WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME
Civil strife over the period 1975-94 has seriously disrupted the Angolan economy, devastated the country’s logistic infrastructure and marketing network, displaced a large proportion of the farming population and severely undermined food production. Despite a gradual recovery in food production since the initiation of the peace process in 1994, an adequate supply of food remains beyond the means of large sections of the population, which continue to depend on international relief assistance. Given the continued food supply difficulties, an FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission visited Angola from 28 April to 12 May 1997, to estimate the 1996/97 harvest of foodcrops and estimate cereal import requirements for the 1997/98 marketing year, including food aid. This year, unlike in previous years, the Mission was able to visit more provinces at the time of harvest. De-mining of roads and negotiations of right of passage meant that the Mission could visit more provinces by road, extending the scope for observations, field surveys and farmers interviews in both Government and UNITA-held areas. In all, 15 of the 18 provinces were visited.
Extensive discussions were held in Luanda with the Ministries of Social Assistance and Reintegration (MINARS), Agriculture and Rural Development (MINADER), and Commerce; UN agencies; donor and NGO representatives. At provincial and municipality levels, joint discussions on the current agricultural season and associated problems were held with provincial government personnel, line agency staff, NGO field staff, traders and farmers. The Mission was joined by observers from the European Community (EC), the United States Agency for International Development Famine Early Warning System (USAID-FEWS) office in Harare, Zimbabwe, the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) based in Harare, and selected NGOs.
One of the major problems faced by the Mission was the unreliability of agricultural statistics. Data on area planted and yield provided by MINADER this year were a reproduction of last year’s unverified Mission estimates which did not include many UNITA-held areas. Consequently, this year’s area figures were calculated, by the Mission, from farm-family numbers derived from the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) estimations of rural population in each province. Such figures were cross-checked against local MINADER estimates of area and adjusted accordingly. Yields were estimated from information received from provincial level sources and Mission observations. For areas not visited by the Mission, NGO and UN Agency reports were used in conjunction with MINADER predictions and remote-sensed data to estimate area and yield.
The 1996/97 rainfall was characterised by a late start, an extended mid-season dry spell and a variable finish. Western coastal areas were worse affected, resulting in cancelled or delayed planting and lower yields. Moving eastwards, the season was better with more regular rainfall patterns and reasonable production opportunities.
NGO and UN Agency interventions providing seeds and tools were noted in most provinces and have increased the area under cultivation in most Government-controlled areas where internally displaced persons and returnees are being equipped to farm. However, cereal production continues to be limited by the shortage of fertilisers, plant protection equipment and chemicals, hand tools and animal traction equipment in the main producing areas.
The Mission forecasts 1996/97 cereal production at 431 000 tons, some 14 percent lower than last year’s good harvest, due to below normal rainfall. Production of other crops, particularly roots, tubers and perennials, is estimated to be normal from an increased area largely accounted for by a re-estimation of such crops cultivated in UNITA-held areas. This resulted in an estimated 85 percent increase in overall cassava production. With an estimated 10 000 tons of cereals stored on-farm in surplus areas, the domestic availability is 441 000 tons, of which 85 percent is maize and the remainder sorghum and millet.
Given a mid 1997/98 marketing year population of 12.8 million and an expected annual per caput consumption of 70 kg, plus losses and other uses of cereals estimated at 17.5 percent of production, domestic utilization is forecast at 972 000 tons, leaving a deficit of 531 000 tons to be met by imports.
Public and commercial cereal imports are estimated at 279 000 tons indicating a shortfall of 252 000 tons to be met by food aid. Vulnerable groups requiring emergency assistance include internally displaced persons, returnees and demobilized soldiers. It is estimated that 128 000 tons of emergency food aid will be needed to meet their requirements.
In addition, food aid will be required to assist the rehabilitation process. Even among settled populations, food vulnerability remains high due to lack of income generating opportunities, low purchasing power, poor infrastructure, and an absence of transport and materials for movement of goods and commodities. Also, there are still restrictions on access to some UNITA areas, rendering surpluses inaccessible and leaving populations elsewhere dependent on external sources. Programme food aid estimated at 124 000 tons will be required over the coming year to address such problems.
This year's estimates have been compared with last year's Mission's unverified estimates. Unless attempts are made to verify the Mission's assumptions during the year following the Mission, no progress in the process of crop evaluation will be made. It is therefore imperative that MINADER offices at the provincial level receive support and encouragement to conduct crop inspections and surveys throughout the year, to obtain better estimates of area planted and actual yields based on the tangible evidence of plant densities, and production.
In view of the prevailing difficulties in obtaining reliable data on
the agricultural sector, the Mission stressed to both Government authorities
and donors the urgent need to revitalize the National Early Warning Unit
and to strengthen the country’s agricultural statistics system, including
trade statistics. Otherwise, agricultural planning and programming during
the current crucial transition phase will remain seriously constrained.
1/ A variety of sources were used for the information presented in this section, including: Country Profile - Angola- 1996/97 (The Economist Intelligence Unit); Republic of Angola - Post Conflict Social Recovery Project, Feb. 1997 - (The World Bank); Country Strategy Outline - Angola, April 1997 (WFP); Agricultural Recovery and Development Options Review, Dec. 1996 (MINADER/FAO).
Angola is a south-west African country of 1.247 million sq. km with a population estimated by the UN at 12.6 million in 1997. Its economic potential, one of the largest in sub-Saharan Africa, includes extensive reserves of oil and gas, valuable minerals including diamonds, an important hydroelectric capacity from numerous rivers, a vast area of agricultural land suitable for a wide range of crops and livestock, large fresh water and marine fisheries and extensive forestry resources. The petroleum sector, second only to Nigeria’s, produces 500 000 - 650 000 barrels of oil a day, a figure which may increase if on-going searches for new oil fields are successful. The oil sector revenue contributes over 40 percent of the country’s GDP, 75-90 percent of total export earnings and 75-85 percent of government revenue. Diamonds, largely mined in UNITA-held areas, are also an important and growing revenue earning sector. With total exports now valued at about US $ 3 billion per annum, Angola is currently the fourth largest exporting country in sub-Saharan Africa, after South Africa, Nigeria and Côte d’ Ivoire.
However, a large part of the country’s earnings has been devoted to financing over twenty years of civil strife and particularly the fierce fighting of the 1992-94 period. It is estimated that annual expenditure on defence and security increased from US $ 960 million in 1992 to US $ 1.6 billion in 1995. As a result, external debt rose to over US $ 12 billion in 1996. Spiralling budget deficits, financed by money creation and accumulation of external debt arrears, have generated high levels of inflation, estimated at 3 600 percent in 1995 and 1 650 percent in 1996. Wages and salaries fail to keep pace with inflation, particularly in the public sector, where salaries have been severely eroded and are not regularly paid. The ensuing need for supplementary income has pushed many officials to depart from government for the private sector and NGOs, resulting in high staff turnover and a weaker institutional capacity at both central and local levels.
