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End support for bridge, culvert or similar structure.

adverse grade

Grade up which a loaded log truck must travel.

annual plan

Plan of harvesting for one year's operation. It is often a long term plan.


The final cut involved in felling a tree. The back-cut should be higher than the scarf.

ballast water

Water loaded into a ship to provide weight when sailing without a cargo.


Inclination or shape of side slope of walls, banks, cuttings.


Heap of soil associated with the side of a road or skid track.


The range of species of plants and animals in an ecosystem.

borrow pit

An excavation outside the limits of road construction for obtaining fill used for roadway construction.

buffer zone

Area of vegetation retained around a sensitive area or site. Harvesting and disturbance is excluded from these areas.


The stump end of a log.


A ridge of wood that develops in the angle between a lateral root and the base of a stem to provide lateral root stability to the stem.

cable logging

Any haul system using a machine with powered drums, spars, blocks, wire rope and butt rigging to haul logs from the felling site to the landing. Also called Cable Yarding System.


This term refers to land extent, value or ownership.


The amount of crossfall on a road.

canopy gap

A break in the leaf canopy of a forest. Gaps permit light to reach the forest floor. The amount of light is an important factor in forest regeneration, particularly in rainforests. Usually recorded on a percentage scale (0-100% light reaching the ground).

catch drain

A drain constructed above a batter to prevent erosion of the batter by surface water.


The area which yields run-off water to a given point.

chain brake

A safety device on a chainsaw designed to stop the chain in the event of a kickback.


Chainsaw chaps are safety trousers which are cut resistant and contain material designed to protect against chain saw cuts.


Felling and removal, of all or nearly all commercial trees and the trees in the size classes immediately below the merchantable category which provide the next harvest, from a specific area in one operation.


A concept that focuses on what is expected of a person in the workplace rather than on the learning process. It embodies the ability to transfer and apply skills and knowledge to new situations and environments.

conservation area

Areas protected from harvesting by National or Provincial legislation.


Laying of suitable logs, bark or vegetation on the soil to separate machine tyres or tracks from direct soil contact.


A defined sub-unit of the harvesting area.


Cutting through a felled log. Also called bucking.


Drain constructed across a track to divert water to a stable disposal area.

cultural area

Area of social, cultural, historical or anthropological importance indigenous populations. Includes villages, gardens and sites which are culturally sensitive.


A channel or conduit carrying water across a road.

cutting cycle

In selection (polycyclic) harvesting systems, the planned number of years between successive harvests on an area of forest. The harvesting activitiy occurs at the end of thr cutting cycle. It is also referred to as felling cycle.


Diameter above buttress over bark.


Diameter at breast height.

designated watercourses

Those required to be marked on harvesting plans. They include all classes of streams and gullies where vegetation buffers are to be marked and retained.

directional felling

Felling a tree in a particular direction.


Inserting a vertical cut into the stem with a chainsaw to determine the presence of internal defect. Defect is indicated by discoloured sawdust or soft wood.

end haul

Excavation and removal of spoil to another site. End haul is used where side casting of material is not appropriate.


Flora and fauna species in danger of extinction.

enrichment planting

Planting trees within a partial forest canopy to increase the representation of the selected species in the forest.

environmental sensitivity

Classification of the importance of a particular area of land or forest to degradation.

exclusion area

Area which is excluded from harvesting.

feeder road

A road connecting landings to a main road.

felling jack

Tool inserted into the backcut during felling to provide leverage to force the tree to fall in a particular direction.


An open channel or conduit of timber, concrete, metal or flexible material such as plastic to carry water across unstable areas.

flute, fluting

Supporting buttresses at the base of some species.

forest authority

A forest agency authorised by relevant legislation to administer one or more of the forest regulations.

forest officer

Employee of the forest agency or other agency authorised, under the relevant legislation, to administer one or more of the forest regulations.

formation width

The width of a road, excluding batters.

future crop trees

Trees which will provide merchantable timber in the future. See Potential Crop Trees (PCT).

geographic information system

A computerised mapping system and database which uses layers to store information which can be retrieved as required.


A material sheet placed on road surfaces to assist in drainage and road stabilisation.

guard log

Log along the outside of bridge, above the main stringer logs to prevent gravel from falling from the bridge into a watercourse.


Gullies are steep-sided channels. The slope of at least one bank exceeds 15°. Depth of the bank adjacent to the bed may be 30 cm or more. Vegetation may be growing in the gully bed. Water will flow for less than 2 months in most years.

habitat tree

Tree used primarily for animal dwellings.

harvesting contract

Legal agreement negotiated between landowners (State, private or customary) and harvesting companies for the harvesting of forests.

harvesting debris

Broken logs, branches, vines or other tree material created as a result of felling and skidding.

harvesting supervisor

Company officer responsible for the management of harvesting operations in the field.

harvesting unit

See coupe.

haul tracks

Tracks linking roads and landings and used for haulage of logs on trucks. May also be called a spur track.

head wall

A retaining wall at the inlet end of a culvert.

hinge wood

The quantity of wood remaining between the scarf and back-cut during tree felling

hung-up tree

A tree which has not completely reached the ground following cutting.

integral arch

An extension to the winch of a harvesting tractor which gives lift to one end of the log.


