Quazi M. Emadadul Huque
Poultry Production Research Division,
Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute,
The present status of animal and fish production system and the various integration of duck, chicken, goat, rice with fish production systems in Bangladesh are reviewed with emphasis on traditional approach and present efforts of the production systems. Maximum average fish yield of 5.68 tons/ha/year was attained with manure fertilizer which was 5–7 times higher than normal fish production. Economic analysis included duck-fish, chicken-fish, broiler-fish and rice-fish production systems.
In a country like Bangladesh where land is scarce, effort should be taken to increase production through integration of various production systemlike animal-cum-fish or rice-cum-fish culture for efficient utilization of available meagre resources and maximisation of production of diversified products, from a minimum area, which will increase the income of the farmers and would enhance food production. A multi-commodity farming system presents more advantages to a mono-cropping system. But the commodity-integration must fit into the particular farmer's capability, resources and need as well as the social, economic and environmental factors around him.
INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM
The traditional mixed farming systems have been existing in Bangladesh with crop based subsistance economy. Although the crop sub-system is dominant but the other sub-systems like household, animal, fish pond and orchards are integrated and interdependent. The household provides labour and management, crop provides food and feed, animal provides milk, meat, power, manure and capital, fish pond provides food and irrigation and orchards provides fire wood and fruits.
Farmers of Bangladesh have been practicing fish culture in a traditional way in pond/tank, lakes, streams, canals or water reservoirs for a long time and are also rearing ducks under extensively. The ducks are mainly dependent on organisms of water origin like snails, oysters, algae, small fishes ect. and homestead waste to meat their daily feed requirement (Huque, 1991). A large number of small-scale farmers raised relatively few free ranging ducks that foraged for most or all of thier feed. Sometimes the farmers provide supplementary feed to the ducks.
Integrated poultry-cum-fish production systems in Bangladesh is a successful operation. Although the egg production is low in Bangladesh context, the total returns are higher compared to the raising duck or fish alone due to high feed cost. The integrated production system can be divided into five subsystem: (i) Duck-cum-fish, (ii) Layer-cum-fish, (iii) Broiler-cum-fish, (iv) Ruminant (goat)-cum-fish (v) Rice-cum-fish farming.
Duck-cum-fish integrated farming system has been introduced in Bangladesh by Fisheries Research Institute in 1986, who refined this technology in Bangladesh perspective through a number of production trials. The ponds were stocked with carp fingerlings at a density of 7500 fingerlings/ha and Khaki Campbell ducks were reared over the experimental pond, at 200, 400 and 500 duck/ha. Average production of fish was 1.82, 3.15 and 4.50 tons/ha/year with the density of 200, 400 and 500 ducks/ha respectively as compared to 0.49 tons/ha from control pond. The average egg production of Khaki Campbell duck was 240 eggs/ducks/year of local ducks. After several trial it has been found that the average fish yield of 5.68 tons/ha/year from duck-fish experiment. This yield was 5–7 times higher than the normal fish production (Nuruzzaman, 1991). Jhingran and Sharma (1980) reported that the fish yield was 4.32 tons/ha/year in duck-fish farming in India. The amount of fish produced in Bangladesh under integrated duck-cumfish farming (5.68 tons/ha/year) is a very prospective fish production practice where fish fingerlings rate was at the rate of 6000/ha with 30,10,25,5 and 5 percent of silver carp, catla, rohu, mrigal, grass carp and mirror carp respectively. A comparative study of fish production in on-station and on-farm ponds of integrated duck-cum-fish farming showed 5.68 and 5.64 tons/ha/year respectively (Uddin, 1990). In another study at Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute with three type of duck breeds for selecting duck breed for the integrated system, average fish yield was 3.22 tons/ha in a period of 4 month culture of fish raising (Huque and Ebadul, 1991). A detail of input costs and return for a years' production of fishduck farming system showed the net profit was Tk. 1,92,068.00 (Nuruzzaman, 1991).