Failure to mobilise the country’s important oil and mining revenues for development purposes has resulted in severe resource constraints in other economic sectors, particularly in agriculture on which the large majority of the population depend for their livelihood. At the time of independence in 1975, Angola was self-sufficient in most major foodcrops and exported significant amounts of maize, rice, bananas, coffee, sisal, sugar and palm oil. The devastation wrought by over 20 years of civil strife has severely disrupted the agricultural sector. Thousands of farmers have been displaced, agricultural land has been rendered inaccessible through land mines in strategic areas, destroying production and marketing structures. There has also been large-scale slaughter of livestock including draft animals. Production of all major crops has fallen sharply and agricultural exports have virtually halted. The country has become dependent on food imports, largely provided through food aid from international organisations and NGOs. More than a third of the population is considered vulnerable and over one million people are internally displaced.
Recent progress towards the strengthening of the peace process initiated in late 1994 under the Lusaka Peace Protocol led to the inauguration, in April 1997, of a Government of Reconciliation and National Unity and a National Assembly both including representatives of UNITA. It is hoped that the country’s attention will now be turned to recovery and socio-economic development. Most major roads are being de-mined, many bridges have been reopened and security conditions have improved. As a result, movement of people and goods between Government-held and UNITA-held areas has increased although check points continue to exist in several UNITA areas.
UN agencies through the 1996 and 1997 Inter-agency Appeals for Angola, bilateral donors and NGOs continue to provide emergency assistance in various ways including food and agricultural inputs. Social and economic rehabilitation programmes, encompassing education, health, water supply, roads, agricultural input supply and agricultural infrastructure rehabilitation are being initiated. The 1997 UN Consolidated Interagency Appeal for Angola launched in March 1997 included both food and agricultural emergency and rehabilitation requirements and FAO has proposed emergency interventions, the provision of essential agricultural inputs (seeds and tools) for the 1997/98 crop season, the strengthening of MINADER for the coordination of emergency activities in the agricultural sector as well as the continuation of a pilot project in Huambo province to assist in bridging emergency to development through agricultural rehabilitation.
However, much of the success of on-going and planned activities will depend on the restoration of lasting peace and security in all parts of the country, invest in productive activities and initiate major policy changes to create an enabling environment for economic and agricultural development. In this context, a national workshop to discuss options for agricultural recovery and development in Angola was jointly organized by the Government and FAO during the first week of May 1997. Its conclusions are expected to help set the framework for agricultural recovery in the country.
The continuation of the peace process since 1994 has led to improved stability and increased accessibility of areas within and between Government and UNITA-controlled parts of the country. Consequently in the past two years, Crop and Food Supply Assessment Missions have enjoyed progressively greater access to agricultural areas availing better opportunities for discussion and observation.
This year the Mission was able to visit 15 out of 18 provinces at the time of harvest of the main cereal crops. Further, de-mining and negotiations of right of passage enabled the Mission to visit more provinces by road, opening the opportunity to (i) ground-truth remote-sensed data through general observations, (ii) extend the selection of key informants and (iii) conduct spot-check measurements on the yield of the main cereals in a wide variety of agro-ecological zones. Similarly, increased donor activity both in the field through NGOs and UN agency programmes and in early warning system data collection by international organisations have improved the availability of secondary data on population status, agricultural activities and climate and its effects.
However, the first source of data remains the provincial agricultural offices. In this regard, very little progress over last year was noted due to lack of transport, equipment and incentives for Government personnel.
Qualitative assessment made by Government and UNITA technicians in semi-structured
interviews were more informative, but only in those instances where the
technicians had actually travelled, either by foot or by bicycle in their
domains and could speak confidently about the prevailing conditions. As
a result, the Mission’s findings with regard to area rely heavily on extrapolations
from IOM-based data for farm family estimates, cross-checked against MINADER
/UNITA area predictions. Yield data have been adjusted according to the
Mission’s spot-checks and NGO field measurements taken at harvest time.
Rainfall in Angola is characterised in terms of quantity by an unequal distribution ranging from 100 mm in the coastal areas of the south-west bordering Namibia to 1600 mm in the north-east border with Zaire. The pattern of rainfall increase from west to east and south to north results in a correlated increase in agricultural potential, conditioned by altitude, topography and soil type. Within this context, a relatively stable and prolonged rainy season affords the production of a wide range of crops especially in the Northern and Central Regions. Opportunities in the Southern Region are more restricted.
During the main 1996/1997 growing season, the overall rainfall pattern as indicated by in-country records, farmer comments and international monitors, was below normal. Although, by and large, the expected pattern of rain initiation in the last quarter of 1996 was followed, the precipitation was noted to be irregular in both time and geographical distribution.
Most provinces reported a late start and an extended dry-spell in January/February, and in some cases, an early rain stop. In some of the western areas, the late start and dry spell merged, precluding the possibility of planting early first season cereals. However, first quarter 1997 rains prompted late first season planting, particularly in the lower lying and riverine areas, plus planting on the slopes and hilltops on lighter soils in the same zones. Higher than normal rainfall in December in eastern areas caused some damage to "second" season (third quarter planted) 1996 crops which had not been harvested.
Generally, rainfall from mid to late February onwards has been favourable
and well-distributed, sustaining the development of the later planted cereals,
early planted cereals that withstood the dry spell, and roots, tubers,
and perennials. Within this overall situation, dryer conditions in the
western zones of the Central and Southern Regions have given rise to pockets
of concern where early first season crops were lost or not planted.
The main cereals now grown in Angola are maize, sorghum and millet. Wheat and rice are only grown on an experimental basis in one or two provinces. As noted last year, the area planted to cereals and pulses by farmers living in Government controlled areas is estimated to have expanded due to improved stability, increased access to land in transition zones and increased tool and seed supply. This year, NGO- distributed seeds as well as seeds of local landraces from UNITA-controlled areas were planted. Farmers’ carry-over seeds still account for on estimated 80-90 percent of the planting material in most areas. "Kapalandande", "SAM-3" and "Ketete" were three such landraces noted by the Mission that had, in their own domains, outperformed the ubiquitously distributed "Kalahari". In UNITA and Government controlled areas, the absence of tools, animals and animal-drawn equipment was said to be limiting area planted and the quality and timeliness of farm operations. However, in the major cereal growing areas under UNITA control, where farmers already have sizeable surpluses which they are unable to sell, the lack of marketing opportunities is the main problem and may become a disincentive to expansion of cereal production in the future.
Despite reduced plantings of cereals in the western zones and a reduction of cereal area in the northern provinces because of changes to cassava/cereal price ratios, the inclusion of new data from UNITA-held areas in the Central Region raises the total cereal area planted to approximately the same level as last year.
