by A. Verhulst
In light of the great diversity in socio-cultural, religious, economic, political, demographic and ecological environments in the different continents, the lessons which one can learn from the experiences in pig farming and pig development projects in developing countries are numerous and varied. Therefore, areas have been selected which have priority problems for the sustainability of production systems and development projects. This paper will examine different aspects of the problem successively.
COOPERATION PROJECTS AIMING THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTENSIVE PIG PRODUCTION VERSUS EXTENSIVE AND SEMI-EXTENSIVE PIG PRODUCTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
In general, there is no contradiction between intensive, semi-intensive and extensive (traditional) pig farming in the developing countries, where the different systems often happily co-exist. The traditional sector supplies mainly the rural populations and the intensive sector the urban centres under rapid expansion. However, it is observed in many developing countries, (in spite of considerable effort by national authorities, financing organizations and technical assistance), that the intensive pig farming sector is stagnant, whereas, often forgotten traditional sector has a tendency to progress. The reason of this disparity is that in the long-term, the sustainability of traditional sector is better than that of intensive sector. The intensive sector has a number of obstacles to overcome, including: considerably financial investment; access to credit; health problems; lack of technical expertise and qualified personnel; political and economic risks; insufficient and inadequate local feed resources; foreign currency problems (for importing certain feeds; medicines and equipments); instable commercial policy and fluctuations in the international markets (e.g. import of subsidised meat).
The differences in the economic profitability between intensive and extensive pig farming systems in some sub-Saharan countries will illustrate the inherent difficulties in the development of intensive pig husbandry in Africa.
In Burkina Faso, a study of the economic profitability of different systems of pig farming gave the following results detailed in Table 1 (Verhulst, 1990, a). Other scenarios were also considered in Burkina Faso, but in purely economic terms, only the traditional extensive system can be justified.
Table 1: Economic Analysis of Different Systems of Pig Production in Burkina Faso (in FCFA).
|Production centre of breeding stock of improved pig breeds||-||-||- 57,000 F/year/ breeding sow|
|Traditional extensive system||79 F||180 F||+ 101 F/kg live weight|
|Semi-intensive system||258 F||250 F||- 8 F/kg live weight|
|Intensive system of improved local pigs using commercial feeds||320 F (Food + Housing)||250 F||- 70 F/kg live weight|
(from A. Verhulst, 1990 a).
A study on the economic profitability of different pig production systems in Cameroon provided the following results (Van Coppenolle, 1990):
Intensive mixed farms (breeding + fattening): The cost of production varied from 970 to 790 FCFA/kg liveweight according to the type of construction (durable or non-durable buildings) and the number of pigs (1–5 breeding sows), but excluding the cost of labour. The sales price of pigs was ± 1,050 FCFA/kg liveweight. It implies that the benefit is so low that the paid labour (other than the family members) can be employed only when there are at least 10 breeding sows or 30 fattening pigs on the farm.
Traditional mixed farms (breeding + fattening): The cost of production varied from 740 to 600 FCFA, according to the number of breeding sows on the farm (1 to 5) and the sales price from 850 to 900 FCFA/kg liveweight. It demonstrates clearly the profitability of the traditional farms.
Thus in Cameroon, a country quite different from Burkina Faso so far as price structure of pig production is concerned, the traditional pig farming is more profitable than the other systems.
It is also evident that often the pig development projects involving intensive production systems are either a complete failure or provide short term results. There are numerous examples of such failures both in bilateral and multilateral projects, as well as in private enterprises.
In Sao Tome and Principe, several successive UNDP/FAO projects STP/82/001 and STP/87/001) and UNCDP (STP/83/C01 and STP/87/CO2) contributed substantial funds totalling several millions dollars during 7 years of activities aimed at multiplying improved breeding stock (Large White and Landrace) on farms considered to be intensive by Africa standards. During the period of assistance, there was a ten fold increase in the pig production. However, detailed analysis showed that over 85% of this production was accounted for by extensive traditional farms using local and/or Iberian primitive pigs relying on total or partial scavenging. Again traditional pig farming, even without any external funding, demonstrates a successful performance, whereas the intensive methods using improved pigs and considerable external inputs remain stagnant. In light of such mediocre results, the project evaluators recommended the conversion of intensive production centres and a permanent orientation of future assistance towards traditional farming sector.