Integrated layer chicken-cum-fish farming
The integrated layer chicken-fish farming operation is undertaken with the commercial strain of layers where the birds are kept at the floor over the pond. Though this integrated system of farming requires skilled management for both layer chicken and fish but it proves economically and technically viable at farmers condition. The economic analysis of this system revealed a net profit of Tk. 219.836.00/ha/year where the fish production cage rearing was 4.89 tons/ha/year (Nuruzzaman, 1991). Recently cage rearing of layers over the fish pond has been introduced. In this case droppings drop directly to the pond without any wastage.
Integrated broiler-fish farming
Integrated broiler-fish farming is a successful system practiced in the country in a small number. The economics analysis of this integrated system showed that this is economically and technically highly viable. But this system has got some limitation in rural areas of Bangladesh. The regular supply of day-old chicks with two month interval and marketing of broilers could pose problems in the rural areas.
Integrated goat-cum-fish farming
In Bangladesh, there are 12 million goat and sheep. Intensive goat raising are increasing due to high mutton cost. Manure from goat and sheep is also potential for integrated animal-fish farming system but this is not yet used in widespread integration with fish culture. Libunao (1990) reported that the fish feed produced in the ponds with goat manure is efficiently utilized by the fish biomass. He also mentioned that the growth of tilapia increased with the rate of goat manure loading. Goat-fish farming is being practiced by the one NGO name “Bangladesh Mission” in Bangladesh. But the study of production performance of fish has not been completed.
Integrated rice-cum-fish farming
The integrated culture of captural wild fish into rice fields in fresh water or estuarine areas of different regions of Bangladesh is an old practice. Ricecum-shrimp culture practice in the Southern part of the country is known as “Gher” method. Traditional capture of fish from inundated floodplains having rice is also very common in Bangladesh. About 0.2 million tons of different types of fishes harvested from rice field per year.
The high cost of feed is the major constraint to intensive fish production. The raising cost of fish feed has brought interest in the utilization of animal waste in pond culture. The cowdung and poultry dried droppings as a direct fish feed showed that manure are poor substitutes for the components normally included in fish feed pellets. The maximum 30 percents dried manure may be included in the fish be feed to obtain equal growth with conventional fish feed pellets (Schroeder, 1980). The quality value of manure as a substrate for microbial growth is directly related to the feed the animal received. The concentrated feed gives the high value than the fibrous feed. Generally, the value of the manure, in increasing order is: cattle, sheep and goat, followed by pig, chicken and ducks.
POTENTIAL FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENT
The importance of integrated livestock/poultryfish production system has began to be more appreciated. The package technology of this integrated production system has may minimize the animal protein gap at low cost. This increase fish production potential means of waste utilization which increase fish production potential without the use of supplemented feed normally used for fish production. Here is much potentiality for the introduction of the cultural system of fish where only the captural system is practiced. The exploitation of the potential of large number of fish pond through animal rearing make an important contribution to increase farm income and nutrition gap of small-scale farmers.
The Fisheries Research Institute has developed a simple and an economically viable production system of integrating fish culture and chicken/duck rearing. The pilot experiments of on-farm study for this technology has been completed with very promising results. This packaged technology has been taken to rural farmers in a large-scale as multi-location trials.
Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute has started an experiment to select the type/breed of duck with different level of duck nutrition for making this duck/fish technology more economic and productive to fit in integrated duck-fish production system in the country. This integrated system has a great production potential to decrease the malnutrition of the country by increasing animal protein production.
Two or three fold integrated production system like animal-fish-vegetable, or rice-fish are unique technology of diversifying food production and increasing the income of small scale farmers. There is a need for critical studies on animal/fish/vegetable integrated production system. Effort is required to standardize the fish size, stocking rate, feeding, species combination and feeding, type of animal, number of animal and their size; age and diet, quality of seasonal factors will also have to be considered. As the success of integrated system depends on low production cost and high returns, the management techniques for animals will have to be improved. Feeding technology for reducing feed cost, faster growth and higher yield of animals should be adopted. The standard methodology for this region matched with available resources need to be developed. Extensive efforts for transferring this production technology to the farmers through direct linkage need to be organized through structural support and marketing system for upliftment of rural poor. Liquid manure of effluent from bio-gas digester can be matched with this production technology, if possible human excreta can be added in this technique.
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