FAO Animal Health ManualNo. 7
COVER
MANUAL ON THE PREPARATION OF RINDERPEST CONTINGENCY PLANS


Contents


T.U. Obi
Visiting Scientist, EMPRES/Infectious Diseases Group,
Animal Health Service, FAO, Rome
Professor of Veterinary Medicine, University of lbadan,
Ibadan, Nigeria

P.L. Roeder
Animal Health Officer, EMPRES/Infectious Diseases Group,
Animal Health Service, FAO, Rome

W.A.Geering
Consultant, EMPRES/Infectious Diseases Group, FAO,Rome
Former Director, Animal and Plant Health, Bureau of Resource
Sciences and Deputy Chief Veterinary Officer, Commonwealth of Australia

Editing, design, graphics and desktop publishing:
Editorial Group,
FAO Information Division

Cover photo by permission of Dr. R. Paskin

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

M-27
ISBN 92-5-104314-0

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Information Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS Rome, 1999
© FAO


Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-FAO sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.

Contents

Acknowledgements

Acronyms and abbreviations

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1
SUGGESTED FORMAT AND CONTENTS OF A NATIONAL RINDERPEST CONTINGENCY PLAN

Description of the disease
National policy and rationale
Strategies for rinderpest control and elimination
Organizational arrangements during a rinderpest emergency campaign
Support plans
Action plan
Appendix

Chapter 2
NATURE OF THE DISEASE

Definition
World distribution
Aetiology
Epidemiological features
Clinical signs
Pathology
Immunity
Diagnosis
Risk assessment of rinderpest invasion

Chapter 3
STRATEGIES FOR RINDERPEST CONTROL AND ERADICATION

Introduction
Zonation
Disease control options
Option one: stamping out
Option two: modified stamping out with ring vaccination
Option three: quarantine and ring vaccination
Special needs for nomadism, transhumance and relatively inaccessible areas
Selected strategy if rinderpest becomes established

Chapter 4
ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS DURING A RINDERPEST EMERGENCY CAMPAIGN

National animal disease emergency planning committee
Consultative Committee on Emergency Animal Diseases (CCEAD)
Rinderpest expert team
National animal disease control centre
Local animal disease control centres
Training
Publicity/disease awareness

Chapter 5
SUPPORT PLANS

Legislation
Financial plans
Early warning capabilities
Resources
Contingency plans for vaccines and vaccination

Chapter 6
ACTION PLAN

Investigation phase
Alert phase
Operational phase
Stand-down phase

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Dr M. Rweyemamu (Senior Animal Health Officer), Dr R. Paskin (Animal Health Officer) and Dr P. Boysen (Associate Professional Officer) of the EMPRES Livestock Unit, Infectious Diseases Group, Animal Health Service, FAO, for providing useful suggestions and comments on various drafts of this manual. In particular, the meticulous manner with which Dr Rweyemamu reviewed these drafts is hereby acknowledged. Dr Boysen also assisted in the selection of the illustrations.

Acronyms and abbreviations

AGID
agar-gel immunodiffusion test
AUSVETPLAN
Australian veterinary emergency plan
BMCF
bovine malignant catarrhal fever
BVD
bovine virus diarrhoea
CBPP
contagious bovine pleuropneumonia
CIE
counterimmunoelectrophoresis
CVO
Chief Veterinary Officer
ECF
East Coast fever
EDTA
ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid
ELISA
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EMPRES
Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases
FAO
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FMD
foot-and-mouth disease
FVO
Field Veterinary Officer
IAEA
International Atomic Energy Agency
IBAR
Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources of the Organization of African Unity
IBR
infectious bovine rhinotracheitis
ICE
Immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
IF
immunofluorescence
MD/BVD
mucosal disease/bovine virus diarrhoea
OAU
Organization of African Unity
OIE
International Office of Epizootics
PCR
polymerase chain reaction
PPR
peste des petits ruminants
PVO
Provincial Veterinary Officer
PARC
Pan-African Rinderpest Campaign
RET
rinderpest expert team
TAD
transboundary animal disease
TADInfo
Transboundary Animal Disease Information System
TCRV
tissue-culture rinderpest vaccine

Introduction

Rinderpest is a classic example of a transboundary animal disease (TAD). TADs are defined for FAO's Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Disease (EMPRES) as diseases that are significant in terms of economics, trade and/or food security for several countries, that can easily spread to other countries and reach epidemic proportions and that require cooperation between countries for control and management, including exclusion. The OIE International animal health code includes rinderpest in List A diseases, which are defined as “communicable diseases which have the potential for serious and rapid spread, irrespective of national borders, which are of serious socio-economic or public health importance and which are of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products”. Various regional control and eradication campaigns have resulted in rinderpest being restricted to a few fairly well-defined locations. A “world without rinderpest” is envisaged by the year 2010.

This manual provides information on the nature of rinderpest and on the principles and strategic options relating to control and elimination of rinderpest in the event of its being reintroduced into a country that is free of disease and infection. It provides guidelines for individual countries to formulate their national policy on rinderpest control and eradication. The manual identifies the personnel, equipment and facilities needed in a national rinderpest contingency plan. A suggested outline of the format and contents of a national rinderpest contingency plan is also provided as a guide; this should be modified to suit the needs and circumstances of individual countries. Consideration has been given to the provisions in the OIE International animal health code in the preparation of the manual. It is suggested that this manual, which is based on the format of the Australian veterinary emergency plan (AUSVETPLAN) with some modifications, should be used together with the Manual on the preparation of national animal disease emergency preparedness plans, FAO, Rome, 1999.

Other sources of information on rinderpest which are recommended for use with this manual include:

This manual will be reviewed regularly and revised in the light of experience. Suggestions and recommendations for amendments should be forwarded to:

EMPRES (Livestock)
FAO Animal Health Service
Animal Production and Health Division
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy.

Tel.: +39 06 5705 4798/6772
Fax: +39 06 5705 3023
E-mail: empres-livestock@fao.org
www.fao.org/waicent/faoinfo/agricult/aga/agah/ empres/empres.htm