It was more than 10 years that Equatorial Guinea, in agreement with three neighbouring countries, created a centre for selection of pigs with a view to provide breeding stock of high genetic value to the whole region. After several years of intensive and onerous work, the centre wanted to sell selected breeding stock but found few or no buyers. As the centre was neither self-sufficient nor could find any financing, it was obliged to slaughter the selected sows resulting in great loss for the centre. Such a project of selection of pigs in Central Africa is a good example of an unsustainable enterprise from all points of view.
Gabon also received UN assistance to establishment a intensive pig production centre along with an industrial processing plant (Essassa Pig Centre). In spite of heavy investment and several years of technical assistance, the technical and economic results were catastrophic. Consequently, the assistance was discontinued and the pig farm was privatised.
During the sixties there was a “boom” in the development of intensive pig units by several private organisations in Bas-Zaire (Lower Zaire). But, since the seventies and eighties, there has been a rapid change in political, economic, demographic, socio-cultural, animal health and ecological fields which have adversely affected the sustainability of this sector. The traditional extensive pig farming is however, prospering whereas the intensive farms are being abandoned.
In view of the above it can be concluded that intensive pig farming in developing countries, at least in Africa, can hardly be recommended. Special attention ought to be given to the development of the extensive pig farming sector which has remained under-estimated. The extensive sector represents 70 to 95 percent of pig farming in developing countries and can be greatly improved by relatively modest inputs.
PIG FEEDING SYSTEMS AIMING AT HIGH BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY VERSUS BEST USE OF LOCAL FEED RESOURCES.
The sustainability of pig farms/projects in developing countries is often compromised by feeding systems aiming at the highest biological efficiency, rather than the best use of local feeds. Feed accounts for about 80% of all costs in pig production, consequently, the efficient use of locally available feeds play a major role in profitable and sustainable pig production. The unavailability of high quality feeds and the lack of foreign currency for the importation of certain ingredients, such as animo-acids, may make it very expensive to adhere to nutritional recommendations. Efficient feed conversion achieved by feeding expensive rations does not however guarantee profitability - only the cost of feed per kilogram of meat produced has to be considered.
The sustainability of systems aiming at a high biological efficiency may be altered by many other reasons. A pertinent question to ask is who benefits from intensive pig production. The consumer in principle, but the consumer belonging to a privileged urban sector. Unemployment is a real threat in developing countries. Intensive pig units create less jobs than semi-intensive or extensive ones.
Intensive piggeries are also large consumers of energy: heating of piglets, ventilation systems, lighting, water and food distribution, etc. Cost and a continuous supply of energy are well known problems inmany developing countries.
In order to ensure the technical and economic feasibility of pig projects in developing countries in the tropics, it is necessary to either adapt the standard feed requirements for pig diets, or develop new alternative non-conventional feeding systems.
In lower Zaire, for instance, production cost of pig meat could be lowered by 30% in commercial pig farms and profitability increased almost by 90%, by using diets containing up to 65% palm kernel cake as replacement of maize and soya/groundnut cake (Verhulst, 1990 b). These economical results were achieved in spite of the fattening period increased from 7 to 8 months to reach 90kg due to the higher fibre and lower energy content of the diet. Furthermore, diets with a high palm kernel cake were not in competition with humans for maize and soya.