Regarding other crops, improved reporting, from both greater access
to farm family figures at municipality level and better opportunities to
observe field crops, suggests a 67 percent increase in the estimated area
under cassava, indicative of a firmer food security base in the North and
Central Regions. The area under beans is estimated to have increased by
12 percent as late planted beans were sown as an alternative to maize where
early season rains were poor. Similarly, the sweet potato area is also
likely to have expanded but given the prevailing data constraints, could
not be estimated by the Mission.
Despite the irregularity of the rains in many areas, spot-check maize yields observed and measured by the Mission in the 15 provinces visited were still within the normal range of crops grown with no fertilisers under small farmer conditions at around 0.5 to 1.5 tons per hectare, except in the western zones where reports of first season maize crop failure, and reduced and delayed planting were confirmed. In the western areas of Kwanza Sul, Benguela, Huila and in Luanda, total failures and yields of 100-250 kg/ha were noted. Lower maize yields than last year were noted in some adjacent provinces but such areas were characterised by their variability where 0.5 tons per hectare plots were observed next to 1.5 ton plots, reflecting differences in fertility as well as rainfall distribution.
In eastern areas, the maize crop was better with reported and observed yields greater than 2 tons per hectare in areas visited. Nevertheless, the overall picture suggests an estimated national average, based on the aggregation of provincial data, of 0.6 ton per hectare which is 14 percent lower than last year.
Sorghum and millet yields, based on NGO and provincial returns, are estimated to be 19 percent lower than last year at around 0.3 tons per hectare. However, the Mission’s very limited observations suggest that this may be an underestimate. Such anomalies could be easily resolved by plant density surveys and representative sample crop-head weighing within walking or bicycling distance of MINADER offices in areas where such crops are grown. However, to undertake such exercises, simple tape measures and spring balances need to be provided.
By contrast, yields of beans and cassava based on locally provided estimates from MINADER, show an increase of 5 percent and 16 percent, respectively. These crop yields were not spot-checked by the Mission.
Notwithstanding the drier conditions, farmers and officials in each province bemoaned the virtual absence of chemical fertiliser. Only in Luanda, Huambo, Kwanza Sul, Bengo, and Kuando Kubango were fertilisers reported to be available. In the latter three provinces several hundred tons were noted to be in stock and for sale at prices reported to be prohibitively expensive. Purchasing was also confounded by short-term loan interest rates for commercial farmers quoted at 35 -50 percent in Kwanza Sul, Bengo, Huambo and Huila. In Luanda and Lobito compound fertilisers were in use on irrigated horticultural crops destined for the substantial urban markets. Total imports of fertilisers in 1996 were noted to be 25 000 tons according to import statistics, a stock insufficient to cover the area cropped to cereals and beans.
No outbreaks of migratory pest attack were reported except for an uncorroborated
report, by the provincial agricultural office, of locusts in Kuando Kubango.
Non-migratory pests, though present in the form of birds (sorghum), rats
(stored and field stocks), borers (maize) and aphids (vegetables) were
noted as unexceptional. However, without control measures they significantly
reduce the availability of consumable grain at village level. Reports of
mealy bug infestations of cassava in Moxico and Uige near the Zairian border
are cause for concern. Given the importance of cassava in both areas and
the current trend to expand area under cultivation, a cordon sanitaire
should be placed around infected areas and a policy of sanitising cuttings
adopted. As reported by last year’s Mission, the complete absence of crop
protection equipment and chemicals in all but the peri-urban horticultural
areas, leaves the farming community extremely vulnerable.
Harvesting of early first season crops was well advanced at the time of the Mission. Late planted first season crops had also reached maturity that enabled rapid assessment. Extensive field visits by the Mission’s two teams in Kwanza Sul, Benguela, Huambo, Huila, Bie, Kuando Kubango, Bengo and Luanda enabled crop surveys and farmer interviews to be conducted. Spot visits to 6 other provinces also provided the opportunity for useful field exercises, but visits to Lunda Norte, Cabinda and Namibe were not possible in the time available.
The Mission forecasts the 1997 cereal production at 431 000 tons, of which 85 percent will be maize, and the remainder millet and sorghum. Isolated wheat fields with seed introduced by SCF (UK) were noted in Huambo and a small pilot area of rice reported in Moxico but the contribution of such crops is not considered to be significant in 1997. Estimates of the main cereal crops are given in Table 1.
Table 1: Angola: Area and production of main cereal crops 1996/97
|Area (ha)||Yield (kg/ha)||Prod. (tons)||Area (ha)||Yield (kg/ha)||Prod. (tons)||Area (ha)||Yield (kgt/ha)||Prod. (tons)||Area (ha)||Prod. (tons)|
|Northern region||87 280||549||47 907||87 280||47 907|
|Bengo||11 000||610||6 710||11 000||6 710|
|Cabinda||2 500||510||1 276||2 500||1 275|
|Kwanza Norte||14 140||410||5 797||14 140||5 797|
|Luanda||500||2 000||1 000||500||1 000|
|Lunda Norte||11 000||416||4 578||11 000||4 578|
|Lunda Sul||9 136||510||4 659||9 136||4 659|
|Malange||22 702||510||11 578||22 702||11 578|
|Uige||11 010||820||9 028||11 010||9 028|
|Zaire||5 292||620||3 281||5 292||3 281|
|Central Region||444 418||633||281 161||9 621||500||4 811||33 356||539||17 968||487 395||303 939|
|Benguela||99 459||530||52 713||7 471||500||3 736||17 291||500||8 646||124 221||65 094|
|Bie||115 000||710||81 650||2 150||500||1 075||3 170||500||1.585||120 320||84 310|
|Huambo||163 959||636||104 278||12 895||600||7 737||176 854||112 015|
|Kwanza Sul||40 000||530||21 200||40 000||21 200|
|Moxico||26 000||820||21 320||26 000||21 320|
|Southern Region||88 428||457||40 437||68 948||336||23 143||49 603||322||15 958||206 979||79 539|
|Huila||56 600||520||29 432||32 628||350||11 420||21 857||350||7 650||111 085||48 502|
|Kuando Kubango||13 000||510||6 630||14 000||450||6 300||6 000||500||3 000||33 000||15 930|
|Kunene||16 500||220||3 630||19 186||250||4 796||19 186||250||4 796||54 872||13 223|
|Namibe||2 328||320||745||3 134||200||627||2 560||200||512||8 022||1 884|
|TOTAL||620 126||596||369 505||78 569||356||27 954||82 959||409||33 926||781 654||431 385|
Table 2: Angola: Area and production of main crops 1996/97
|Total cereals||Beans||Cassava||Total cropped|
|Area (ha)||Prod. (tons)||Area (ha)||Yield (kg/ha)||Prod. (tons)||Area (ha)||Yield (kg/ha)||Prod. (tons) 1/||area (ha)|
