 as compared to around six in the earlier year. Native chickens are reared throughout Indonesia, with the highest numbers being found in Java.

Table 13. Number of native chicken household 1963, 1973, 1983 and 1993

Provinces

1963(a)

1973

1983

1993(b)

DI Aceh

240575

242266

19076

31000

Sumatera Utara

625132

551784

23765

29000

Sumatera Barat

233188

250965

12011

17000

Riau

130005

140795

15505

31000

Jambi

60797

94858

9364

13000

Sumatera Selatan

541225

269426

32349

24000

Bengkuku

0

52414

3656

5000

Lampung

0

342909

16294

17000






DKI Jakarta

15740

87567

403

0

Jawa Barat

1584465

2688941

36083

44000

Jawa Tengah

2075295

3097830

64860

50000

DI Yogyakarta

244957

371217

9954

13000

Jawa Timur

2528295

3492130

44696

46000






Bali

237776

309685

14516

15000

Nusa Tenggara Barat

191605

237914

10999

9000

Nusa Tenggara Timur

236972

237492

14618

15000

Timor-Timur

0

0

335

1000






Kalimantan Barat

197438

211147

14022

18000

Kalimantan Tengah

56314

61621

7157

8000

Kalimantan Selatan

132168

106763

9326

12000

Kalimantan Timur

47579

44499

6654

11000






Sulawesi Utara

200493

165196

7567

9000

Sulawesi Tengah

0

78786

5266

8000

Sulawesi Selatan

409906

621581

22600

28000

Sulawesi Tenggara

0

56045

6268

7000






Maluku

0

51769

4207

11000

Irian Jaya

0

0

3331

8000






Indonesia


13865600

414882

480000

Notes: (a) Poultry household; (b) Preliminary figure

Source: Direktorat Jenderal Peternakan (1996), p 57.

According to official statistics, Indonesia’s population of native chickens increased by about 74% between 1985 and 1997. Many provinces (for example Lampung, Nusa Tenggara Timur and Kalimantan Barat) more than doubled their numbers. However, obtaining an accurate census of native chickens would not be easy and so there must be some doubt about the growth in numbers reported for 1985 to 1997 and shown in Table 14.

Table 14. Native chicken population 1985 to1997 by province

Provinces


1985

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997(a)

1997/ 1985


(000)

(000)

(000)

(000)

(000)

(000)

(000)

(000)

(000)

(%)