Besides the classical feed ingredients of a diet, numerous others can be used successfully in the tropics. Some are non-conventional foods, e.g. algae, bamboo, bananas and banana trees, chaff of sorghum (dolo), breadfruit, cassava leaves, coconuts, coffee and cacao by-products, cowper leaves and seeds, Eddoe (Taro) tubers, jackfruits, leucaena leaves, mango, rubber seed meal, sago, sugar cane, sweet potato tubers and leaves and water hyacinths. All these feeds are relatively well known and, in most cases, have the advantage of not being in competition with human food and are available in many tropical countries at very low prices.
Besides these relatively well known alternative feeds, several others in most tropical countries and are often used locally by traditional pig keepers. They merit greater attention in developing sustainable pig production systems in the tropics. Burkina Faso, for instance, is one of the countries where a preliminary survey has been made of plants used for feeding pigs certain areas (Table 2).
Of course, most of these will not permit high daily weight gains, but they often allow for high economic profitability. A common characteristic of these non-conventional feeds is the high water and/or crude fibre contents which alters the energy density of the diet. In the case of substituting bulky feed for concentrated feed, the pig will tend to adjust its feed intake and will consume more dry matter to compensate for nutrients. If the process of reducing energy density is carried too far, the bulk of the diet itself imposes a limit to the energy intake. This causes very low daily weight gain in growing pigs and may be catastrophic for lactating sows (cachexia, agalactia). Pigs given bulky diets do adapt; the gut becomes larger, the transit of feed speeds up and intake is increased. Genetic differences between individuals and breeds are also important, certain pig lines selected for generations on bulky diets have a greater capacity to consume and thrive on such diets than others which have been selected on the more concentrated, cereal-based diets.
Most alternative feeds are highly perishable and, therefore, are difficult to store. In order, to increase their digestibility, some need boiling (e.g. sweet potato, taro) or sun-drying to eliminate certain toxicity (cassava, leucaena).
Table 2: Plants used as pig food by traditional pig holders in some areas of Burkina Faso.
|Commelina benghalensis L.||Commelinacae||fodder comestible||dagara; bolo mooré; fouloun fountou|
|Commelina forskalaei Vahl.||Commelinacae||fodder||dagara; boloyirè mooré; boanga|
|Commelina african L.||Commelinacae||fodder|
|Amaranthus spinosus L.||Amaranthacae||fodder comestible medicinal||dagara; oulimakou mooré; koukouri gonsé|
|Amaranthus graecizans L.||Amaranthacae||fodder comestible||dagara; zibidjamè mooré; ziniba/ ziliba|
|Amaranthus viridis L.||Amaranthacae||fodder comestible medicinal|
|Boerhaavia erecta L.||Nyctaginacae||fodder comestible||dagara; kiompèguè mooré; katre weks|
|Ipomea eriocarpa R. Br.||Convolvulacae||fodder comestible medicinal||mooré; boula ma binsi|
|Eleusine indica Gaertn.||Graminae||fodder medicinal||dagara; flankiu mooré; targanga|
|Brachiaria lata (Schum.) Hubb||Graminae||fodder medicinal||dagara; bagboro mooré; remsa|
(from A. Verhulst, 1990, a)
The above considerations indicate that these alternative feeding systems are difficult to use in intensive systems. They are better suited to extensive and semi-intensive pig production in developing countries and, therefore, may lead to highly sustainable systems from all points of view.