|Northern region||87 280||47 907||57 404||299||17 155||369 634||4 489||1 659 434||514 318|
|Bengo||11 000||6 710||1 508||300||452||16 000||3 500||56 000||28 508|
|Cabinda||2 500||1 275||2 300||300||690||5 000||3 500||17 500||9 800|
|Kwanza Norte||14 140||5 797||7 590||300||2 277||29 000||5 000||145 000||50 730|
|Luanda||500||1 000||1 000||600||600||1 500|
|Lunda Norte||11 000||4 578||7 333||250||1 833||37 000||4 000||148 000||55 333|
|Lunda Sul||9 136||4 659||2 868||300||860||39 000||4 000||156 000||51 004|
|Malange||22 702||11 578||11 163||300||3 349||81 236||4 000||324 944||115 101|
|Uige||11 010||9 028||18 350||300||5 505||128 000||5 000||640 000||157 360|
|Zaire||5 292||3 281||5 292||300||1 588||34 398||5 000||171 990||44 982|
|Central Region||487 395||303 939||106 868||433||46 273||156 615||4 258||666 860||750 878|
|Benguela||124 221||65 094||9 018||450||4 058||9 945||4 000||39 780||143 184|
|Bie||120 320||84 310||33 000||480||15 840||41 270||4 000||165 080||194 590|
|Huambo||176 854||112 015||53 000||400||21 200||40 000||4 000||160 000||269 854|
|Kwanza Sul||40 000||21 200||5 000||350||1 750||25 000||4 000||100 000||70 000|
|Moxico||26 000||21 320||6 850||500||3 425||40 400||5 000||202 000||73 250|
|Southern Region||206 979||79 539||12 220||238||2 910||219 199|
|Huila||111 085||48 502||1 820||250||455||112 905|
|Kuando Kubango||33 000||15 930||2 500||350||875||35 500|
|Kunene||54 872||13 223||5 000||200||1 000||59 872|
|Namibe||8 022||1 884||2 900||200||580||10 922|
|TOTAL||781 654||431 385||176 492||376||66 338||526 249||4 421||2 326 294||1 484 395|
1/ Fresh roots.
Source: Mission estimates
The production of pulses intercropped with maize and grown in association with roots and tubers is estimated at 66 000 tons, some 20 percent up on last year, reflecting an increase in area planted. Cassava production has been re-estimated this year using area figures based on farm family data. In consequence, production is predicted to be 85 percent higher than last year at 2.3 million tons (fresh weight) based on a slightly higher average yield of 4.3 tons per hectare.
Table 2 shows forecasts for total cereals, bean and cassava production.
At 30 percent dry matter content, this year’s cassava output, in grain
equivalent, is estimated at 698 000 tons, or a possible intake of 55 kg
per head per annum. However, cassava production and consumption are largely
concentrated in the northern half of the country. With the availability
of other minor carbohydrate sources such as bananas, sweet potatoes and
Irish potatoes, per caput intake of carbohydrates may be around 2 000 kcals
per day with maize and cassava supplying 70 percent.
Coffee yields of around 100-120 kg per hectare were reported in Bengo, Kwanza Sul and Uige, where rehabilitation of coffee areas was occurring spontaneously. In Gabela municipality in Kwanza Sul, emerging farmers were noted to have produced 2 000 tons of coffee in 1996, indicative of the beginning of a recovery. The plantations observed in the zone were well weeded and pruned.
Several 10-ton lorry-loads of bananas were seen by the Mission leaving isolated municipalities in UNITA- controlled areas of Bengo. Vegetables and fruits were clearly available throughout the higher rainfall areas of all the Northern and Central Regions. Estimates of such crops, along with sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, groundnuts, sugar cane and palm oil were not done by the Mission but their importance as income generators and their nutritional significance are probably some of the keys to the survival and well-being of a large percent of the population of the country. There is therefore an urgent need to strengthen the country’s agricultural statistics system, including trade statistics, to improve the information base on the agricultural sector.
For purposes of comparison, Mission estimates of this year’s cereal crop are shown in Table 3 with estimates by previous missions over the past three years for the main cereal growing areas.
Table 3: Angola: Production of cereals from 1993/94 to 1996/97 (in ‘000’s tons)
|Total ha (000’s)||841||852||783||782|
* Including Moxico
Vegetation indices over the first quarter of 1997 suggest a below average growth in the livestock rearing zones of the southern provinces. However, no reports of any forage deficits were noted by the Mission in such areas, which suggests that stocking rates are below carrying capacity. In the Northern and Central Regions, the population of large and small ruminants is so low, due to the combined effects of the civil strife and prevalence of trypanosomiasis, that the few cattle and goats observed were in excellent condition. The previously well-stocked cattle ranges of Huambo and Bie in UNITA-controlled areas were bereft of stock and the vast tracts of savannah in transitional zones showed no signs of any use by feral or domestic animals.
Animal traction was said to be on the increase in Huila, south Huambo and Bie. In fields visited by the Mission in south Huambo and Bie, the effects of animal ownership were observed to be good land preparation, line planting with appropriate spacing, and, the better fertility of fields where composted animal manure and green vegetation had been incorporated into the soil.
Endemic trypanosomiasis in the Northern and Central Regions is by far the most significant livestock disease reported. This disease further reduces farmers’ options in traditional grain growing areas close to the forests where tractors have previously been the power-base. Other livestock diseases reported to the Mission were tuberculosis, contagious bovine pleural pneumonia, clostridial diseases and anthrax
The slowly expanding backyard poultry and pig production would also appear to be threatened by Newcastle disease and African swine fever. Only one province reported the presence of any vaccines or livestock medicaments, a situation indicative of the total collapse of once active veterinary services. As mentioned by the Mission last year, any large scale movement of stock or increases in stocking density through re-stocking programmes are likely to be vulnerable, not only for introduced stock but also for stock in situ, unless preventative programmes are re-established.
There are three main geographic regions in Angola, as follows.
Northern Region: This Region consists of nine provinces namely Luanda, Cabinda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Bengo, Zaire, Uige, Kwanza Norte and Malange. All provinces except Lunda Norte and Cabinda were visited by Mission teams.
Central Region: This Region includes the central highland areas of the country and covers the five provinces of Benguela, Kwanza Sul, Huambo, Bie and Moxico. All provinces were visited by Mission teams.
Southern Region: This Region includes the four provinces of Huila,
Kuando Kubango, Namibe and Kunene. Huila, Kunene, and Kuando Kubango were
visited by Mission teams during the evaluation.