DI Aceh

7280

9645

10079

10285

12134

12705

13643

15107

15711

5.80

2.16

Sumatera Utara

9767

11237

12175

12748

13669

15585

17358

19165

21160

7.82

2.17

Sumatera Barat

5420

8171

8816

9363

9540

9525

9922

10187

10460

3.86

1.93

Riau

2069

2947

3107

2764

3343

3498

3734

3913

4100

1.51

1.98

Jambi

1685

2824

3092

3228

3456

3735

3917

4108

4318

1.59

2.56

Sumatera Selatan

5270

7237

7267

10045

10393

12110

12925

14350

15600

5.76

2.96

Bengkuku

2612

4021

4026

4043

4061

4078

4081

4163

4246

1.57

1.63

Lampung

4500

9213

10012

10720

11398

18759

13409

14068

14765

5.45

3.28













DKI Jakarta

242

702

702

252

222

153

114

128

127

0.05

0.52

Jawa Barat

19436

28278

28468

31669

36121

36702

35555

36193

35068

12.95

1.80

Jawa Tengah

23897

29454

29784

31092

31239

31479

33580

34328

35093

12.96

1.47

DI Yogyakarta

4039

4829

4831

4904

4978

5044

5053

5054

5100

1.88

1.26

Jawa Timur

26252

29511

30106

30675

31012

31105

33565

34286

37098

13.70

1.41













Bali

3714

5432

5380

5685

5987

6130

6313

6349

6462

2.39

1.74

Nusa Tenggara Barat

3252

3974

5713

4115

4545

4937

5286

5674

6178

2.28

1.90

Nusa Tenggara Timur

3313

4391

4527

6139

6767

7123

7614

7805

8000

2.95

2.41

Timor-Timur

409

514

551

581

613

498

526

555

585

0.22

1.43













Kalimantan Barat

2043

2295

2332

2717

3023

3368

3503

4673

4953

1.83

2.42

Kalimantan Tengah

1650

1629

1674

1707

2082

2305

2358

2477

2750

1.02

1.67

Kalimantan Selatan

4104

4647

4801

4437

4797

4980

5193

5356

5443

2.01

1.33

Kalimantan Timur

2010

2632

2374

3022

3214

3557

3738

4139

4324

1.60

2.15













Sulawesi Utara

1247

1510

1541

1705

1790

1880

1974

2072

2176

0.80

1.74

Sulawesi Tengah

1417

2788

3267

3832

4493

2774

3260

2504

2566

0.95

1.81

Sulawesi Selatan

15388

15911

16296

19127

6577

13359

14924

14949

14962

5.53

0.97

Sulawesi Tenggara

2850

5357

5500

4807

4372

4978

5528

5824

6115

2.26

2.15













Maluku

1164

1290

1329

1507

1566

1670

1743

1957

2000

0.74

1.72

Irian Jaya

603

928

1217

1363

1503

1229

1269

1329

1395

0.52

2.31













Indonesia

155629

201366

208966

222530

222893

243260

250080

260713

270756

100.0

1.74

Notes:(a) Preliminary figures

Source: Direktorat Jenderal Peternakan (1997), p. 96 for 1995 to 1997 data; Direktorat Jenderal Peternakan (1996), p. 85 for 1990 to 1994 data; Direktorat Jenderal Peternakan (1988), p. 8 for 1985 data.

Native chicken contributed about 300000 t. of meat to poultry meat production in 1997. This was about 30% of poultry meat production. As Table 15 shows, the major producing area was Jawa Tengah (Central Java) with almost one fifth of production. The three Javanese provinces accounted for about 46% of native chicken meat production. Most provinces increased their output of native chicken meat by 10% or more between 1990 and 1997.

Table 15. Native chicken production 1990 to 1997 by province

Provinces


1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997(a)

1997/ 1985


(Kt)

(Kt)

(Kt)

(Kt)

(Kt)

(Kt)

(Kt)

(Kt)

(%)

DI Aceh

10.5

11.0

11.2

13.2

7.7

10.1

9.2

16.5

5.38

1.57

Sumatera Utara

12.2

13.2

13.9

14.9

19.6

30.3

23.8

24.2

7.91

1.98

Sumatera Barat

8.9

9.6

10.2

10.4

10.2

10.6

10.9

11.2

3.67

1.26

Riau

3.2

3.4

3.0

3.6

3.2

2.7

4.2

4.4

1.44

1.37

Jambi

3.1

3.4

3.5

3.8

4.1

4.5

4.8

5.3

1.72

1.71

Sumatera Selatan

7.9

7.9

10.9

11.3

11.3

14.0

16.7

17.4

5.68

2.21

Bengkuku

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.5

4.6

1.51

1.06

Lampung

10.0

10.9

11.7

12.4

19.2

18.6

18.2

19.1

6.25

1.91

DKI Jakarta

0.8

0.8

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.2

0.2

0.07

0.26

Jawa Barat

30.8

31.0

34.4

39.3

39.4

37.5

38.2

37.4

12.23

1.22

Jawa Tengah

32.0

32.4

33.8

34.0

74.6

40.7

49.7

60.7

19.85

1.90

DI Yogyakarta

5.3

5.3

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.4

5.4

5.5

1.79

1.04

Jawa Timur

32.1

32.7

33.4

33.7

33.5

36.5

37.5

37.4

12.23

1.17

Bali

5.9

5.9

6.2

6.5

6.1

7.1

7.6

8.6

2.80

1.45

Nusa Tenggara Barat

4.3

6.2

4.5

4.9

3.3

3.0

3.8

4.1

1.35

0.95

Nusa Tenggara Timur

4.8

4.9

6.7

7.4

6.8

8.2

8.2

8.2

2.69

1.72

Timor-Timur

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.7

0.3

0.6

0.6

0.7

0.22

1.20

Kalimantan Barat

2.5

2.5

3.0

3.3

3.5

3.5

4.6

4.9

1.60

1.96

Kalimantan Tengah

1.8

1.8

1.9

2.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

2.0

0.66

1.15

Kalimantan Selatan

5.1

5.2

4.8

5.2

5.1

5.3

5.6

5.7

1.88

1.14

Kalimantan Timur

2.9

2.6

3.3

3.5

3.5

3.8

4.0

4.4

1.45

1.55

Sulawesi Utara

1.6

1.7

1.9

2.0

2.0

2.2

2.3

2.4

0.77

1.45

Sulawesi Tengah

3.0

3.6

4.2

4.9

2.9

3.6

2.7

2.8

0.91

0.92

Sulawesi Selatan

17.3

17.7

20.8

7.2

7.0

7.8

8.5

9.0

2.94

0.52

Sulawesi Tenggara

5.8

6.0

5.2

4.8

4.8

5.2

5.8

6.5

2.11

1.11

Maluku

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.9

2.0

0.64

1.39

Irian Jaya

1.0

1.3

1.5

1.6

0.8

0.8

0.9

0.9

0.29

0.88

Indonesia

219.0

227.2

242.0

242.4

282.1

269.4

281.5

306.0

100.00

1.40

Notes: (a) preliminary

Source: Direktor Jenderal Peternakan (1997) p. 110 for 1995 to 1997 data; Direktor Jenderal Peternakan (1996), p. 98 for 1990 to 1994 data; Direktor Jenderal Peternakan (1988), p. 32 for 1985 data


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