Nevertheless, some alternative feeding systems can also be introduced in intensive pig units. One of the most promising ones is the use of sugar cane juice. The serious crisis which has stricken the world sugar industry during the last decade has led to the closure of many sugar factories in various sugar exporting countries. But the crisis has created a new interest in alternative uses of sugarcane and its by-products. Some countries, such as Brazil and Puerto-Rico, have opted for the “energy alternative”, but there are other possibilities such as the “animal feed alternative” (R.Sansoucy, 1988). Sugar cane is one of the most productive tropical crops in terms of biomass and this, together with the ease of separating the highly digestible juice from the residual fibre (the bagasse and leaves), has led to it being described as the “maize of the tropics”. Pig fattening systems based on sugar cane juice were first developed in Mexico and in the Dominican Republic. Fernandez (1986) showed that results obtained with sugar cane juice appear comparable, or even superior, to those generally obtained with cereal-based diets (Table 3). Mena (1987) demonstrated that sugar cane juice can replace in totality the cereal component of the diet. More recently, Patricia Sarria et al. (1990) carried out a series of trials in different regions of Colombia to validate the pig fattening system based on sugar cane juice. Fresh cane juice, “cachaza” (the scums from “panela” manufacture comprising of a mixture of juice and coagulated proteins and minerals) and “melote” (made by concentrating the scums to about 50% soluble solids) were also evaluated. It was shown that the protein levels (derived principally from soyabean meal) could be restricted to a maximum of 200 g/animal/day, without reducing performance and making the system economically viable in Colombian conditions. There were especially appropriate for the small and medium scale producers, for whom cereal-based feeding systems were not profitable. Recently in Cuba, Castro et al (1990) developed restricted feeding systems using diets in which 60% of the cereal feed was replaced by sugar cane juice.
Table 3: Cane Juice Versus Commercial Cereal-Based Feed for Fattening Pigs
|Cane Juice||Comm. Feed|
|Live Weight, Kg|
(from G.M. Fernandez, 1986)
Enrique Margueritio (1989) pointed out that the best alternatives to tropical deforestation include intensive livestock production, based on true tropical resources. A model developed in Colombia employs perennial crops with high biomass production potential (sugar cane and forage trees) and complementary livestock species (pigs and sheep) managed in confinement. Productivity is a function of a sugar cane yield which depends on soil fertility, water availability and variety. For the world average yield of 50 tonnes/ha/year, total liveweight production per year from pigs and sheep can be 1,500 Kg/ha. However, with appropriate management, sugar cane can yield up to 280 tonnes/ha/year, which will give 8,000 Kg liveweight per hectare per year.
Implementing these models on a massive scale will result in a substantial reduction of the area required to support a resource-poor farmer, committed to colonising the forest. At the same time, existing grazing areas can be transformed into more productive units with obvious advantages in terms of job creation and economic stimulus to rural development.
Based on true tropical resources, the following recommendations can be made for the development of sustainable small and large pig farms in the developing countries:
save and preserve local pig breeds many of which have been selected naturally over many decades and constitute a real reservoirs of genes for adaptation to heat stress, disease, poor nutritional conditions such as: low energy bulk diets,
numerous local pig breeds in the tropics belonging to the Iberic, Creole, Siamese, Chinese or Central African types, should be evaluated under locally sustainable conditions, and
studies must be undertaken to make inventories and evaluate different non-conventional feeds suitable for pigs in developing countries: sugar cane is an example that can be used by either small or large pig farms and is socially, technically, economically and ecologically sustainable and a possible alternative to tropical deforestation.
INTENSIVE FEEDING OF UNIMPROVED PIGS
The experience shows that under extensive husbandry systems in Africa, Central and South America and Eastern Asia, it is sometimes preferable to use unimproved types of pigs which are more hardy, resistant to disease and heat stress and less demanding in nutrition. Several projects to assist small traditional pig farmers introduce intensive feeding regimes based on classical feeding norms of either Europe or the U.S.A. Such intensification almost always leads to technically mediocre performance (low index of feed conversion) and economically unviable results.
Figure 1 shows that intensive feeding regimes do not have the same effect on weight gain of pigs of different genotypes. The quantitative and qualitative increases in the feed supply to unimproved pigs does not lead to same improvement in daily weight gain as in the improved pigs. With unimproved pigs in Benin, D'Orgeval et al (1989) studied different rations which varied only in crude fibre and energy content. They concluded that with the local pigs feeds with crude fibre content of 6.9% allowed them to attain a maximum daily liveweight gain of 152.0 gms, as well as a relatively good feed conversion ratio of 3.54.