The nine provinces in the Northern Region are characterized by root, tuber and perennial cash crop production supported by a reliable rainfall ranging from 800 mm in the western coastal zone to 1 600 mm in the eastern zone. With soil types and altitude varying from coastal and riverine clay basins to ferralitic highland plains speckled with alluvial low-lying areas, the range of agro-ecological zones is great and has resulted in a complicated mixture of production possibilities. The dominant staple crop is cassava, with banana and sweet potato providing alternative options on a minor scale. The region accounts for some 71 percent of the national cassava production with no significant production of sorghum and millet. Maize, on the other hand, is estimated to be produced in significant quantities in all provinces, increasing in importance from north to south. The preferred variety of maize for the region is ‘Katete’, a local variety originally from Bengo, ideally suited for planting as a ‘second season’ crop due to its short cycle. Production from the Region is estimated by the Mission at 48 000 tons of maize which is lower than last year primarily because the proportions of land allocated to cassava and maize have been re-adjusted to take account of further information from UNITA-held areas. Consequently, the estimated production of cassava has doubled to 1.6 million tons of fresh material. In addition, the irregular rainfall pattern reduced early maize planting in western zones and maize yields are expected to be lower where planting was successful. Apart from NGO seed and tool programmes, there are no inputs available and credit, where available, is prohibitively expensive.
BENGO: With an estimated population of 29 000 active farm families, the total area of field crops is estimated at 28 500 hectares or 1 hectare per family, with each family in UNITA-controlled areas farming a further 0.5 hectare for coffee, bananas and other fruit crops. The 1996/97 season rains arrived too late for early planting of maize in the west but were satisfactory for later planted crops. The peace process has opened up areas for trade and development and improved stability. The main restrictions on production were noted as an absence of affordable credit, a shortage of fertilizer and plant protection equipment and materials. The Mission was informed that there were at least 700 emerging commercial farmers in the province requiring inputs and extension assistance. Maize, the only cereal grown in the province is estimated to have yields of around 0.6 tons per hectare.
CABINDA: The Mission did not visit Cabinda, an enclave between the Republic of Congo and Zaire. With an estimated agricultural active population of some 10 000 farm families, agriculture in the province is based on cassava and perennial cash crops probably marketed in neighbouring countries. Some 2 500 hectares of maize are grown and are considered to have had reduced yields to around 0.5 tons per hectare due to lower than normal rainfall in the western coastal areas.
KWANZA NORTE: With an estimated population of 48 000 active farm families, area data received from the province MINADER suggesting a total cropped area of 50 730 hectares, is quite probable. Using MINADER figures, the area cultivated under maize this year is less than last year because of the late start to the season and yield is also reduced due to drier conditions in January-February to 0.4 tons per hectare. Cassava remains the predominant staple with a contribution estimated at 51 000 tons. No major concerns were noted with regard to plant pests and diseases. Coffee plantations need revitalizing and seem to offer an appropriate focus for rehabilitation programmes.
LUANDA: Reports from MINADER, Luanda and the Mission’s own field visits confirm the absence of first season rains until March. In consequence, the only maize crops presently harvested have been irrigated throughout the season. Such farms cover an area of less than 500 hectares producing some 2.0 tons per hectare. Opportunistic, March/April planting of maize in the green belt around the city was noted, however, any crop success will depend on the rains continuing into June.
Regarding other crops, horticultural units visited were productive but constrained through lack of organized irrigation systems and the high cost of inputs. The combination of an apparent absence of drainage and increasing interest in expanding irrigation units in the low lying areas would seem to be setting up the most productive area of the green belt for future salinity problems.
LUNDA NORTE: This province was not visited by the Mission, however, information was obtained from the neighbouring administration and the main problems summarized by the provincial agricultural officer, Lunda at a workshop held with the Mission in Luanda. The estimated 54 000 farm families produce mostly cassava with usually adequate rainfall. This year late rains and an early rain stop are likely to have reduced maize yields to an average of 0.4 tons per hectare. The main concerns of the administration were expressed as lack of inputs, particularly cassava varieties. Assistance is required to access materials as no NGOs work in the province due to the greater importance of mining.
LUNDA SUL: With an estimated agriculturally active population of 40 000 farm families, this predominantly cassava producing province also suffered from a late start and early end to the rains. Areas under cultivation were said to have increased as farmers were no longer required to pay contributions to UNITA armed forces. Trade had also increased as de-mining roads has opened up opportunities to move stocks. Cereal yields are expected to be lower than last year at 0.5 tons per hectare, due to diminished rainfall in January and February. Root and tuber crops, however, have not suffered any yield reduction. In keeping with other provinces there is a total absence of inputs and credit. No significant plant pests or diseases were noted.
MALANGE: With an agriculturally active population of 122 000 farm families, total cropped area is estimated at 115 000 hectares of which 75 percent is cassava. Readjustment to areas planted account for differences in maize areas cropped. Western areas of the province also reported late rains and corresponding reduced or delayed planting. Recovery from the civil strife devastation is slowly beginning as the rural community, including a substantial population of emerging farmers, is returning to the land. No serious plant pest or disease problems were noted, but a shortage of inputs and credit, except for NGO-supplied seeds and tools, was recorded by the visiting Mission. Maize, the only cereal grown, is expected to yield some 0.5 tons per hectare.
UIGE: With an agriculturally active population of some 120 000 farm families in a province with 9 months of rainfall, the farming system is predominantly root-tuber and perennial cash crops based. Previously Uige was the most productive coffee and palm oil growing province. It also has a substantial area under small scale banana plantations. Thus, small farmers in Uige are practiced cash crop producers looking for inputs and markets to revitalize the rural economy. No significant incidences of pests and diseases were noted by the Mission. However, no plant protection equipment or materials were noted either, leaving any existent problem untreated. There was no fertilizer or credit available. However, NGOs were distributing seeds and tools in both Government and UNITA-controlled areas. Maize production from some 11 000 hectares is estimated to be around 9 000 tons as rainfall, though lower than last year, was regular in most areas.
ZAIRE: With an agriculturally active population estimated at
35 000 farm families and rainfall varying from 600 mm on the coast to 1
300 mm at higher altitude inland, the province includes three distinct
agro-ecological zones. This year less than usual rainfall in January/February
reduced average maize yields to around 0.6 tons per hectare. Roots, tubers
and perennial crops near the Uige border, were seen to be at normal levels
of production. Shortages of inputs and credit were noted. No plant pests
and diseases of any significance were reported except for aphids on horticultural
The Central Region is still recognized as the major cereal producing region of the country with an estimated contribution of 77 percent of this year’s cereal harvest at 306 000 tons, similar to last year’s. This year, however, it is the eastern provinces and eastern zones of the western provinces in the Region that have provided the greatest proportion of the crops. In the west, the Mission was able to confirm a late start to the rains, prolonged dry spells during January and February, two factors reducing planting on hill-tops and slopes and yields of the surviving ‘first season’ crops. By contrast, crops planted in low-lying areas were seen to be performing normally. Under such conditions the preferred local landraces "Sam-3" and "Kapalandande" have out-performed imported "Kalahari" seeds. Fortunately, local landraces still account for 80-90 percent of the area planted according to Mission estimates as they are universally used in UNITA areas and are obtained by barter for goods and consumables, such as salt and sugar, by farmers living in Government controlled areas. The local seeds are planted by the same farmers in the most productive sites, according to key informants. Other crops grown include cassava, beans, sugar cane, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes and vegetables. Evaluation of other crops, such as cassava and beans, is beyond the scope of the Mission. Extended transects driven through the Region revealed far more incidents of contour line hand cultivation, particularly for sweet potatoes, than were seen last year, suggesting awareness of anti-erosion and moisture-loss prevention practices. Animal traction, ploughing-in of composted animal manure and crop rotations were also noted in Huambo and Bie. Throughout the Region, farmers and officials alike bemoaned the absence of inputs, apart from NGO seed and tool programmes, particularly fertilizers, tools, plough shares and draught animals. On-farm cereal stocks of more than 1 ton per farm family were reported by UNITA agriculturists in Bie and Moxico. Traders interviewed complained that farmers in such areas only sell mixed maize from 1996 and 1997 harvests, rather than this season’s maize confirming the presence of surplus grains in such areas.