Area where logs are stored prior to transport to the log pond.

line planting

Planting of trees in lines through forest or regrowth.

log cluster

Group of 3 or more logs placed in a triangular fashion to act as a culvert.

log pond

Main storage area for logs awaiting shipment or processing.

log scaling

Measurement of logs for the purpose of determining volume.

logging arch

See integral arch.

main road

A permanent or semi-permanent road carrying large volumes of timber.

management information system

A computerised system involving GIS used for the management of a forest enterprise.

operational plan

Plan providing precise details of harvesting proposals, including location of roads, landings and skid tracks. Operational plans usually cover relatively small areas.

outlet wall

Retaining wall placed at the outlet end of a culvert.


Sloping the surface of a track to shed water to the downhill side.

permanent road

A road which will be maintained after harvesting is finished.

planning officers

Company officers responsible for the planning of harvesting operations.


A forest crop or stand raised artificially by sowing seed or planting seedlings or clones raised in a nursery.

potential crop trees

These are the stems which make up the residual stand and form the basis of subsequent cutting cycles.

production forests

Forests which are being managed for the production of wood and other products on a sustainable basis.

protected forests

Forest areas which are excluded from harvesting for any reason.

protection zone

Area of forest excluded from harvesting in an operational plan.

reduced impact guidelines

These are mechanisms by which a code of harvesting practice is implemented with particular emphasis on protecting soil, water and forest stand values


To establish a tree crop on forest land.

regenerating forests

Forests which have been disturbed and altered from their natural state but are growing back to that natural state.


Seedlings of tree species.

road crown

To shape a landing, road or track so that it is higher in the centre than the outside, allowing water to drain to the sides.


The planned number of years between the formation or regeneration of a crop of trees and the time when the same crop is felled for final harvest.


A low point on a ridge or spur.


Two cuts to remove a wedge usually made to assist directional felling.

sediment trap

See silt trap.

selection harvesting

Harvesting systems in which crop trees are removed on a cycle based on a cycle of felling entries that occur more frequently than one rotation based on cutting limits or other criteria.


Limit of high tide; limit of mangrove growth.


See verge.

side cast

Pushing material to the side, usually during road or track construction.

side drain

Drain which diverts water from a table drain.

sight distance

The distance along a road or track that a driver can see other objects (usually other vehicles).

silt trap

Hole dug to catch sediment in run-off water flowing in drains. Log or rock bars may also be used.

skid track

Track along which a log is pulled by a tractor.


The pulling of logs from the felling point to a landing.

skyline yarding system

A cable yarding system which makes use of a heavy wire rope (the skyline) which is stretched between two spars (or spar trees) and used as a track for a skyline carriage. The system enables the log to be fully suspended during extraction.

spur tracks

See haul tracks.


Individuals or groups of individuals who have an interest in, or an impact on, the outcomes of a decision as well as groups or individuals dependent to some degree on the outcome for their personal or institutional goals.

strategic plan

Long term plan which provides broad description and broad details of future harvesting and forest management plans. More than one strategic plan can be used to allow planning across a range of time periods.


Stream is a watercourse where water may flow for more than 2 months in most years. The beds are generally characterised by the presence of clean, water-washed stone, gravel, or exposed bedrock materials.
Class 1 stream: width of the stream base = more than 20 m
Class 2 stream: width of the stream base = 10 to 20 m
Class 3 stream: width of the stream base = less than 10 m.

susceptibility class

Land classification of susceptibility to degradation.

sustainable forest management

The process of managing permanent forest land to achieve one or more clearly specified objectives of management with regard to the production of a continuous flow of desired forest products and services without undue reduction in its inherent values and future productivity and without undue undesirable effects on the physical and social environment. (Definition of the International Tropical Timber Organisation)


Surface water present for 6 months of the year.

table drain

The drain parallel to and at the side of a road.

task planning

Undertaken by the harvesting company and details particular jobs such as construction of a landing.

temporary crossing

A watercourse crossing which will be removed after harvesting.

tree crown

Leaves and branches which make up the top of the tree.


That part of the forest vegetation growing below the forest canopy.


“V”-shaped table drain.


The part of the road construction continuous and flush with the pavement on either side. It is generally only used by passing vehicles but may be used for travel by track machines.


A cluster of dwellings in a rural environment.

water bar

See cross-drain.

water body

Surface water area such as a lake, lagoon or ocean.


Defined line that receives and conducts concentrated overland flow for some period in most years. Flows may be permanent or periodic. Watercourse includes a stream, gully and a waterway. Classes are defined in terms of permanency of flow, bed material, bed width and side slope.


A high impact plastic or aluminium wedge driven into the back-cut to assist directional felling.

winch rope

Flexible wire rope used to winch logs towards the skidding tractor.

wing wall

Side walls provided at a culvert or bridge to retain road fill material.

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