Standard or published recommendations have tended to be used as authoritative statements, but may be quite inappropriate in particular circumstances in tropical developing countries. Factors such as heat stress which reduces fee43d intake and the volume of the food which is often of poor quality must also be taken into consideration. Taking these factors into account a different sets of guidelines, according to different levels of genetic improvement, have been proposed for pigs in the countries of Eastern Asia and the Pacific (Fuller, 1977) and can be used as reference for developing countries (Tables 4, 5 and 6).
Table 4 : Daily Nutrient Requirements for Improved Pigs
|Body Weight Kg||STARTER|
|Dig THR g||7.1||9.4||10.8|
|Dig VAL g||7.4||9.8||11.3|
|Dig M+C g||6.2||8.2||9.4|
|Dig LYS g||9.8||13.0||14.9|
|dig TRY g||1.8||2.4||2.8|
|Vit. A 1000iu||1.1||2.5||3.7|
|Vit. D mg||1.9||4.1||8.3|
|Vit. E mg||4.3||6.1||12.4|
|Vit B12 mcg||18||26||36|
(from M.F. Fuller, 1987)
HEALTH AND REPRODUCTION PROBLEMS
The technical and economical profitability of intensive and extensive pig farming in developing countries is seriously affected by health and reproductive problems. A large number of farms have registered very low technical results due to :
a heavy mortality and/or very slow growth of piglets, and
a reduction in the number of piglets/sow/year.
Besides the problems associated with management nutrition and housing which cannot be ignored, a common denomination to all the problems is the heat stress. It is directly or indirectly responsible for the main problems to which pig farmers and projects are confronted in several developing countries.
Table 5: DAILY NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR SEMI-IMPROVED PIGS
|Body Weight Kg||STARTER|
|Dig THR g||5.3||7.1||8.1|
|Dig Val g||5.5||7.4||8.5|
|Dig M+C g||4.4||5.9||6.8|
|dig LYS g||8.0||10.8||12.5|
|Dig TRY g||1.3||1.8||2.1|
|Vit. A 1000iu||0.94||2.1||3.2|
|Vit. D mg||1.63||3.5||7.1|
|Vit. E mg||3.6||5.2||10.6|
|Vit B12 mcg||15||30||30|
(from M.F. Fuller, 1987)
Some simple recommendations may permit a reduction these problems, include:
abide by the elementary principles of piggery construction adapted to the tropical conditions,
poor nutrition of lactating sows is an important factor especially during hot months of the year when sows should be fed ad libitum to prevent “lean sow syndrome” and its repercussions on suckling piglets and future reproductive performance; sows should also be well fed during the gestation to prevent excessive weight loss,
during the hot months of the year, sprinkle the water over sows during and after parturition (farrowing) to reduce the incidence of metritis-mastitis-agalactia syndrome, and
using pigs of a genetic type well adapted to the level of intensification being practiced by the farmer, the available feed resources and to the climate of the given environment.
Table 6: DAILY NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR UNIMPROVED PIGS
|Dig THR g||3.5||4.7||5.4|
|Dig Val g||3.6||4.9||5.6|
|Dig M+C g||3.0||4.1||4.7|
|dig LYS g||4.8||6.5||7.5|
|Dig TRY g||0.9||1.2||1.4|
|Vit. A 1000iu||0.78||1.8||2.6|
|Vit. D mg||1.4||2.9||5.9|
|Vit. E mg||3.0||4.3||8.9|
|Vit B12 mcg||13||26||26|
(from M.F. Fuller, 1987)
Castro M., Juana Diaz, Lezcano P., Elias A. and Iglesias M., 1990 : Feeding for fattening pigs fed molasses B diets and Sacharina feed. Cuban J.Agric.Sci., 24, 93.
D'Orgeval, Nonfon WR and Edeka, 1989. Evaluation des performances du porc local au Bénin. Séminaire sur la production porcine en Afrique tropicale. Yaoundé, Cameroun, 11–16 décembre 1989.