BENGUELA: With an estimated agriculturally active population of 200 000 farm families, the total cropped area estimated by the provincial MINADER of 143 000 hectares has been used by the Mission as an estimate of combined UNITA and Government controlled areas, rather than population-based area estimates. Rainfall this year has been highly variable with a late start and prolonged dry spells in the west, but good rains noted in eastern areas. Overall the estimated yield has been reduced to 0.55 tons per hectare to allow for the losses. Seed distributions by NGOs were less effective than they could have been due to late arrival of seeds. However, in the drier areas farmers were probably better off using local landraces which they obtained by barter. Compared to last year’s hypothetical estimates, sorghum area, a crop noted this year to be outperforming maize, has been reduced. This does not necessarily reflect a reduction in planting but signals the fragility of the data used and requires future investigation during the year to determine sorghum’s true status. No significant plant pest and diseases were noted. However, concern was expressed over livestock diseases particularly bovine tuberculosis, bovine contagious pleural pneumonia and dermatitis. Cattle rustling was also noted as a constraint on expansion of livestock enterprises. No inputs were available for cereal farmers; however, horticultural units around Lobito were said to have access to fertilizers and pesticides.
BIE: The province of Bie is one of the transition provinces between the wetter north and the drier south. With an agriculturally active population of 134 000 farm families, mostly in UNITA areas, production is usually high. Maize, beans and sweet potato are the main crops. This year the rains started on time, however, a variable dry spell was experienced in January and February reducing potentially high yields of maize where it coincided with lighter soils and/or late planting. Good crops were noted throughout the province with the exception of Government controlled enclaves where improved seeds were being used on infertile land. In such areas crop failures were noted to be yielding around 0.2 tons per hectare. Average maize yields are estimated around 0.7 tons per hectare.
Obvious positive signs of the effect of the peace process included removal of traffic control posts, extension of markets, increased vehicular transport of maize and dried cassava and insistent requests by farmers and administrators for inputs particularly fertilizers, plant protection equipment and materials, plough shares and access to animals for animal traction. Other major problems mentioned to the Mission were pests of stored grains and shortages of tools for weeding. Natural regeneration is increasing numbers of small ruminants, but the animal population is not yet large enough to make any impact on the vegetation, even directly surrounding the villages, let alone on the savannah plains in between.
HUAMBO: With an estimated agriculturally active population of 205,000 farm families in the province, the total cropped area has been calculated at around 260,000 ha. Field observations, discussions with the FAO project team and separate discussions with Government and UNITA agriculturists suggest a variable season encompassing a late start of the rains, good rains in November and December, a prolonged mid-season drought then reasonably steady and well distributed rains until April. In consequence maize yields vary from exceptionally good to poor, averaging around 0.6 tons per hectare. Mission field observations suggest a switch to sorghum in western zones of the province, plus a preference for local landraces of maize. Main plant pests and diseases noted were borers and birds (sorghum). 1700 tons of fertiliser was said to have arrived, presumably for distribution during the residual moisture cropping season, in and adjacent to river/stream beds which begins in June and July. No other inputs except NGO seed and tool distributions were noted as available and only traditional credit was reported as a source of development funds for emerging farmers.
KWANZA SUL: Despite a provincial farm family population of 135,000 total cropped area is estimated to be lower then the physical potential as visits to UNITA zones suggest restrictions on access to unused good arable land still owned by absentee large scale farmers. In consequence, Mission estimates for area have relied on provincial MINADER predictions. This year maize growing in the western coastal zones of the province has virtually ceased due to late and poorly distributed rains at the start of the season and a prolonged dry spell from January onwards. In this limited zone, fishermen/farmers with surpluses from last year have no crop at all this season. However, the natural vegetation of the area comprises euphorbia-acacia-agave-savannah, which suggests that maize growing is a gamble.
Moving eastwards maize production improves but is obviously worse than last year. In consequence the provincial average yield for maize is estimated at 0,5 tons per hectare, compared to 0.9 last year. The rain-forest escarpment is still abundant with fruits, vegetables and coffee. 300 tons of fertiliser were said to be in stock but out of the purchasing range of local farmers particularly with credit interest rates quoted at 35 to 50 percent for 9 month loans. No plant protection equipment or materials were available in the province. Non-migration pests including stalk borers were said to be a problem. Several NGOs are distributing seeds and tools in the province, but the majority of planting material is local.
MOXICO: With an estimated agriculturally active population of 40,000 farm families and a usual rainfall of some 800 mm to 1400 mm per annum, production from Moxico usually makes a significant contribution to the national harvest. Field visits confirm, however, that land mines around towns reduce access to land for 3-5 km and have affected the confidence of farmers in Government controlled areas. Outside the mined area, in Luena for example, good crops of cassava and maize grown by last year's returnees were observed. In UNITA-held areas excellent crops of maize and cassava were surveyed and maize yields ranging from 900 kg to 3.0 tons per hectare without fertilisers were noted by the Mission. Average yields for the province are estimated at 0.8 tons per hectare. NGO and UNHCR seed and tool distributions were noted, but local landraces of maize seeds predominated. One of the major problems facing farmers and administrators alike was the disposal of produce. Without storage chemicals losses were said to be enormous, particularly as some farmers have more than 1 ton maize in stock from last year's harvest. The cassava crop also appeared to be in good condition and is expected to yield much more than the national average.
Apart from storage pests, mealy bug was identified as prominent along
the border with Zaire, and this is a major cause for concern. There is
a total absence of plant protection chemicals and equipment which leaves
the farmers extremely vulnerable. The movement of cuttings from the infested
areas should be stopped to try to prevent the pest from spreading.