Fernandez G.M., 1986 : El uso de jugo de caña para cerdos en una finca de mediano productor en República Dominicana. In Proceedings of the FAO Expert Consultation on sugarcane as feed. Santo-Domingo Dominican Republic, 7–11 July 1986. Sansoucy R., Aarts G. and Preston T.R. eds, FAO Rome, Italy.
Fuller M.F., 1987 : Nutrition and feeding. Proceedings of a seminar on pig production in tropical and sub-tropical regions, Suchow, China, 21–25 September 1987, Edit. FAO, Rome 1988.
Mena A., 1987 : Jugo de caña como substituto de los granos en la alimentación de monogástricos, Revista Mundial de Zootecnia, 62 : 40–47.
Murgueitio Enrique, 1990 : Intensive livestock production : an alternative to tropical deforestation, CIPAV, AA 7482 Cali, Columbia.
Sansoucy R., 1988 : New developments in sugar cane as feed. Seminar on Milk and Beef Production in Mauritius, 7–8 June 1988.
Sarria P., Salano A. and Preston T.R., 1990 : Utilización de jugo de caña y cachada panelera en la alimentación de cerdos. Livestock Research for Rural Development, Vol.2, No.2, 1990.
Vancoppenolle R., 1990 : Project de développement de l'élevage porcin et avicole dans les provinces de l'Ouest, Sud- Ouest et Nord-Ouest du Cameroun. MINEPIA et Coopération Technique Belge, Yaoundé, mai 1990.
Verhulst A., 1990, a : Développement de l'élevage porcin au Burkina Faso, TCP/BKF/8962 (F), Rapport de mission, FAO, Rome, avril 1990.
Verhulst A., 1990, b : Personal communication.
FAO TECHNICAL PAPERS
FAO ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND HEALTH PAPERS
|1||Animal breeding: selected articles from the World Animal Review, 1977 (C E F S)|
|2||Eradication of hog cholera and African swine fever, 1976 (E F S)|
|3||Insecticides and application equipment for tsetse control, 1977 (E F)|
|4||New feed resources, 1977 (E/F/S)|
|5||Bibliography of the criollo cattle of the Americas, 1977 (E/S)|
|6||Mediterranean cattle and sheep in crossbreeding, 1977 (E F)|
|7||The environmental impact of tsetse control operations, 1977 (E F)|
|7 Rev.||1. The environmental impact of tsetse control operations, 1980 (E F)|
|8||Declining breeds of Mediterranean sheep, 1978 (E F)|
|9||Slaughterhouse and slaughterslab design and construction, 1978 (E F S)|
|10||Treating straw for animal feeding, 1978 (C E F S)|
|11||Packaging, storage and distribution of processed milk, 1978 (E)|
|12||Ruminant nutrition: selected articles from the World Animal Review, 1978 (C E F S)|
|13||Buffalo reproduction and artificial insemination, 1979 (E *)|
|14||The African trypanosomiases, 1979 (E F)|
|15||Establishment of dairy training centres, 1979 (E)|
|16||Open yard housing for young cattle, 1981 (Ar E F S)|
|17||Prolific tropical sheep, 1980 (E F S)|
|18||Feed from animal wastes: state of knowledge, 1980 (C E)|
|19||East Coast fever and related tick-borne diseases, 1980 (E)|
|20/1||Trypanottolerant livestock in West and Central Africa - Vol. 1. General study, 1980 (E F)|
|20/2||Trypanotolerant livestock in West and Central Africa - Vol. 2. Country studies, 1980 (E F)|
|20/3||Le bétail trypanotolérant en Afrique occidentale et centrale - Vol. 3. Bilan d'une décennie, 1988 (F)|
|21||Guideline for dairy accounting, 1980 (E)|
|22||Recursos genéticos animales en América Latina, 1981 (S)|
|23||Disease control in semen and embryos, 1981 (C E F S)|
|24||Animal genetic resources - conservation and management, 1981 (C E)|
|25||Reproductive efficiency in cattle, 1982 (C E F S)|
|26||Camels and camel milk, 1982 (E)|
|27||Deer farming, 1982 (E)|
|28||Feed from animal wastes: feeding manual, 1982 (C E)|