Identified as the least agriculturally productive Region of the country because of the lower rainfall, the Region is also the least populated. Most agricultural activities are conducted in a transition zone between the central plateau in the north and a semi-arid steppe in the south. Rainfall ranges from less than 100 mm in the south-west to 800 mm in the north/north-east. The western zones have experienced a late start to the rains and a prolonged dry spell. Some southern central areas have experienced their best rain for several years. Cereal production from the Southern Region is estimated at 78 000 tons which is 70 percent of last year's figure from a similar area under cultivation. NGO seed and tool distribution programmes were noted.
HUILA: With an estimated agriculturally active population of 100 000 farm families, the province’s production of maize, millet, sorghum and various pulses makes an important but variable contribution to the nation’s harvest. The northern municipalities are usually more productive due to greater rainfall. This year, the rains were late throughout the province, stopped early and were lower than usual in the middle of the season. Local areas of complete crop failure were identified by the Mission and generally yields of maize were lower than last year, averaging 0.5 tons per hectare. Some 6 000 families received NGO distributed seeds indicating the high level of utilization of local landraces. Improved security has afforded greater interchange of goods for seeds between Government and UNITA-held areas. No other inputs or credit were available to peasant farmers.
No plant pests and diseases of any significance were reported, however, as agricultural production is closely associated with animal production and animal traction is widespread, the absence of veterinary services and vaccines is cause for concern given reports of contagious bovine pleuralpneumonia.
KUANDO KUBANGO: The Mission conducted an unscheduled visit to Menongue which did not allow field checks. Discussions with MINADER staff and NGO's suggest reasonably well-distributed rainfall which started on time and continued as expected. Cereal yields are expected to be similar to last year at around 0.5 tons per hectare.
Regarding pests and diseases, uncorroborated sighting of locusts was mentioned during discussions. In any event, the total absence of plant protection equipment and chemicals leaves the province vulnerable to both migratory and non-migratory pests. 210 tons of fertilisers were said to have arrived in the province recently destined for emerging farmers or small scale irrigated vegetable producers. However no credit is available and the interest rates are out of reach of the farming population. NGO seed and tool distribution programmes were noted. Most planting material used was local.
As well as the peace process encouraging farmers to move into previous no-go areas, a counter-current of returnees from UNITA-controlled areas, where they had been taken during the civil strife, was noted. This movement may have a significant effect on access to new lands and local expansion plans in Government controlled zones. No information was available on the status of livestock in the main livestock rearing areas, but animals around Menongue were in good condition.
KUNENE: With an estimated agriculturally active population of some 38,000 farm families, Kunene is a province more dependant on livestock than agriculture where, in good years, maize, millet and sorghum contribute to household food stocks.
This year's rains were variable, some zones receiving very good rains, others experiencing crop losses. In consequence, cereal yields are expected to be about the same as last year at around 0.22 tons per hectare. This low yield may also be a function of low seeding rates. Production compared with the neighbouring country of Namibia, is down and Namibian millet is being sold in Kunene markets in an unusual reversal of roles.
NAMIBE: The Mission met the representative of MINADER, Namibe in Kunene, but did not visit the province. In general, the rains conformed to the regular pattern of distribution but were low, therefore low yields from a reduced area are expected. Production is forecast at 1720 tons at 0.3 tons per hectare, which is 53 percent of last year's Mission estimated harvest. Most of the 25,000 farm families are livestock rearers. No information is, however, available on the condition of livestock or availability of forage.
Despite a gradual recovery in food production in recent years, the domestic
supply falls seriously short of requirements and the country’s self sufficiency
ratio remains well below the 50 percent mark. Large imports of food, including
about 50 percent as food aid, are needed to meet the minimum requirements
of the population. Given the availability of other minor carbohydrate sources
such as bananas, sweet potatoes and Irish potatoes, per caput intake of
carbohydrates may be around 2 000 kcals per day with maize and cassava
supplying 70 percent. As cassava is generally not imported, the food deficit
has to be met by cereal imports.
The cereal supply/demand balance sheet for the 1997/98 marketing year (April/March) is presented in Table 4.
Table 4: Angola: Cereal balance sheet 1997/98 (‘000 tons)
|Losses and other uses||76|
|Anticipated commercial imports (both public and private)||279|
|Food aid, of which:
- Emergency food aid
|- Programme food aid||124|
Food supply has been calculated by adding estimated domestic production for 1996/97 to an estimate of on-farm stocks. Although discussions with Government officials indicated that no food grain stocks are held by either central or local government, UNITA agriculturists and administrators, traders and farmers in Bie, Moxico, Benguela and Huila indicated that many farmers hold significant stocks of maize. Estimates of on-farm stocks from the 1995/96 harvest ranged from 0.5 ton to 1.0 ton. On this basis, the Mission estimates that a stock drawdown of 10 000 tons could be expected in UNITA-controlled areas.
Food use of cereals has been calculated on the basis of a mid-1997/98 marketing year population of 12.8 million and a per caput cereal consumption of 70 kg per annum, resulting in an expected total consumption of 896 000 tons of cereals.
Losses, seed requirement and other uses estimated at 76 000 tons have been added to food use to obtain total domestic utilisation of 972 000 tons. As 85 percent of the cereals is maize, storage losses are high particularly as on-farm storage is poor and no protection chemicals are available. In consequence, a 15 percent loss of stored grain is anticipated. With regard to seed use, local carry-over seeds supply 80-90 percent of cereal seed requirement. Anticipating a planted area of 800 000 hectares of cereals next year, it is estimated that around 9 000 tons of local seed will be required.
No official data are available on animal production enterprises, but backyard pig and poultry units are on the increase and account for most animal feed use. Assuming 50 percent of farm families are feeding 0.5 kg of cereals a day to backyard pigs and poultry, the overall demand for animal feed will be around 2 700 tons. Thus, with total cereal availability estimated at 441 000 tons and total utilization at 972 000 tons, there is an import requirement of 531 000 tons.
Last year’s Mission forecast an import requirement of 442 000 tons for the 1996/97 marketing year. Actual import data in 1996 provided by the Ministry of Commerce indicate that a total of 539 000 tons of cereals were imported, including some 180 000 tons for strategic reserve to be mobilized through the commercial sector as required. Estimates of private sector imports for the coming marketing year are not available, but discussions with analysts from government and international institutions indicate that some 279 000 tons of grain equivalent in different forms (maize meal, maize flour, wheat flour, wheat and rice) may be imported during the 1997/98 marketing year, leaving a deficit of 252 000 tons to be covered by food aid. Emergency food aid is estimated at 128 000 tons of cereals, leaving a shortfall of 124 000 tons to be met through programme food aid.