|29||Echinococcosis/hydatidosis surveillance, prevention and control: FAO/UNEP/WHO guidelines, 1982 (E)|
|30||Sheep and goat breeds of India, 1982 (E)|
|31||Hormones in animal production, 1982 (E)|
|32||Crop residues and agro-industrial by-products in animal feeding, 1982 (E/F)|
|33||Haemorrhagic septicaemia, 1982 (E F)|
|34||Breeding plans for ruminant livestock in the tropics, 1982 (E F S)|
|35||Off-tastes in raw and reconstituted milk, 1983 (Ar E F S)|
|36||Ticks and tick-borne diseases: selected articles from the World Animal Review, 1983 (E F S)|
|37||African animal trypanosomiasis: selected articles from the World Animal Review, 1983 (E F)|
|38||Diagnosis and vaccination for the control of brucellosis in the Near East, 1982 (Ar E)|
|39||Solar energy in small-scale milk collection and processing, 1983 (E F)|
|40||Intensive sheep production in the Near East, 1983 (Ar E)|
|41||Integrating crops and livestock in West Africa, 1983 (E F)|
|42||Animal energy in agriculture in Africa and Asia, 1984 (E/F S)|
|43||Olive by-products for animal feed, 1985 (Ar E F S)|
|44/1||Animal genetic resources conservation by management, data banks and training, 1984 (E)|
|44/2||Animal genetic resources: cryogenic storage of germplasm and molecular engineering, 1984 (E)|
|45||Maintenance systems for the dairy plant, 1984 (E)|
|46||Livestock breeds of China, 1984 (E F S)|
|47||Réfrigération du lait à la ferme et organisation des transports, 1985 (F)|
|48||La fromagerie et les variétés de fromages du bassin méditerrantéen, 1985 (F)|
|49||Manual for the slaughter of small ruminants in developing countries, 1985 (E)|
|50||Better utilization of crop residues and by-products in animal feeding: research guidelines - 1. State of knowledge, 1985 (E)|
|50/2||Better utilization of crop residues and by-products in animal feeding: research guidelines - 2. A practical manual for research workers, 1986 (E)|
|51||Dried salted meats: charque and carne-de-sol, 1985 (E)|
|52||Small-scale sausage production, 1985 (E)|
|53||Slaughterhouse cleaning and sanitation, 1985 (E)|
|54||Small ruminants in the Near East - Vol. I. Selected papers presented for the Expert Consultation on Small Ruminant Research and Development in the Near East (Tunis, 1985), 1987 (E)|
|55||Small ruminants in the Near East - Vol. II. Selected articles from World Animal Review, 1972–1986, 1987 (Ar E)|
|56||Sheep and goats in Pakistan, 1985 (E)|
|57||The Awassi sheep with special reference to the improved dairy type, 1985 (E)|
|58||Small ruminant production in the developing countries, 1986 (E)|
|59/1||Animal genetic resources data banks - 1. Computer systems study for regional data banks, 1986 (E)|
|59/2||Animal genetic resources data banks - 2. Descriptor lists for cattle, buffalo, pigs, sheep and goats, 1986 (E F S)|
|59/3||Animal genetic resources data banks - 3. Descriptor lists for poultry, 1986 (E F S)|
|60||Sheep and goats in Turkey, 1986 (E)|
|61||The Przewalski horse and restoration to its natural habitat in Mongolia, 1986 (E)|
|62||Milk and dairy products: production and processing costs, 1988 (E F S)|
|63||Proceedings of the FAO expert consultation on the substitution of imported concentrate feeds in animal production systems in developing countries, 1987 (C E)|
|64||Poultry management and diseases in the Near East, 1987 (Ar)|
|65||Animal genetic resources of the USSR, 1989 (E)|
|66||Animal genetic resources - strategies for improved use and conservation, 1987 (E)|
|67/1||Trypanotolerant cattle and livestock development in West and Central Africa - Vol. I, 1987 (E)|
|67/2||Trypanotolerant cattle and livestock development in West and Central Africa - Vol. II, 1987 (E)|