Emergency food aid requirements
The Mission identified 942 000 persons as needing emergency food aid from April 1997 to March 1998. The total food aid requirement is estimated at 128 000 tons of cereals and 34 000 tons of other food products broken down as follows:
The distribution of beneficiaries by category and by provinces is given in Table 5. This table does not include the number of beneficiaries in the Selections and Demobilization Centres as of 1 April as demobilization is expected to be completed by the end of September. The emergency food aid requirements are summarized by caseload in Table 6. These food aid needs will be continuously reassessed and readjusted by the National Food Coordination Group chaired by WFP and with the participation of the Government of Reconciliation and National Unity, UN Agencies, NGOs and donors.
With food aid carry-over stocks on 31 March 1997 from WFP and NGOs of 54 246 tons of maize, 8 276 tons of pulses, 5 108 tons of vegetable oil and 352 tons of blended foods, and with 30 887 tons of maize, 6 110 tons of pulses, 4 210 tons of vegetable oil and 3 970 tons of blended food in the pipeline, and emergency gap of 42 992 tons of maize, 2 464 tons of pulses, 1 399 tons of oil and 1 754 tons of blended food is to be resourced.
Table 5: Number of Beneficiaries (in thousands)
|Province||IDP and War
Table 6: Emergency food aid requirements per caseload (in tons/year)
|IDPs and War affected||67 500||9 000||5 625||-||82 125|
|Rehabilitation||31 536||3 154||1 971||-||36 661|
|Reintegration||3 564||475||297||-||4 336|
|Returnees||7 020||936||585||-||8 541|
|Quartering and Demobilization||9 756||1 535||1 099||1 235||13 625|
|Supplementary and Therapeutic Feeding||8 749||1 750||1 140||4 841||16 481|
|TOTAL||128 125||16 850||10 717||6 076||161 769|
RATIONS: For the displaced people, the displaced returning to their place of origin, the war affected and refugees/returnees, and returning demobilized soldiers, the daily ration is: 300 g of maize, 40 g of pulses, 25 g of vegetable oil and 5 g of salt.
For soldiers in the selection and demobilisation centres, the daily ration is: 250 g of maize, 50 g of pulses, 25 g of vegetable oil, 50 g of CSB, 150 g of rice, 50 g of meat/fish, 20 g of sugar and 5 g of salt. Their dependent family members each receives 300 g of maize, 40 g of pulses, 50 g of vegetable oil, 100 g of CSB, and 20 g of sugar. Both the soldiers and their family dependants will receive this ration until the process of demobilization is completed in their SDC, at this time both the soldiers and their family members will receive a three month ration. Three months after returning to their place of origin each demobilised soldier will receive a daily ration of 300 g of maize, 40 g of pulses, 25 g of vegetable oil and 5 g of salt for a period of nine months.
The supplementary feeding daily ration for the year is: 200 g of maize, 40 g of beans, 100 g of CSB, 25 g of vegetable oil, 20 g of sugar, and 5 g of salt. The therapeutic feeding daily ration is: 200 g of CSB, 20 g of oil, and 10 g of sugar.
For the rehabilitation activities (food-for-work) the individual daily ration is: 400 g of maize, 40 g of beans, 25 g of oil and 5 g of salt. One worker from each household will receive five individual rations.
LOGISTICS: Since 1993, WFP has implemented a country-wide logistics system capable of distributing up to 20 000 tons by air and road per month. WFP transports the food from the ports to the warehouses in the capitals of the provinces. The distribution of the commodities from the provincial warehouses in made by local and international NGOs with which WFP has cooperation agreements.
Since 1993, the rate WFP charges donors for the Landside Transport, Storage and Handling costs (LTSH) has declined from a high of US $300 to US $ 195 per ton. Further costs reductions have proved difficult due to the great distances over which goods must often be moved, as well as the extremely poor conditions of many roads. Should an improvement of the food supply situation in Angola result in a concentration of assistance to more remote areas difficult to access, an increase of the average cost per ton cannot be excluded. Although road and rail transport is used whenever feasible, a number of delivery points are currently served by air, in some cases because it is more economical, in others because of inaccessibility by road. The three main Angolan ports have the following daily discharge rates: 600 tons for Luanda, 600 tons for Namibe and 500 tons for Lobito.
INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND WAR AFFECTED: It is estimated that approximately 1.3 million people have been displaced by the 1992-94 civil strife. A number of surveys on the intended areas of return of this population have been undertaken by the Ministry of Social Assistance and Reintegration (MINARS), the Central Statistics Office (INE), and the International Organisation for Migration (IOM). These surveys have primarily been undertaken in the camps in which a large number of the internally displaced currently reside. However, a number surveys have also been undertaken at the municipio (district) level, and have led to the development of initial plans for the return of these groups to their places of origin in a number of provinces. Such plans are still in their early stages of development, and thus the Mission was unable to consider this population as a separate beneficiary category.
The rate of return, both organised and spontaneous, is expected to increase over the coming year, following the inauguration of the Government of Reconstitution an National Unity, and the subsequent extension of the state administration. The number of beneficiaries indicated by the Mission is based on the information currently available: this number may increase as accessibility improves, and administration, and hence registration procedures, are extended.
In terms of the food aid requirements for the coming year, the timing of the return of this population is critical. The current food aid entitlement is linked to agricultural production: returning internally displaced are entitled to food aid up to the period of their first harvest. Populations returning after July/August are unlikely to have adequate time to prepare the land for planting for the coming crop season, and thus their entitlement is likely to be extended for a further 12 months.
The Mission also considered the situation of the war affected populations, those whose assets, sources of income, and general ability to cope, have been eroded by the economic disruption caused by the civil strife. Overall, following a movement away from general distributions to more targeted interventions, the number of persons in this category has decreased. However, this year, this category also includes populations in those areas where the economy has been disrupted by the civil strife, and where this year’s agricultural production has been adversely affected by variable rainfall.
REHABILITATION ACTIVITIES: The beneficiaries of emergency food aid are mainly people who have been displaced from their places of origin, or who have had their lives disrupted by the civil strife. The primary objective for the future is to re-establish their homes, lands and communities.
A major task this year is thus the rehabilitation of community assets destroyed by the civil strife: schools, clinics, bridges, roads, farmland, irrigation systems etc. Although different organisations support these activities in different ways, much of the rehabilitation will be carried out through Food-for-Work (FFW) activities.
The amount of FFW is likely to be reduced this year in comparison with that of 1996, since agencies are now giving more careful attention to issues of project feasibility and the appropriateness of food aid. However, actual amounts of FFW in 1997-98 could prove greater than the estimates outlined by the Mission, if resettlement and associated rehabilitation activities progress more rapidly than is currently predicted.
|This report is prepared on the responsibility of the FAO and WFP Secretariats with information from official and unofficial sources. Since conditions may change rapidly, please contact the undersigned for further information if required.|
Chief, GIEWS FAO
Telex 610181 FAO I
E-mail: INTERNET: GIEWS1@FAO.ORG
Director, OSA, WFP
Telex: 626675 WFP 1