|68||Crossbreeding Bos indicus and Bos taurus for milk production in the tropics, 1987 (E)|
|69||Village milk processing, 1988 (E F S)|
|70||Sheep and goat meat production in the humid tropics of West Africa, 1989 (E/F)|
|71||The development of village-based sheep production in West Africa, 1988 (Ar E F S) (Published as Training manual for extension workers, M/S5840E)|
|72||Sugarcane as feed, 1988 (E/S)|
|73||Standard design for small-scale modular slaughterhouses, 1988 (E)|
|74||Small ruminants in the Near East - Vol. III. North Africa, 1989 (E)|
|75||The eradication of ticks, 1989 (E/S)|
|76||Ex situ cryoconservation of genomes and genes of endangered cattle breeds by means of modern biotechnological methods, 1989 (E)|
|77||Training manual for embryo transfer in cattle, 1991 (E)|
|78||Milking, milk production hygiene and udder health, 1989 (E)|
|79||Manual of simple methods of meat preservation, 1990 (E)|
|80||Animal genetic resources - a global programme for sustainable development, 1990 (E)|
|81||Veterinary diagnostic bacteriology - a manual of laboratory procedures of selected diseases of livestock, 1990 (E F)|
|82||Reproduction in camels - a review, 1990 (E)|
|83||Training manual on artificial insemination in sheep and goats, 1991 (E)|
|84||Training manual for embryo transfer in water buffaloes, 1991 (E)|
|85||The technology of traditional milk products in developing countries, 1990 (E)|
|86||Feeding dairy cows in the tropics, 1991 (E)|
|87||Manual for the production of anthrax and blackleg vaccines, 1991 (E F)|
|88||Small ruminant production and the small ruminant genetic resource in tropical Africa, 1991 (E)|
|89||Manual for the production of Marek's disease, Gumboro disease and inactivated Newcastle disease vaccines, 1991 (E F)|
|90||Application of biotechnology to nutrition of animals in developing countries, 1991 (E F)|
|91||Guidelines for slaughtering, meat cutting and further processing, 1991 (E)|
|92||Manual on meat cold store operation and management, 1991 (E S)|
|93||Utilization of renewable energy sources and energy-saving technologies by small-scale milk plants and collection centres, 1992 (E)|
|94||Proceedings of the FAO expert consultation on the genetic aspects of trypanotolerance, 1992 (E)|
|95||Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in animal feeding, 1992 (E)|
|96||Distribution and impact of helminth diseases of livestock in developing countries, 1992 (E)|
|97||Construction and operation of medium-sized abattoirs in developing countries, 1992 (E)|
|98||Small-scale poultry processing, 1992 (E)|
|99||In situ conservation of livestock and poultry, 1992 (E)|
|100||Programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development, 1992 (E)|
|101||Genetic improvement of hair sheep in the tropics, 1992 (E)|
|102||Legume trees and other fodder trees as protein sources for livestock, 1992 (E)|
|103||Improving sheep reproduction in the Near East, 1992 (Ar)|
|104||The management of global animal genetic resources, 1992 (E)|
|105||Sustainable livestock production in the mountain agro-ecosystem of Nepal, 1992 (E)|
|106||Sustainable animal production from small farm systems in South-East Asia, 1993 (E)|
|107||Strategies for sustainable animal agriculture in developing countries, 1993 (E)|
Availability: March 1993
Ar - Arabic
C - Chinese
E - English
F - French
P - Portuguese
S - Spanish
Multil - Multilingual
* Out of print
** In preparation
The FAO Technical Papers are available through the authorized FAO Sales Agents or directly from Distribution and Sales Section, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.